Botany

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The life of a cell
1. interphase, cell is doing its function DNA is duplicated
2. Mitotic phase, mitosis ( division of nucleus and DNA) cytokinesis ( division of cytoplasm)
The life of a the cell
( 4 phases)
MITOSIS
(Interphase),is the majority of its life then it goes to its mitotic phase { nucleolus,cytoplasm,chromatin,cell wall and plasma membrane}
* Prophase { spindle forms, chromosomes form, nuclear envelope disapates}
*Metaphase { metaphase ( plate/ equatorial plane), spindle}
* Anaphase ( chromosomes separate and pulled to opposite ends of the cell by the spindle fibers) { spindle microtubules pull the genetically identical chromosomes, daughter chromosomes separate}
* telophase { cell plate, accomplishes cytoleinsis, nuclei form}
Plastids
3 basic types
* All related to each other from an evolutionary perspective
* all have 2 layers of membrane that surround them
- chloroplast { green because of chlorophyll (photosynthesis)
-chromoplast { yellow to red color from carotenoids, often attraction for animal seed disperseis or pollinators}
-plastids { naturally colorless,strach storage (leuroplast)
Mitochondria
* have 2 layers of membrane
* fxn: cellular respiration
> how all cells get energy to power metabolism
What is the difference between the vascular cambium and the vascular cylinder?
*vascular cambium ,
creates second tissue
* vascular cylinder,
center colum,primary pholoem,xylem
What are vascular plants
* ferns
* conifers
* flowering plants
What is vascular tissue ?
Internal conclutive tissue
Development of tissues
Ground tissue, fill up the plant body and gives the plant shape and internal support
* help with nutrient production and storage
Development of tissues
Vascular tissue , made up of the xylem and phloem
Development of tissues
xylem, one way tube that carries water
Development of tissues
phloem, two way tube that carries food
Tissues of vascular plants
* epidermis
* ground tissue
* vascular tissue
3 cell types of vascular plants
* Parenchyma
* collenchyma
* sclerenchyma
Plastids
* 3 basic types
- all related to each other from evolutionary perspective
- all have 2 layers of membrane that surround them
- vary by color and function
Plastids ( leucoplasts)
Naturally colorless
fxns: starch storage, others make oil
plastids ( chromoplasts)
* yellow to red color from carotenoids
* fxns: often, attraction for animal seed dispersers or pollinators
The life of a cell
(Primary Growth )
Result in an increase in length
-new leaves and root form
the life of a cell
(secondary growth)
results in an increase in thickness
plastids ( chloroplast)
* green because of chlorophyll
* fxn: photosynthesis
the life of a cell
( root functions)
absorption, storage,anchorage,conduction
Difference between monocot and dicot root
MONOCOT ROOTS
Monocot roots,
1. xylem is polyarch
2. pith is usually large at the centre
3. Metaxylem vessels are generally circular in cross section
4. conductive tissue is sclerenchymatous in maize
5. there is no secondary growth
Difference between monocot and dicot root
DICOT ROOTS
1. xylem is usually tetrach
2. pith is usually absent
3.metaxylem vessels are generally polygonal in cross section
4. conjuctive tissue is usually parenchymatous
5. secondary growth is generally present
Summary of primary and secondary growth in a woody stem
PRIMARY TISSUES
* epidermis
* primary phloem, primary xylem
* ground tissue { pith cortex}
Summary of primary and secondary growth in a woody stem
LATERAL MERISTEM
* vascular cambium
* cork cambuim ( periderm)
Summary of primary and secondary growth in a woody stem
SECONDARY TISSUES
*secondary phloem
* secondary xylem
* cork { periderm}
Middle Lamella
gives cells together
Plant tissues
* ( outside skin) Epidermis > always on the outside > made of parenchyma
ex: trichomes guard cells > modified epidermis cells
Phases of the cell cycle
* interphase
- primary growth
- genome replicated
- secondary growth
- mitosis
- cytokinesis
shoot
stem + leaves
Node
Section of stem where leaves attach
BULB
ex. Onion
CORM
ex. green onion, chive, leek
( basil plate)
3 life cycles
3. Sporic Meiosis, includes multicellular n & 2n phases
Phylum zygomycota
* Coenocytic Hyphae
* No cross walls between cells
* Importance: Decomposers, endomycorhizae and insect pathogens
* Asexual and sexual reproduction
* nucleus
Asexual Reproduction
* Sporangium, spores are produced internally by mitosis
* Hypha
* sporanglophore
* mitospores
Phylum Ascomycote
* Septate hyphae
* Nucleus
* perfumation
* septum
Importance: Decomposers, many in lichens, plant pathogens, food
* Asexual and sexual reproduction
* zygotic meiosis thru conjugation
2 parts of fertilization
1. Plasmogamy, fusion of protoplast of gametes
2. karyogamy, fusion of nuclei of gametes
2 Multicellular phases
Sporophyte: 2n multicellular phase that goes true meiosis to produce spore
Gametophyte: n multicellular phases that go true mitosis to produce gametes
Matrotrophy
young sporophyte is nourished and protect by female gametophyte
Embryophytes
Embryo producing plant
Kingdom Plantae
* includes 4 groups: Bryophytes, seed-free vascular plants, gymnosperms & angiosperm
* autotrophic
* Complex multicellular- adaptations to terrestrial life
* sporic meiosis L.C
- heteromorphic phases, sporophytes and gametophytes look different
- oogamy- egg is larger and non- motile
- multicellular gametangia
- matrotrophy
- sporopollerin coats spores
Bryophytes
* include 3 phyla: anthocerophyta, hepa
Seed free vascular plants
* Includes 2 pyla: lycopodiophyta + preridophyta
* sperm that swims thru H2O for fertilization
* spores as dispersal unit ( what establishes new popular horns)
* lignified vascular tissue - taller than bryophytes
* sporophyte dominates the life cycle
* sporophytes branch ( moss and fern)
Lycopodium
meiosis - spores- mitosis- bisexual gametophytes-metosis and retention of -egg - fertilization-zygote-mitosis-sporophyte-sporangium-meiosis
seed plants = gymnosperms and angiosperm
* seed as dispersal unit, contain food and protection
* heterosporous,megaspore and megagametophyte retention
* endosporic gametophytes- develop w/ in the megaspore/ microspore wall
* pollination-pollen grain delivers sperm
Gymnosperm " naked seeds"
* includes 4 phyla :
coniferphyta , ginkgophyta,cycadophyta,gnetophyta
* secondary growth - allowed them to grow taller
* xerophytic leaves- adapted to retain h20
Ovelute cones/ seed cones
* female cones where megaspores are produced
* cone scales bear ovules ( develop into seeds)
Microstrobilus/ pollen cone
* male cone where microspores are produced and released
Phylum coniferophyta ( conifers)
* sporophyte morphology : evergreen trees
* monoeclous - find female and male cones on the same individual
* wind pollinated - w/ sperm that lack flagella
* economic uses: timber, pulp,turpentine and rosin from pine resin, taxol
Ancestral
describes a character state that is the same as a group's common ancestor
Character
a trait used to decipher evolutionary relationships. these inches but are not limited to an organism's morphology reproduction structures, and DNA sequences
Taxon
a named group of organisms
plural = taxa
What is the functional advantage of reproducing exclusively by asexual spores ?
Better survival of genetically favorable offspring
What might be a long term disadvantage or reproducing entirely asexually ?
Less adaptable to changes in the environment
Ploidy
The number of sets of chromosomes
Diploid
two sets of chromosomes (2n)
Haploid
one set of chromosomes (n)
Homologous Chromosomes
Contain the same genes but not identical
Meiosis
two sets of divisions
- 1 (2n) parent cell that divides 4 (n) daughter cells that divides 4n daughter cells
Meiosis 1
homologous chromosomes separate
Meiosis 2
sister chromatids separate
Source of genetic variation
1. Crossing over
portions of DNA exchanged between homologous chromosomes during prophase 1
Source of genetic variation
2. Independent Assortment
Random alignment of homologous chromosomes @ metaphase 1
Source of genetic variation
3. Random fertilization
...
Vocabulary of Sex
3 types
1. Gamete, Haploid cells that must fuse to form a zygote
2. Zygote, the 1st 2n cell formed after fertilization
3. Spore, n or 2n cells that never fuse
(generally grow thru mitosis)
3 Life Cycles
1. Gametic Meiosis, the only n cells are the gametes
3 life cycles
2. Zygotic Meiosis, the only 2n cell is the zygote