Sociology 227 Midterm

who are the Jews?
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Terms in this set (43)
- a religious and ethnic group but not a race
-Jews are a population group because they share similar genetic makeup
-Jews are a minority in North America and we study them because they are a case-study of minorities which allows us to understand other minorities in North America
-basic requirement to be Jewish: having a Jewish mother (or having a conversion)
1) Ashkenazi : Jews from Eastern and Western Europe
2) Sephardic: Eastern Jews; i.e. from Spain, North Africa, Greece, Bulgaria, etc.
3) Oriental Jews: some people combine Sephardic and Oriental jews together
the oriental jews are much earlier than the Sephardic, they go back two and half thousand years and have their own traditions
• 3 major denominations: Reform, Conservative, Orthodox (includes ultra and modern).
• Only truly North American denomination is Conservative.
• Orthodoxy is rooted in tradition, Reform is founded in Germany in the late 1700s-1800s.
• Religions have to adapt to North American life Conservatives meet the challenge of suburbia (synagogue center, havurah).
• Reform and Orthodox are the two polar denominations.
• Orthodox strength is tradition most behaviorally Jewish, retention for those who want to retain.
• Strength of Reform is adaptation is Reform causing Jews to change their behaviors, or is Reform an option for Jews who are already quite liberal? Is it less Jewishness, or is it a different kind of Jewishness?
- belief in god is not central to being a Jews (only 34% of jews believe in god
-most jews are less committed to religious activities than christians
Originated in Germany during enlightenment
Pure reform wanted to eliminate the archaic ideas of God, of chosen peoplehood, stressed the universal over the particular or national
Relaxed many of the commandments, eg. Kosher, etc.
Less supportive of Hebrew, Israel/Zionism
Classic reform services were church like
Reform was stronger in US than in Canada and still is the case
Reform leads the way in term of gender equality, LGBT acceptance,m etc
Reform congregations have many mixed marriages, esp. In US so in this sense it is more progressive
Reform is doing fairly well and has a niche market for mixed married couples and less religious jews
In recent times, reform has moved to the doctrinal center, more traditional, eg. Hebrew, acceptance of Israel
-created in early 20th c.
Specific American denomination
Their view was that Jewish Orthodox law could be modified in certain cases
Designed to help the American mass migration accomodate to America
For example, it is now permissible to drive to synagogue on Sabbath as part of accomodation with suburbia
•Canada--> census asks what is your religion. Advantage in Canada because it measures Jews as a religion and an ethnic group 100% coverage. Not a survey. You can only pick one religion. Wide but not deep coverage.
•US --> survey. Separation of Church and state so no questions about religion in the census because it is a government document. Rely on surveys to measure religion first NJPS done of 2-4 thousand Jews selected at random in US. Can ask them whatever they want. If sample is skewed, survey results can also be skewed. Advantage: anything can be asked so more information (depth). Pew Survey 2013 non Jewish but very reputable surveying organization.
•5-7 million in US, 385,000 in Canada.
Louis Rosenberg• The founder of Canadian Jewish demography. • Canada's Jews, 1939 : showed Jewish representation in 1930s is largely working class (based on census data) • Correspondence with stats officials in Canada, who would send each other long detailed letters which is how he got his information for his stats.American melting pot vs. Canadian MulticulturalismAmerican Constitution : •Silent about groups, language, religion. •Tradition is different. •Melting pot. •Regime of absolute free speech. -promotes assimilation : "you can shed your otherness and become a real American" Canadian Multiculturalism: •Mosaic. •Charter of Rights and Freedoms is different than the US Constitution Charter really does protect groups (famous section 27) multicultural section of the Charter. •Multiculturalism constitutionally protected. •Government programs for multiculturalism. •Free speech with exceptions hate speech laws in the criminal code.Jewishness in Canada vs. UsJews in canada are more "Jewish" by every indicator than are Jews in the US eg . observance of Jewish religious traditions, knowledge of Jewish languages, lower rates of mixed marriage, ties to Israel and higher rates of Jewish identity But this also true for all other Canadian minority groups when compared to US minority groups 2 explanations as to why? Difference in host society in immigration --> Canadians have a more recent immigration history therefore immigrants have closer ties to their home countries Or is because Canada is a mosaic or multicultural vs. American melting pot (promotes assimilation)The Jewish Sub-Economy•unit within a larger economy, usually of the same ethnic and racial communities A network of employers and workers, buyers and sellers, creditors and borrowers, suppliers, partners, etc. no evidence of negative impacts on mobility of people Possibly linked to residential concentrations Also in middle class Also not clear why this persists after immigrant generations No evidence of negative economic consequences , as in Wiley "Ethnic Mobility Trap" .Jewish representation in elite social classJews are now over-represented in terms of higher education and also in free professions, notably medicine and law Note this higher status is found throughout Europe and non-Europe societies Some canadian studies, regression models, find a positive remaining impact of Jewish origin on income after controlling for education and occupation why does this occur? Perhaps positive impact due to the type of education obtained (ie the rank of the universities ) that may have a separate impact on occupational and income success Also major penetration into elite sectors eg. over-represented among Nobel prize winners in US (and world), 30-35% among the Forbes 500 Note difference in representation of wealthy indiv. Vs. board of directors of public corporations, eg. of a major bank → jews aren't old money But now are wealthy jews in newer corporation, eg high tech Also on Wall t. But still less likely to find Jews as CEOs of old line industrial corporation, where may be more room for lingering prejudice More likely to enter general world of philanthropy and high society -- now more accepted into the general elite circlesJewish Poverty•It exists, but is more rare. •Has some similarities but some differences from mainstream poverty aging, divorce, migration, students, mental health, etc all the same. •What you don't find in Jewish pop is a multi-generation cycle of poverty, often associated w/crime, single motherhood, substance abuse, etc. •A lot of poverty associated with ultra-Orthodox. •Even when Jews were in the working class, they were still in the urban working class never heavily involved in the primary sector in Canada, facilitating economic growth. also aspects of Jewish life can contribute to squeeze on middle class because have to pay for kosher food, jewish camps, synagogue dues, trips to israel, jewish schools, bar mitzvahsJewish success•20% of the Forbes 400 were people who were Jewish oNobel Prizes - it is estimated that Jews have won about 20% of the noble prizes that have been given out - that number is higher than the post war period oJewish achievement is not simply a question of being able to make money, it is also achievement in terms of scientific and other breakthroughs oSurprisingly, Jews continue to do well in Noble Prizes - in the last year, six of the Noble Prize winners were Jewish, and Jews make up approximately 0.2% of the worlds population oThe achievement is not simply being able to pile up a lot of money, rather, there are achievements in various domains oIn the world of the arts: creative people, film, TV, writing, artists - you would find a very high number of Jewish representationExplaining Jewish Success: Geneticsmaybe some genetic advantages that Jews haveExplaining Jewish success : Cultural reasonsReligion with less authoritarianism, i.e. no pope Room for multiple interpretations, even among ultra orthodox Questioning is legitimate; eg. the Talmud is a body of legal interpretation and Is full of debates Role of rationality in planning economic success Miriam Slater arguments: religion vs. science Many people have argued that the Jewish "value of learning" has translated into subsequent educational success, eg. the Rabbi is a teacher, not a priest Not holy Universal male literacy The Talmud is a demanding text, uses logic, reason, to argue cases -- so had to be smart to understand itValue of EducationThe reason jews do well is because in traditional jewish societies, education, Judaic learning was the route to social status counter-argument : in N.A. historically, reform/liberal jews had more education and higher ses, Orthodox had less -- this could be changing for the modern Orthodox Can do empirical test to see is more jewish education (or more catholic education) associated with negative secular educational outcomes We know that in the US, children in catholic schools are doing better than Protestants -- maybe because these schools value discipline and hardwork Parallel debates about asians The cultural argument would also extend into entrepreneurship, eg. the Jewish value of rationality, innovation and planning make successful business peopleSocial Structural argument of Jewish successFocuses on a variety of social structural factors Immigrant jewish families were large, but smaller than others which helped with mobility and could help with their success Jews immigrated from often towns and cities, not really peasants Often prevented from land owning They were often familiar with commerce, money, credit, as traders, shopkeepers, merchants -- Jews, unlike Christians, were allowed to lend money so developed useful skills Jews were comfortable in an urban environment -- this becomes important in relation to anti semitism because to Christian people thought that cities were evil, immoral, etc. therefore influenced their feelings about Jews Jewish migration, relatively less return migration because where they came from was anti semitic, so greater investments in education for children Anti-semitism also propelled Jews to excel in education and skill to do better than the others in order to well, not property -- no anti semite could steal your education/skill, unlike your house There were university quotas for Jews, and they had to meet a higher standard in order to get in Less alcoholism and family disorganaztion and crime so the environment for children was better to succeed Consequence of affluence is conspicuous consumption (Velben) argument says that issues of lifestyles and material culture, eg. The cost of living for Jews is higher residential patterns also a feature of social structure --> jews lived in urban areas at first then moved and up town as they became more successfulJews as immigrants• All Jews are either an immigrant, the child of an immigrant or the grandchild of an immigrant and so on • Jews contributed to society at an extremely high level (business, science, art, economy, etc.) • "Never Again" will Jewish community leaders be so meek and timid in defending Jews - you must be tough to act tough - after the Holocaust, the Jews, understandably, had their guards up • Jews were insecure in their American and Jewish identity, Jews were always associated with being uptight • First major immigrant wave: prewar which was the large eastern European immigrant wave, between 1880 and 1924 • Many European immigrants actually returned to Europe (sometimes they came to America to earn wealth and then went back home) • Flourishing Yiddish culture in America (particularly in New York) • Poverty was intense, disease was intense and there was hardly any space but they were all happy and authentically Jewish • The Jazz Singer - gets opportunity to sing on Broadway the same night he has to sing in synagogue (father was a canter and wanted to follow in his footsteps) - this demonstrates the sadness associated with the immigrant experience because this immigrant is caught which is very common amongst Jewish immigrants jewish immigrants went from unskilled workers to skilled workers (upward mobility)integration of Jewish immigrants• Important to understand the Jews do not integrate into the larger society • All immigrants move into their sub-communities, this is called "nesting" • Late 1950s and 1960s - Sephardic migration, a lot of them come from Montreal and lot of them speak French • Overtime, tension arose between Sephardic and Ashkenazi, but overtime it has blurred • Jews had very strong links to Israel - still considered it their homelandRussian/Soviet Jews• Russian Jews come form the Soviet union - they all share the common characteristic of having been oppressed, they all came from Diaspora communities in which they have been victimized • Big political movement in the diaspora to help soviet Jews get out of the soviet union • Détente - the soviet union would have to liberalize by allowing for the emigration of soviet Jews this was a big political issues that American congress would debate and officials would debate - starting in the 70s, soviet Jews start to leave and there was a debate as to whether or not they should go to the west or if they should go to Israel • Jewish community was extremely Zionistic and pro-Israel, so everyone thought they should go to Israel however, another aspect of the community said they should go wherever they desire • Russian Jews came to the United States and created own subcommunities • Soviet Jews were extremely quiet about their Jewish background - they became more and more Jewish during their stay in North America • Russian Jews did not agree with the cultural level of North American Jews • They brought with them a cultural baggage - not very Jewish, however, highly cultured and normally educated to a high degreeIsraeli immigrants• Significant number of Israelis came to north America - with baggage • Insulting name for Israeli immigrants - "Yordim" myth of return means going bdown because they go down from Israel • Religious Jews have gone from north American to Israel (secular to sacred) • Every Israeli is knowledgeable - they are fluent in Hebrew, but they also know Jewish history and they even know the bible - every Jewish kid (even in a secular school) has studied the bible if they were raised in Israel • They do not like religion - they have had no experience with reform or conservative Judaism • There is a lot of guilt - the Israeli's are made to feel guilty as if they have gone the wrong way because they are betraying the Zionist ideas - they opted for the easier life • The myth of return - they claimed that they were just there temporarily - the same pattern - they were greeted with some ambivalence by the host community • Sociological perspective Israel's attitude has changed towards these Israeli migrants, Israel used to be very hostile towards them, however, now Israel sees Israel migrants as a possible source of support in the Israel diaspora • There are many communities in the world that now see their diaspora community as a potential ally in their own geopolitical structureMarshall Sklare "Introduction: the sociology of contemporary Jewish studies"-the science of Judaism emerged as a discipline in the 19th c and further developed into the 29th c -Jewish nationalism and Zionism birthed the study of Judaism because they wanted to focus on the group survival aspect of the jews rather than individual assimilation -Kurt Lewin pointed out the psychological problems that could come from alienating oneself from the Jewish community and hurt their sense of belongingLouis Wirth - "The ghetto"of the Chicago school, argued that Jews would eventually assimilate and that this was a good thing. This ^ was the view of the Park School of Sociology in Chicago about all groups assimilationist view in sociology an early, strong, and progressive view.Sylvia Fishman - analyzing the evidence-contemporary American jews employ a coping technique called coalescence -this is a response to modernity -coalescence: the process of merging American and jewish ideas, incorporating American liberal values such as free choice, universalism, individualism into their understanding of Jewish identity -American and jewish behaviour and values thrive side by side -most jews don't partake in compartmentalization as a coping method which is a process whereby an individual employing two contradictory value systems either utilizes them in serial and separate fashion to becomes inattentive to their contradictionsBen Halpern "America is different"America is different because it was considered a new society, post emancipation america is a safe space for all religious groups/minorities people people who were fleeing religious persecution founded itMorton Weinfield, Like everyone but different intro and chapter 1• Jews assimilate less than non-Jewish minority groups, balancing their own culture with the culture where they live. • Jews are paradoxical: Jews have created a workable synthesis of opposites Biblical and postmodern, religious and ethnic, devout and secular, admired and reviled, conservative and liberal, prosperous and insecure at once. retain strong ties to their ancient history and traditions through practices and preoccupations, religious principles, reverence to the ancient land, rituals. o Jews have above average scores on IQ tests, starting after WWII. o Perhaps the threat of persecution enhances Jewish intelligence. o Intelligence not necessarily genetic. o North American Jews have performed very well in verbal and mathematical tests throughout most of the 20th century. o Religion core element of Jewish identity. Many Judaisms, as mentioned above. o Immigration immigrant saga is an indelible part of the identity of North American Jews, even though a minority are actually immigrants. Identification with the stranger. o Culture Jews are a cultural group, many Jews construct their identity in terms of culture rather than religion. Central linguistic element comprises Yiddish, Ladino, Aramaic, other minor dialects, and Hebrew.Weinfield Chapter 2o Diaspora life = conversation about survival. o Twin challenges continuity and unity, Jewish future hangs in the balance. o American Jews + Canadian Jews are facing rising rates of mixed marriages and low fertility comes from general assimilation. o At the individual level, intermarriage is a cause and effect of assimilation, but at the group level, the trend reflects the varied cultural characteristics of Jews. o The more Jewish—non-Jewish friendships, the greater the sympathetic understanding of Jewish concerns by non-Jews.Chaim Waxman "the sociohistorical background and development of America's jews• First Jewish communities in US were Sephardic. • 18th an 19th century majority of American Jews were German + Central Euro. • Massive wave of immigration from 1880-1920s from eastern and southern Europe. • Eastern Euro Jewry unique most lived in shtetls, isolated from larger society perpetuated Jewish culture with a strong sense of group unity. • Belonged to a Jewish "nation," not just a religion. • ^ traditional Judaism. • Enlightenment and industrialization overpowered the shtetl by the end of the 1800s, Jews were moving to larger cities in Eastern Europe. • Ellis Island was major immigration station for Jews post 1892 in America.The Sociohistorical Background and Development of America's Jews By Chaim Waxman• First Jewish communities in US were Sephardic. • 18th an 19th century majority of American Jews were German + Central Euro. • Massive wave of immigration from 1880-1920s from eastern and southern Europe. • Eastern Euro Jewry unique most lived in shtetls, isolated from larger society perpetuated Jewish culture with a strong sense of group unity. • Belonged to a Jewish "nation," not just a religion. • ^ traditional Judaism. • Enlightenment and industrialization overpowered the shtetl by the end of the 1800s, Jews were moving to larger cities in Eastern Europe. • Ellis Island was major immigration station for Jews post 1892 in America. • Eastern euro immigrants came at a time of urbanization in the US and settled in ethnic neighborhoods in the largest cities. • Change of immigrating to US was traumatic not only did they encounter alien social forces, they were met with hostility from German Jews. • German Jews then attempted to "Americanize" their lower class counterparts.Like Everyone Else But Different: Chapter 3 By Morton Weinfeld• Many people think Jewish immigration is a topic best studied by historians, but Jews are still moving. • First Jews to immigrate to Canada were individuals. • 1st large wave of Jewish migration to Canada was from Central Europe 1840-1880 came for a variety of economic and political motives. Large majority in this wave went to US, but a small number went to Canada. • 2nd wave of migration was from Eastern Europe. Began late 1870s and had added strength because of 1881 Russian pogroms. most Eastern Euro migrants and their children were overwhelmingly working class lasted well into 1930s. , the Jewish climb up the occupational ladder was rapid.Canadian Jews and Canadian Multiculturalism By Harold Troper and Morton Weinfeld• Meanings of multiculturalism: commonly used by Canadians to refer to at least three different but related phenomena: 1) the demographic reality of a Canadian population made up of people and groups from diverse ethnocultural and racial origins, a social ideal or value that accepts cultural pluralism as a positive feature of Canadian society, and government policy initiatives designed to recognize, support, and manage cultural and racial pluralism at federal, provincial, and municipal levels. • Canada is a pluralist society almost 40% of Canadians are of non-British or non-French origin. • Multicultural policy is a particular Canadian response to Canadian events of the century. Tied to Canada's immigration past and the effort to shape a unique Canadian place in North America. • As demand for immigrant "labour" faltered in years after WWI, anti-immigrant sentiment grew. • Jewish immigrants and Holocaust survivors came rushing in again after WWII when there were shortages of labour. • Jews were significantly involved in liberal coalition after WWII were part of crumbling of ethnic based discrimination.Recent Developments in the Social Scientific Study of Canadian Jews By David Koffman and Morton Weinfeld• Central argument: while there has been a steady increase in the volume of social scientific work on Canadian Jews, the literature has many serious lacunae and the field still remains in an early stage of development. The growth that has occurred is, of course, laudable. For better or worse, social science perspectives about American Jews loom large over those on Canadian Jewish subjects. • 2 analytical approaches to studying Jewish life in Canada: internal analyses and comparative analyses. • Internal: focuses on social elements of Canadian Jewry with no comparative referent. • Comparative: compares (American Canadian, for example, which is the dominant method amongst Canadian scholars). • Understanding Canadian by comparing to American Jewry s the dominant form of comparative analysis.Sanctifying Suburban Space from "And I Will Dwell in Their Mist: Orthodox Jews in Suburbia." By Etan Diamond• Bathurst Street is to Toronto Jewry "what the Nile is to Egypt: a narrow strip of life with desert on both sides." • Surprising about Bathurst Street dense Jewish infrastructure is not found in urban setting but suburban post WWII one: being pushed northwards with waves of settlement. Unlike regular Jewish relocation from urban to suburban, Jewish settlement of Bathurst didn't follow the settlement-expansion-relocation-abandonment cycle did not come at the expense of older areas, but rather extended the existing areas northwards. • Traditionally, term "sacred space" refers to places with explicit religious sanctity, such as a shrine or holy city there are other ways to understand: for example, social spaces in religious communities are sacred, not holy, but nevertheless essential can include those socially/culturally constructed environments that are not necessarily associated with explicitly holy or religious events or objects. • Dense Jewish life in Kensington gave Orthodox a sacred space all religious, social, and cultural necessities an Orthodox Jew required could be found in Kensington. • Eruv forbidden to carry any object in public property on the Sabbath carrying only permitted in private space can be circumvented with the construction of an eruv, a fence or enclosure that encircles the public space, "transforming" into private property emits a range of activities on the Sabbath that would otherwise be prohibited. Eruv is trivial to non-orthodox Jews, but has sparked much debate rejected for practical reasons but also more emotional ones, and often opposition from outside Jewish community. Eruv extended north of Bloor street (where it historically was) several timesLike Everyone Else...But Different: Chapter 4 By Morton Weinfeldo Jews in Canada have "made it." o Not only are Jewish incomes high (this is true for other minority groups in Canada, like Japanese), Jews are now statistically overrepresented among the mst affluent, the movers and shakers in Canada's elite economic circles. o Immigrant Jews took to the garment industry because for many, it was the only area for which they had training. Additionally, there were cultural factors: not having to work on the Sabbath or major Jewish holidays when working for Jewish employers, would not encounter anti-Semitism from Jewish coworkers. o A "sub-economy" existed, linking Jewish employers, employees, consumers and suppliers in one network. Jews were far more likely to work as merchants, clerks, skilled and semi skilled workers; non-Jews worked as unskilled workers. o Despite moving up, there was little room for immigrant Jews and their children at the very top anti-Semitism, both overt and covert, o Jewish participation in the "sub-economy" a key part of "moving up." o Higher Jewish incomes not actually that mysterious Jews might work harder if not longer because of a fear of anti-Semitism or because of a need to earn more to support a Jewish lifestyle. Jews drink less, and so they may be more productive. o Why do Jews do well in school? Traditional Judaic culture has emphasis on learning. Jews have no Pope = more child centered and less authoritarian child rearing patterns which pave the way for more independent thinking, problem solving, and school achievement.Costs of being a Jew in Canada:1. Annual synagogue membership + purchase of High Holiday seats. 2. Jewish schooling for two children of elementary school age. 3. Donations to CJA and other Jewish charities. 4. Membership to YMHA or Community Centre. 5. Premium for keeping kosher, mainly cost of kosher meat. 6. Cost of when a child becomes a bar or bat mitzvah. 7. Trips to Israel. 8. Jewish summer camps.The Religion of American Jews By Charles Liebman• Two definitions folk religion, and elite religion. • Folk religion: the religion of a community which delineates the peculiarity of the particular group and which is generated by the community itself. The popular religious culture of folk religion can be better understood if we first understand elite religion. • Elite religion: term religion refers to a formal organized institution with acknowledged leaders. Within the institution, symbols and rituals are acknowledged as legitimate expressions or reenactments of religious experience, and a set of beliefs is articulated as ultimate truths. Elite religion is the symbols and rituals (the cult) and beliefs which the leaders acknowledge as legitimate also the religious organization itself, its hierarchal arrangements, the authority of the leaders and their source of authority, and the rights and obligations of the followers to the organization and its leaders. • Traditionalist folk, on the other hand, find the touchstone of legitimacy in the practices of the community. In this sense, the traditionalist folk are more innately conservative than the elite but are more susceptible to a radical break with the past, once the consensus with the community is broken.• Reconstructionismone effort arising out of the Conservative movement to reformulate the essence of American Jewish folk religion in ideological terms, and hence to institutionalize it and provide it with formal leadership. Reconstructionist philosophy and movement founded by Mordecai Kaplan in 1920s suggests a traditional view of Judaism and at the same time its reformulation in contemporary terminology. Challenged god as a being. Redefined Him as a power and a force in man and nature which makes for freedom, justice, love, truth, and creativity (all packaged in the word salvation). • Most remarkable feature of reconstructionism is its failure as an institutionalized movement.Religious Movements in Collision A Jewish Culture War? By Jack Wertheimer• Definitions of who is a Jew differ between groups. • Self-segregation of Orthodox Jews, many of whose leader refuse to participate in communal organizations that include non-Orthodox rabbis lest such participation confer legitimacy on inauthentic leaders.Like Everyone Else...But Different: Chapter 10 By Morton Weinfeldo To understand Canadian Jews, even secular Jews, we must understand Judaism. o The Jewish religion affects all spheres of Jewish life, directly or indirectly. o For most Christians, Jews and Judaism are the same Jews are defined in religious terms. For many believers, Jews are those cantankerous people who at one point refused to accept the divinity of Jesus. Judaism and Christianity have much in common, beginning with the fact that Jesus was a Jew. o Until the 20th century, most Jews could be classified as Orthodox o Religious Judaism never had a single hierarchal structure like that of the Catholic Church Jews have never had a pope. o Pluralism is rampant both within religious movements and among them. o Reform Judaism emerged in Germany in the nineteenth century. o Conservative Judaism developed later in the US at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of 20th. o In recent decades, Reconstructionist and Jewish Renewal movements have emerged as even more modern choices. o Canadian Jewish denominations are usually affiliated with American umbrella organizations. o There are thousands of Jews who are no longer "religious Jews," and the numbers are growing. o Some self declared Jewish atheists or agnostics still engage in some religious practices and observances. o There are now more converted Jews and Christians of Jewish ancestry than ever before more and more Jews have some familial connection to Christianity o The synagogue is the center of contemporary Judaism. o Synagogues have become contemporary mini Jewish community centers. o There is a spectrum of religiosity among Jews. o Jews are not avid synagogue goers. 20% in MTL claimed they only went for special occasions, meaning they otherwise did not attend. Toronto found a slightly higher percentage. o Religion has taken over from differences in ethnicity, class, and political ideology as the major basis of conflict within the Jewish community in recent years. o With the rise of intermarriage, tensions revolving around "who is a Jew" and "who is a rabbi" have evolved. now have gay rabbis