HDFS 5123 Chapter 2 - Theories of Human Development
Terms in this set (52)
a reluctance or refusal to go to school or to remain there (school phobia). It involves intense anxiety.
focuses on the extent to which human beings are active in creating and influencing their own environments and, in the process, in producing their own development, or passively shaped by forces beyond their control.
focuses on whether the changes people undergo over the life span are gradual or abrupt.
Discontinuity theories stress this. A stage is a distinct phase of development characterized by a particular set of abilities, motives, emotions, or behaviors that form a coherent pattern.
the extent to which developmental changes are common to all humans (universal) or are different across cultures, subcultures, task contexts and individuals (context specific).
focused on the development and dynamics of personality, challenged prevailing notions of human nature and human development. Proposed that people are driven by motives and emotional conflicts of which are largely unaware and they are shaped by their earliest experiences in the family.
inborn biological forces that motivate behavior
the power of instincts and other inner forces to influence our behavior without our conscious awareness.
the impulsive, irrational, and selfish part of the personality.
the rational side of the individual that tries to find realistic ways of gratifying the instincts.
the individual's internalized moral standards.
the psychic energy of the sex instinct
Freud's stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
the libido remains tied to an earlier stage of psychosexual development
A boy loves his mother and fears his father will retaliate by castrating him
resolves the conflict of fearing castration by identifying with the same-sex parent. Takes on or internalizes the attitudes and behaviors of another person.
A girl desires her father (and envies the fact that he has a penis, whereas she does not) and views mother as a rival. Resolves conflict by identifying with mother's attitude.
ego adopts unconscious coping devices: repression, regression, sublimation, denial, displacement, and projection.
removing unacceptable thoughts or traumatic memories from consciousness
retreating to an earlier, less traumatic stage of development
Erikson believed humans experience conflicts during their lives.
John Locke had maintained that an infant has "blank slate" waiting to be written on by life experiences.
rests on the belief that conclusions about human development and functioning should be based on observations of overt behavior rather than on speculations on unobservable cognitive and emotional processes.
a simple form of learning in which a stimulus that initially had no effect on the individual comes to elicit a response through its association with a stimulus that already elicits the response. Watson & Pavlov. *Involuntary
a learners behavior becomes either more or less probable depending on the consequences its produces. Skinner.*Choice/voluntary
when a consequence strengthens a behavior through adding something pleasant or desirable to a situation. Ex: receiving a hug or desirable food.
when a consequence strengthens a behavior through removing something unpleasant or undesirable from a situation. Ex: Annoying sound until buckling seatbelt.
occurs when an unpleasant stimulus is the consequence of a behavior. It's main function is to decrease the strength of or weaken the behavior.
Occurs when a desirable stimulus is removed. It's main function is to decrease the strength of or weaken the behavior.
Behavior that is ignored or no longer reinforced tends to become less frequent
social-cognitive theory (social learning theory)
humans are cognitive beings whose active processing of information plays a critical role in their learning.
simply learning by observing the behavior of other people.
learning occurs but is not evident in behavior.
a process in which learners become more or less likely to perform a behavior based on whether consequences experienced by the model they observe are reinforcing or punishing.
belief that they can effectively produce a particular desired outcome.
human development occurs through a continuous reciprocal interaction among the person (biological/psychology), behavior, and their environment.
children actively construct their own understandings of the world based on their experiences.
Infants-2 years. They deal with their world through perceptions (senses) and actions (motor skills). Unable to use symbols (gestures/images or words) to help them solve problems mentally. (must master object permanence)
(Preschoolers)2-7 years. They develop capacity for symbolic thought but not yet capable of logical problem-solving. Uses language, egocentric behavior, wishful thinkers, uses imagination (imaginary friends/animism). Fail at conservation task.
the recognition that certain properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered.
concrete operations stage
(School-age)7-11 years. More logical. They use trial-and-error approach to problem solving and do well on problems that involve concrete objects. Mastered the conservation task. Can mentally categorize, subtract/add, and coordinate height and weight. Problems with abstraction/hypothetical thinking.
formal operations stage
(Adolescents)11-12 years and older. are able to think more abstractly and hypothetically. Ex: defining justice, formulate hypothesis, develop theories over what's wrong with parents, government, world.
Lev Vygotsky. Cognitive development is shaped by the sociocultural context in which it occurs and grows out of children's interactions with members of their culture.
Became dominant perspective in the 1980s, the mind is similar to a computer with hardware and software and examines fundamental mental processes, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and performance on cognitive tasks.
aka Contextual theories, claim that changes over the life span arise from ongoing transactions in which a changing organism and changing environment affect one another.
stresses how biology and the environment interact to produce development.
an immediate physical and social environment in which the person interacts face to face with other people and influences and is affected by them.
the interrelationships between two or more microsystems
consists of linkages involving social settings that individuals do not experience directly by that can still influence their development.
the larger cultural context in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded.
captures the idea that people and their environments and the relations between the two change over time and unfold in particular patterns or sequences over a person's lifetime.
developmentalists rely on many theories, recognizing that no major theory of human development can explain everything but that each has something to contribute to their understanding.