Upgrade to remove ads
History Test 1
Terms in this set (59)
What types of changes took place during the Neolithic Revolution?
Environmental, food gathering and production, domestication of plants, domestication of livestock, division of labor
Domestication of plants during the Neolithic Revolution
made beer (very important in society), 200,000 known species, 80% of diet came from a few dozen cereal grains, best grains grew well in Mesopotamia (barley and wheat), division of labor
Domestication of livestock during the Neolithic Revolution
Sheep were used to make fabric
Division of labor during the Neolithic Revolution
Everyone performed different tasks and took on different roles in society- shoemaking, pottery, fabric making
Settlement during the Neolithic Revolution, earliest permanent settlement, discovered layer after layer
Another one of the earliest settlements of the Neolithic Revolution
Settlement during the Neolithic Revolution, fertile crescent, Nile was very predictable, Tigris and Euphrates were not
Settlement during the Urban Revolution, many competing city-states, religion was big in society (1500+ gods)
Religious building, place of worship, brought sacrifices for the gods,
Government building, government policies documented, government meetings held, created cuneiform
First empire during Urban Revolution, powerful city-states, influenced by the Sumerians, Sargon the Great was the ruler, Shulgi if Ur was the successor, then came Hammurabi of the Amorites who created definite class structure and created laws making poor people get in more trouble than rich people for the same crimes
What civilization conquered the city-states of Sumer and who led the conquest?
Sargon the Great
Influences of Hammurabi, Amorite king of Babylon
his law code influenced many other cultures, taken very seriously by everyone. Ex: #282 if a barmaid were to water down the beer, she would be drowned in it
Amorites early law codes
powerful monarchy, created new ways for the state to administer resources, created new laws that allowed the state to be more involved in the punishing of criminals, death penalty was more common
Hittites early law codes
laws written on cuneiform tablets... "if...then...", instead of using the death penalty, criminals would be forced to do labor
Assyrians early law codes
more severe penalties for crimes, especially murder
Describe the concept of Ma'at and why it was important in the Old Kingdom Egypt
Pharaoh who people worshipped, central concept of worship throughout the Old Kingdom
What was the importance of the calendar developed by the Egyptians?
Split up into three seasons to indicate when to plant crops- indicated when the waters of the Nile would rise and fall
What factors contributed to the decline of Egypt's Old Kingdom?
major decline in leadership, all of the resources were going towards building the pyramids which was a waste, people stopped paying attention to crops and other important things because of the pyramids
What was the outcome of the Hyksos entering Egypt?
They tried to build a wall to keep out invaders (unsuccessful) which ended up moving them into the second intermediate period where there was no clear leadership
What advantages did women in Egyptian society possess over women in other ancient civilizations?
They could own land and they were legally documented as equals to men
What changes did Amenhotep IV bring to Egyptian religious practices even if they only lasted for a short period of time?
Aten worship (worship of the sun)
Destroyed original religious rites and implemented a monotheistic belief system
Who were the Phoenicians and how did they contribute to the Mediterranean world?
Lived along the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean
Set up 5 major towns
Very commercial people
- were able to produce purple dye from snails that no one else could
- set up trading colonies in the Mediterranean
Set up the city of carthage
Their alphabet influenced Greeks, Hebrews, and many others
Identify two ways the Phoenicians contributed to the revival of Greek civilization in the ninth century BCE
Creating the alphabet
- Traveled often so many other places adopted their alphabet
- Lumber and cedar
- Square sails to utilize the wind
- Helped new people settle
Describe the rise of the Hebrew Kingdoms and the Jewish faith between the eleventh and fifth centuries BCE
King David expanded the kingdoms
Expansion was based on Yahweh's expectations for his people
Eventually, the Hebrews divided into two separate Kingdoms
What were some of the distinguishing characteristics of Judaism compared to other contemporary ancient cultures?
God made a covenant with Abraham that he would give the Jews holy land
The destruction of Nineveh by Medes and Chaldeans brought an end to which empire in the Mesopotamian region?
What developments enabled Cyrus of Persia to establish an empire and what were the significant characteristics of it?
Conquer nearby lands and then join them all together
One large empire with all the conquered lands
Very tolerant of lands he conquered
- allowed them to speak their own languages
- practice their own religion
Had a Charter of Human Rights carved into a clay slab
Very likable and tolerant which made him a very successful leader because people liked him
How did the reign of Darius influence the Persian Empire?
Created his own small alphabet for the Persians
Imposed taxes and people lived in tax districts; also a convenient way to gather armies
Royal Road: giant trade route, handed out food along the way
Describe the elements of Zoroastrianism and how it influenced Persian Culture
One of the first monotheistic religions
Previously, people believed in many gods and worshipped things like animals and nature
Shared many of the same concepts as Judaism
Supposedly influenced important philosophers and scientists like Pythagoras to create new ideas
What was a polis?
Small city-states in Archaic Greece
People took much pride in them
Who were the hoplites and why were they important in Greek city-states?
Able to afford the weapons and armor for battle
Farmers with enough land to provide for their families
How was the government of Athens changing during the Archaic period?
Government officials were being chosen by "lot"
How was the government of Sparta changing during the Archaic period?
Eunomia- harmony, social order
How was government of Corinth changing during the Archaic period?
Oligarchy, eight deliberators and a council of eighty from major clans
- ruled by few
How was Athenian society changing during the Archaic period?
reorganized the society in ethnos and polis
How was Spartan society changing during the Archaic period?
Much social division and disorder
How was Corinthian society changing during the Archaic period?
Colonization and expansion of markets for goods
Identify the causes of the Persian Wars and the significance of several key battles
Persia was trying to gain control of Greece completely under Darius' rule
Darius died and his son Xerxes took over
Several battles were turning points
- Battle of Thermopylae: Only battle won by the Persia under Xerxes
- Battle of Marathon: last battle, Greece won
What was the original purpose of the Delian league and why did it become a problem for Sparta?
Alliance of Greek city-states to free them from Persian rule
Athens was the leader
Spartans did not join because they had new found wealth and power and thought they were too good for the other city-states
- city-states began campaigning against the Spartans
- relations between Sparta and Athens disappeared
Who was Pericles and what did he accomplish?
General of Athens during the Golden Age
Influenced Athenian society so much he is known as the "first citizen" of Athens
Organized Greek society and led them into the Peloponnesian War
Helped make Greece become well known for its intellectual people
Created the Parthenon
Why, according to Thucydides did the Peloponnesian War start?
Athens was gained much power and taking advantage of the other city-states
What were the most important outcomes of the Peloponnesian War?
Athens were bullying other city-states due to their power
Many Greeks were killed and cities were destroyed (crops were dead)
Why did Sparta not benefit from its victory in the Peloponnesian War?
They ended up alienating themselves from other Greek city-states
Did not have any alliances or people to protect them
Other city-states formed alliances without them
Big ideas of Pythagoreans
life is influenced heavily by math
Universe could be understood solely using numbers (failed to prove)
speculation of the abstract
Big ideas of Sophists
teachers that believed in using philosophy in teaching, "man is the measure of all things"
Big ideas of Socrates
believed in the reincarnation of souls, which contained all knowledge, keep asking questions
Describe the Fourth Century Crisis in Greece
After the war ended, Sparta extended its power into the Mediterranean
Led to the fourth century crisis
Less trading, many conflicts
People weren't farming- population decline
Decline of the understanding of Greek society
Easy target for potential powers like Macedonia
Big ideas of Plato
Believed in the platonic (perfect) forms of everything
Knowledge is innate
Studying brings insight into your mind
Big ideas of Aristotle
In pursuit of "the good life"
Observe everything around you
Living by the "Golden Mean"
Identify and locate three major empires that resulted from the disintegration of Alexander's empire following his death
Seleucus: Near East, as far as Iran and India
What were the major accomplishments of Alexander of Macedon?
Battle of Chaeronea: gained control of many larger Greek city-states
He became very powerful after that
Spread Greek culture- founded 250 new cities
Describe the impact of Hellenization on the ancient world during and after the life of Alexander the Great
During: He took over many new lands, spreading Greek culture into all of those places in the process
After: Many empires 8were founded after his death, all of them carried 9on Greek traditions
What distinguished the Etruscan and Carthaginian civilizations from the Greek and later Roman societies?
Sharp class divisions
Status of women was slightly higher
What were the defining features of early Roman culture: family and religion
FAMILY- Patricians: bigger farms, more power
Plebs: smaller farms, less power (more of the population)
Patricians assumed power over Plebs
Paterfamilia: oldest male of the household
RELIGION- In the home: spirits, ancestors, natural things
Of the state:
- Minerva: craftwork
- Juno: protector of women
- Jupiter: protector of Rome
Important to have community worship because everyone has the same values, acts as a glue for a community, very important in Rome
Trace the geographic expansion of Rome from its control of the Italian Peninsula to its dominance around the Mediterranean. Be aware of particular conflicts that enabled Roman dominance.
Rome was sacked by the Gauls so they reorganized their military
Developed the maniple system which was highly effective
- Took over Etruscan land
- Took control of the Peninsula
- As they conquered lands, they incorporated them into their republic
- Their key competitor was Carthage so they went to war with them
- Punic Wars: 23 years, Romans won
After the Punic Wars...
- Took control of the Iberian Peninsula
- When they took control of Greece, they took a large number of people with them because Greek citizens were intelligent
Rome grew in population, land, power, and wealth
Describe the Struggle of the Orders
Between the Patricians and Plebs
Patricians controlled land and wealth
- Made up the senators
Equestrians were commercial men
- Make money, control trade, sell things on the market, conduct trade
- Wealthy but don't have power
- majority of the population
- demanded change in their favor
a. Ability to marry into Patrician family
b. Same rights as Patricians
c. Threatened to withhold their labor and move to another city
Reforms of the Struggle of the Orders
Compromise of 494
- Tribunes (government officials elected to protect the rights of Plebs)
Laws of the 12 Tables
- Laws had to be written down (set in stone)
- Plebs can marry into Patrician family
- Made Plebs politically equal to patricians
What outcomes for Rome from their victories in the Punic Wars became a problem for the republic?
- Armies did not pay attention to where they marched
- Misuse of populares (favored the cause of the Plebs)
- To calm them down... give them a small amount of what they want
ex: if there is famine, give them small amounts of food
ex: entertain them: coliseum
- Land redistribution policy was proposed (took over too much land during war)
a. give land to poorer people
b. Gracchi brothers proposed idea
1. Tiberius was assassinated
2. Gaius killed himself so they could not kill him
How did conflicts between contending political factions (think about Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar) contribute to the decline of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BCE?
Crassus: powerful man and political figure
Pompey: controlled Rome and the environment
Caesar: ended up being labeled as an enemy of the state because he crossed the Rubicon river with his troops after being warned not to
- Led to Civil War
- Defeated Pompey and took control of Rome
- Declared himself a dictator for life
- Executed him for this
All of them were power hungry so they butted heads
You might also like...
AP World Chapters 10&11
Ancient Greece Unit Exam
Chapter 4&5 Ancient Medieval
Chapter 5 - Classical Greece
Other sets by this creator
CTRS Board Exam Study Guide
PSYCH 356 Final Exam
Bailey- 321 Final Exam