Indo-European migrants who migrated from central Asia to Persia
Created Persian/Achaemenid Empire
Made many advancements in Persian Empire Dominates & administrates better than anyone Satrap system Made roads & coins
Capital of Persian Empire A lot like DC Served as monument
Districts in Persia Leaders were agents to central administration Had tax collectors & military officers to make sure satraps didn't rebel
Invaded Persia and conquered all known world
Created set of values (ideology) that still exists today Chinese who addressed political and social order problems
Confucius's sayings and teachings compiled by his disciples Influenced politics and culture
Sage founder of Daoism
Go with the flow religion Lived by wuwei-isolation, disengagement from world affairs Appealed to poor
First Chinese empire. Unified China. Taken over by Han.
Rebellion between poor and rich in Han dynasty. Named after headbands they wore.
Ruled Mauryan Empire and made it powerful. Conquered Kalinga for trade routes. Becomes Buddhist.
Founded Buddhism. "Buddha" Was a rich kid who noticed suffering. Sat under tree for 49 days to figure out suffering.
What Buddha discovered while sitting under tree. 4 Noble Truths: *There will always be suffering *Desire causes suffering *To get rid of suffering, get rid of desire *Follow Eightfold Path (good way of life)
More popular and less strict form of Buddhism. "the greater vehicle". More people could reach Nirvana
Tells the expectations for Hindus and the promise of salvation. Story of Arjuna and Krishna.
God in human incarnation as Arjuna's charioteer. Explains each caste has its own responsibilities and following them gives salvation.
Coming back to life as another being or object. In Hinduism to escape cycle of reincarnation you had to participate in world and meet caste goals.
Rules of religion Obedience to religious and moral laws
City state in greece
Strong military, depended on conquered people (helots) Lot of farming by helots
Seafarers, city-state in Greece, very cultural and democratic
Wars between Greece and Persia. Darius wanted to punish Athens for helping Ionian Greeks. The Greeks beat Persians
War between the Athens with allies and Sparta with allies. Persia allied with Sparta and made Athens surrender. (Civil war)
Pasture land in N of peninsular Greece, ruled by Philip II.
Rules Macedonia after father Philip II, well educated creates Hellenistic thoughts. Creates large, good military that conquers all known world
Alexander's generals split empire in 3. (Greek influence)
Used questioning to find answers. Assassinated for corrupting youth. Beginning of Greek philosophy and thought. High moral standards.
Platos disciple. Created own ideas. Super smart. Created terms and subjects used todY (scientific method) Alexander's tutor created Lyceum (university)
Socrates #1 disciple. Wrote dialogues about Socrates thoughts, wrote The Republic on how to run government. Founded the academy.
Indo-Europeans who took over Holy Made cities. First people in Rome. Replaced by republic of Rome
Rome run by senate (rich guys-patricians) & 2 consuls who served 1 year terms (elected by senate)
Elites & rich in Rome
Common people in Rome Got mad because government wasn't fair
Gave commoners the ability to veto laws
Person with complete control. In Rome, had dictator during times of war or civil conflict. Helped Romans
3 wars between Rome & Carthage oler economic competition over Sicily. Romans conquered Carthage & put many in slavery.
The elites who ruled Rome
In Rome, the members know as tribune had the right to get rid of laws they didn't think were fair.
Tiberius & Gaius. Twin counsels. Get killed by rich guys. Try limiting amount of land one can own.
Won rep. By sponsoring gladiator games. Conquered Gaul & brought it to Rome. Made himself dictator of Roman Empire
Establishes imperial rule in Rome. Makes himself dictator among Romans, but senate and government functions. Julius' son/grandnephew
"Roman peace" empire is stable, so transportation, trade, and communication.
The capital of Roman Empire; when the Roman Empire started
The patriarchal head of the roman home. Had the power to arrange family marriages, sell family to slavery & execute.
The philosopher who taught stoicism.
Belief in the Jewish faith. Holy doctrine was Torah (Old Testament). Refused to join roman cults & sometimes refused to pay taxes.
Messiah of Christianity. Known for healing powers & resurrection. Carpenter. Known as rebellion by Romans.
Paul of tarsus
Jew from Anatolia who spread Christianity. Traveled all over teaching history of world, future for those who were faithful.
Religion started in India w/ Buddha (Siddhartha). Spread on silk roads. Four Noble Truths about suffering. Eightfold path
Religion believing in God. Appealed to many bc it offered salvation to everyone. Spread by missionaries on silk roads.
Created by prophet Mani. Religion that was a blend of Zoroastrian, Christian, and Buddhist values. Cosmic struggle with light and darkness.
Fights to be new emperor after Diocletus.
Bishop of Hippo; went to Italy and converted to Christianity
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church. Bishop of Rome was the pope.
Equal with Bishop of Rome. Four of them. Resided in important spiritual and political centers. Above bishops.
Presided over religious affairs in their districts
Part of Holy Bible. Compiled of stories of Jesus's life written by his disciples.
Early form of Hinduism. Believed everything had a soul. Took extreme precautions to not hurt things with souls.
Form of government that rules with strict laws and harsh punishments.
Salvation in Buddhism.
Four Noble Truths
Buddhist doctrine about suffering 1. There will always be suffering 2. Suffering is caused by desire 3. The only way you can get rid of suffering is to get rid of desire 4. Living by the Eightfold Path will end suffering
Number found by Gupta people to find area of a circle
South China Sea
South of China had sea lanes for trade
Created by Ionian Greeks
Greek philosophy. Virtue was most important. Maintain even balance, not too happy, not too sad.
University created by Aristotle
A school created by Plato
Qin Shi Huangdi
First emperor of unified China. Very strict (burned books on philosophy, history, etc.) Created strong military.
Leader of nomadic Huns. Invaded the Roman Empire.
City of Rome
Capital of the Roman Empire. Very lavish with a lot of wealth. Lots of construction (concrete, aqueducts, etc.)
Sea in central Europe surrounded by Mediterranean basin. Had sea lanes for TRADE.
Dynasty in China. Conquered by making alliances (let people rule themselves as long as taxes were paid)
Most successful dynasty. After Qin dynasty. Strong military (locals couldn't rebel) and highly educated bureacracy.
Town in North Africa. Romans fought with them over Sicily. Romans won.
In West Asia by Mediterranean.
Military leader in Carthage
Consists of Old Testament and New Testament. Holy doctrine for Christians
Two leaders in Roman Empire elected by patricians. Served 1 year terms.