Anthropology 213 - Exam 2
Terms in this set (73)
Primate Origins - Order of Epochs
1. Paleocene (plesiadapiforms/mammals)
2. Eocene (strepsirhines, emergence of early primates)
3. Oligocene (early catarrhines)
4. Miocene (Monkeys & Apes)
5. Pliocene (early human ancestors)
6. Pleistocene (early Homo, of our genus)
7. Holocene (modern humans)
us, our ancestors, great apes, lesser apes (gibbons, siamangs)
us, our directive ancestor
us, our ancestors, great apes, (chimps, gorillas, orangutans)
Members of the primate infraorder which includes just monkeys, apes, and humans; suborder of Haplorhines. Derived features, enclosed bony eye socket, DNA arrangement
Derived, grasping ability
Some primates have a prehensile/grasping tail that serves as a fifth hand, but most just have prehensile digits used for grasping objects
Derived trait, helps to manipulate objects, related and involved with prehensile digits
Having a diet consisting of many food types, such as plant material, meat, insects, nuts, and fruits
Active during the day
Active during the night
Sense of smell
Stereoscopic vision/depth perception
The condition whereby visual images are, to varying degrees, superimposed. This provides depth perception or viewing the external environment in three dimensions. Stereoscopic vision is partly a function of structures in the brain.
Vision characterized by overlapping fields provided by forward-facing eyes. Binocular vision is essential for depth perception.
Suborder of anthropoids under haplorhines, consisting of Old World monkeys, apes, and humans; ancestor of Catarrhines is the aegyptoplithecus
Suborder of anthropoids under haplorhines, consisting of New World monkeys; ancestor of platyrrhines is the parapithecus
the moist, hairless pad at the end of the nose seen in most mammalian species i.e. cows. The rhinarium enhances an animal's ability to smell, stronger olfactory capabilities/reliance on olfaction.
Small body size, smaller brain relative to body size
open eye socket
primitive shaped molars
Larger body size
increased reliance on visionary systems, less olfaction
closed eye socket, increased vision
less specialized dentition
nails instead of claws
large brain size relative to body size
NW vs. OW monkeys
New World Monkeys - platyrrhines
sideways facing nostrils
2:1:3:3 dental formula
grasping, prehensile tail
Old World Monkeys - catarrhines
downwards facing nostrils
2:1:2:3 dental formula
OW monkeys vs. Apes
Old World Monkeys -
narrow nose palate
relatively smaller brain
smaller body size
Ape-like Monkeys -
wide/broad nose palate
larger body size
evidence of saggital crest
locomotor diversity/greater range of motion
anything an organism does that involves action in response to an external or internal stimuli. The response of an individual, group, or species to its environment. Such responses may not be deliberate and aren't necessarily the result of conscious decision making.
Evolved through natural selection (think of behavior as a phenotype)
Reduced genetic control on behavior
The study of the evolution of behavior, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection. Behaviors and behavioral patterns have been favored because they increase the reproductive fitness of individuals in specific environmental contexts.
Groups that consist of a female, her daughters, and their offspring. Usually found in macaques.
Of an animal or species tending to live or return to the same site or area.
Life History Traits
Characteristics and developmental stages that influence reproductive rates. Examples include longevity, age at sexual maturity, time between births.
Being or having features that are not present in the ancestral form
2 or more species whose habitats overlap
Systems of social organizations wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another. Higher ranking animals are considered to be more dominant and have greater access to food and mates. Also referred to as "pecking orders,"
Any act that conveys information to another individual. Frequently, the result of communication is a change in the behavior of the recipient. Communication may not be deliberate but instead may be the result of involuntary processes or a secondary consequence of an intentional action.
Pertaining to physiological responses not under voluntary control. An example in champs would be the erection of body hair when excited. Blushing would be an example in humans. Both convey information about emotional states, but neither is deliberate and communication was not intended.
Sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states. Nonhuman primates displays are most frequently associated with reproductive or agnostic behavior; examples include chest slapping in gorillas or in male chimps, dragging and waving branches while charging and threatening other animals. Contextualized, learned behaviors and how we demonstrate we're happy, scared, angry, etc.
A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within a species. It's the result of competition for mates, and it can lead to sexual dimorphism with regard to one or more traits.
Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species.
Pertaining to k-selection, an adaptive strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring in whom they invest increased parental care. Although only a few infants are born, chances of survival are increased because of parental investments of time and energy.
Pertaining to r-selection, a reproductive strategy that emphasizes relatively large numbers of offspring and reduced parental care compared to k-selected species.
Shared parenting; parenting is a learned social behavior, so alloparenting can be useful for juveniles learning how to parent, and for mothers to be able to independently procure food without the distraction of having to look after her offspring.
The group in which an animal is born and raise (natal pertains to birth)
The composition, size, and sex ratio of a group of animals. The social structure in a species is in part the result of natural selection in a specific habitat, and it guides individual interactions and social relationships.
Factors Affecting Social Structure:
-distribution of resources
-relationship with other species
-activity patterns (how humans can still effect nonhuman primates and their habitats).
Amicable association between individuals. Affiliative behaviors reinforce social bonds and promote group cohesion.
Aggressive behaviors lead to group disruption
Acts regularly repeated in a precise manner (i.e. meeting a new person)
-one male, multifemale (gorillas)
-multimale, multifemale (chimps, babboons)
-monogamous pairing (humans)
-solitary (aye-ayes, lorises, prosimians,)
The proportional size of the brain relative to some estimate of overall body size, such as weight. More precisely, the term refers to increases in brain size beyond what would be expected given the body size of a particular species.
Relative vs. Absolute Dating
Relative dating tells us how old or young something is but not by how much.
Absolute dating is a dating technique that gives an estimate in concrete numbers of years of how old or young something is; not exact, but more specific than relative dating. Also known as chronometric dating.
Forms ratio for cross-species comparisons (i.e. the ration of brain and body size of different species)
Social Brain Hypothesis
Primate brains increased in relative size and complexity because primates live in social groups. The demands of living in a social group are numerous, thus primates must be able to negotiate complex web of interactions, including alliances, competition, forming and maintaining friendships/relationships, and knowing which individuals to avoid.
A standardized system of arbitrary vocal sounds, symbols, and/or gestures used in communication of conveying information.
Region of the brain with functions linked to speech pronunciation; damage to the region affects the use of spontaneous speech and motor speech control.
Region of the brain associated with comprehension of language, damage to the Wernicke's area is characterized by grammatical speech but an inability to understand language.
Viewing nonhuman organisms in terms of human experiences and capabilities. Emphasizing the importance of humans over everything else.
Culture is a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next but is non-biological (i.e. passed down by non genetic means)
Actions that benefit another individual but sometimes at the expense or potential risk to oneself.
The hypothesis that the individual who benefits from an altruistic act may later return the favor.
An individual may enhance his or her reproductive success by saving the life of a relative because if the relative survives then it can live on to reproduce and pass on genes that both individuals share.
An individual may act altruistically to benefit other group members because ultimately it's to the performer's benefit that the group be maintained. If the altruist dies, his or her genes can still be passed on through other group members that share genes (similar to kin selection), but the problem with group selection is that reproductive success is enhanced when the individual is selfish and is the object of natural selection.
Molar that has five cusps with grooves running between them, forming a Y-shape. This is characteristic of hominoids.
Referring to molars that have four cusps oriented into two parallel rows, resembling ridges or "lophs". This is a trait of OW monkeys.
Objects or materials made or modified for use by hominins. The earliest artifacts are usually stone tools and occasionally tools made of bones.
The study of early hominins - their chronology, physical structure, habitats, and archaeological remains
The study of how bones and other materials come to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils.
The remains of once living, breathing organisms. Traces of remnants of organisms found in geological beds on the earth's surface.
Plesiadapiforms during the paleocene epoch (1st epoch on the timeline)
Chronometric Dating/Absolute Dating
A dating technique of fossils that gives an estimate in actual number of years; also known as absolute dating.
Study of the sequential layering of deposits, a method of relative dating where lower layers indicate older fossils and higher layers indicate younger fossils. much of the earth's crust has been laid down layer after layer of sedimentary rock, much like the layers of a cake, so stratigraphy has been a valuable tool in reconstructing the history of the earth and life upon it. Sometimes, however, it is difficult to reconstruct chronology because volcanic spills, river activity, mountain building, etc. can all have an affect on stratas the objects within them; not entirely accurate.
Principle of Superposition
In a stratigraphic sequence, the lower layers were deposited before the upper layers.
half-life analysis is the main method of chronometric/absolute dating. C-14 and K/Ar are 2 absolute dating exams , where C-14 is used to date material within 60k years and K/Ar is used for dating much older material, usually aged between 1-5 mya.
A relative dating technique based on the regular changes seen in evolving groups of animals as well as the presence of absence of particular species.
A thin-edged fragment removed from a core. when struck properly, certain types of stone will fracture in a controlled way and the flakes can be used as tools for cutting meat off bones, scraping out bone marrow, etc.
A stone tool reduced by flake removal. A core may or may not be used by itself as a tool.
Lithic, referring to stone tools. Early humans (hominins) basic human invention was the recognition that sone could be fractured to produce sharp edges.
Striking a core or a flake with a hammerstone
Fossil = some remains/form/imprint of a deceased organism. Fossilization occurs under certain environmental circumstances and the type of animal being fossilized. Not all animals or environments are conducive to fossilization. Fossilization is a two step process. 1) animals get buried by volcanic ash, tree sap, etc. 2) mineralized. organic remnants get replaced by minerals, rock form of what the organisms looked like.
Excavations at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, Africa (significance in fossil findings)`
Lack of climate/environmental variation so well documented and preserved fossil remains. Earth movements exposes geological beds at the site, active volcanic processes led to excellent preservation, volcanic activity provides strong radiometrically datable information.