Botany

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4 main organ systems of a plant
roots, stems, leaves and flowers
Roots
anchor plants in the ground and absorb water and dissolved nutrients from the soil
2 types of roots
taproot, fibrous
tap root
the primary portion of the root grows long and thick while secondary roots remain small..... long primary root is able to reach water way under the ground....
example of a tap root
carrot, pecan trees
fibrous root
shallow roots that branch so that no one root grows longer than the others.....prevents soil erosion...collects water easily and quickly....
example of a fibrous root
grass, cactus
stems
produce leaves, branches and flowers....hold leaves up to sunlight for photosynthesis...transport substances between roots and leaves.......
Stems.....2 parts
xylem and phloem
Xylem
transports water absorbed in the roots up to the rest of the plant
phloem
transports food made in the leaves down to the rest of the plant
tree rings
"wood" is actually the xylem of the tree.....a new ring is made each year....
a thick ring means
a year with a lot of rainfall
cohesion
water bonds to other water molecules
adhesion
water bonds to different molecules
capillary action
tendancy of water to rise in a tube
root pressure
pressure created by water entering the root that can push water upward
angiosperms
flowering plant; largest in the plant kingdom
flowers
attract pollinators for reproduction
4 main organs of flowers
sepals, petals, stamen and pistil
sepals
protect the flower bud
petals
colorful to attract pollinatiors
stamen
male reproductive part.....has a filament and a anther
there are _____parts of the stamen
2
filament
stalk
anther
top of the filament...forms pollen grains/sperm
pistil
female reproductive part......stigma,style and ovary
there are __________ parts of the pistil
3
stigma
top, where pollination occurs
style
stalk that connects the stigma to the ovary
ovary
forms eggs
fruit
thickening of the ovary wall....aids in seed dispersal
monocot
one leaf inside the seed...long and narrow leaves....flower petals are in three's....usually fibrous roots
dicot
two leaves inside the seed.....broad leaves in many sizes and shapes..flower petals are in fours or fives....usually have a tap root
self pollination
flowers pollinate themselves
cross pollination
flowers receive pollen from another plant
seeds
store food for the plant embryo....disperse to create new plants
plants have __________ methods to disperse seeds.....
3
wind
dandelions
water
coconuts (buoyant)
animals/humans
eat the fruit and poop out the seeds....stick to fur
tropism
plants growth response to an external stimulus
photropism
a plants growth response towards light
gravitropism
a plant's growth response towards gravity (roots)
plant parts male
plant parts female
leaf model