82 terms

APWH Unit 2

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Persians
Indo-European migrants who migrated from central Asia to Persia
Cyrus
Created Persian/Achaemenid Empire
Darius
Made many advancements in Persian Empire
Dominates & administrates better than anyone
Satrap system
Made roads & coins
Persepolis
Capital of Persian Empire
A lot like DC
Served as monument
Satraps
Districts in Persia
Leaders were agents to central administration
Had tax collectors & military officers to make sure satraps didn't rebel
Alexander
Invaded Persia and conquered all known world
Confucius
Created set of values (ideology) that still exists today
Chinese who addressed political and social order problems
Analects
Confucius's sayings and teachings compiled by his disciples
Influenced politics and culture
Laozi
Sage founder of Daoism
Daoism
Go with the flow religion
Lived by wuwei-isolation, disengagement from world affairs
Appealed to poor
Qin Kingdom
First Chinese empire. Unified China. Taken over by Han.
Yellow Turban
Rebellion between poor and rich in Han dynasty. Named after headbands they wore.
Ashoka Maurya
Ruled Mauryan Empire and made it powerful. Conquered Kalinga for trade routes. Becomes Buddhist.
Siddhartha
Founded Buddhism. "Buddha" Was a rich kid who noticed suffering. Sat under tree for 49 days to figure out suffering.
Enlightment
What Buddha discovered while sitting under tree. 4 Noble Truths:
*There will always be suffering
*Desire causes suffering
*To get rid of suffering, get rid of desire
*Follow Eightfold Path (good way of life)
Mahayana
More popular and less strict form of Buddhism. "the greater vehicle". More people could reach Nirvana
Bhagavad Gita
Tells the expectations for Hindus and the promise of salvation. Story of Arjuna and Krishna.
Krishna
God in human incarnation as Arjuna's charioteer. Explains each caste has its own responsibilities and following them gives salvation.
Reincarnation
Coming back to life as another being or object.
In Hinduism to escape cycle of reincarnation you had to participate in world and meet caste goals.
Dharma
Rules of religion
Obedience to religious and moral laws
Polis
City state in greece
Sparta
Strong military, depended on conquered people (helots)
Lot of farming by helots
Athens
Seafarers, city-state in Greece, very cultural and democratic
Persian wars
Wars between Greece and Persia.
Darius wanted to punish Athens for helping Ionian Greeks.
The Greeks beat Persians
Peloponnesian War
War between the Athens with allies and Sparta with allies.
Persia allied with Sparta and made Athens surrender. (Civil war)
Macedonia
Pasture land in N of peninsular Greece, ruled by Philip II.
Philip II
Controlled Macedonia & conquers creates strong Macedonian military.
Alexander
Rules Macedonia after father Philip II, well educated creates Hellenistic thoughts.
Creates large, good military that conquers all known world
Hellenistic Empires
Alexander's generals split empire in 3. (Greek influence)
Socrates
Used questioning to find answers.
Assassinated for corrupting youth.
Beginning of Greek philosophy and thought.
High moral standards.
Aristotle
Platos disciple.
Created own ideas. Super smart. Created terms and subjects used todY (scientific method) Alexander's tutor created Lyceum (university)
Plato
Socrates #1 disciple. Wrote dialogues about Socrates thoughts, wrote The Republic on how to run government. Founded the academy.
Etruscans
Indo-Europeans who took over Holy Made cities. First people in Rome. Replaced by republic of Rome
Republic
Rome run by senate (rich guys-patricians) & 2 consuls who served 1 year terms (elected by senate)
Patricians
Elites & rich in Rome
Plebeians
Common people in Rome
Got mad because government wasn't fair
Tribune
Gave commoners the ability to veto laws
Dictator
Person with complete control. In Rome, had dictator during times of war or civil conflict. Helped Romans
Punic wars
3 wars between Rome & Carthage oler economic competition over Sicily. Romans conquered Carthage & put many in slavery.
Senate
The elites who ruled Rome
Veto
In Rome, the members know as tribune had the right to get rid of laws they didn't think were fair.
Gracchi Brothers
Tiberius & Gaius. Twin counsels. Get killed by rich guys. Try limiting amount of land one can own.
Julius Caesar
Won rep. By sponsoring gladiator games. Conquered Gaul & brought it to Rome. Made himself dictator of Roman Empire
Augustus
Establishes imperial rule in Rome. Makes himself dictator among Romans, but senate and government functions. Julius' son/grandnephew
Pax Romana
"Roman peace" empire is stable, so transportation, trade, and communication.
Rome
The capital of Roman Empire; when the Roman Empire started
Paterfamilias
The patriarchal head of the roman home. Had the power to arrange family marriages, sell family to slavery & execute.
Cicero
The philosopher who taught stoicism.
Judaism
Belief in the Jewish faith. Holy doctrine was Torah (Old Testament). Refused to join roman cults & sometimes refused to pay taxes.
Jesus
Messiah of Christianity. Known for healing powers & resurrection. Carpenter. Known as rebellion by Romans.
Paul of tarsus
Jew from Anatolia who spread Christianity. Traveled all over teaching history of world, future for those who were faithful.
Buddhism
Religion started in India w/ Buddha (Siddhartha). Spread on silk roads. Four Noble Truths about suffering. Eightfold path
Christianity
Religion believing in God. Appealed to many bc it offered salvation to everyone. Spread by missionaries on silk roads.
Manichaeism
Created by prophet Mani. Religion that was a blend of Zoroastrian, Christian, and Buddhist values. Cosmic struggle with light and darkness.
Constantine
Fights to be new emperor after Diocletus.
St. Augustine
Bishop of Hippo; went to Italy and converted to Christianity
Pope
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church. Bishop of Rome was the pope.
Patriarchs
Equal with Bishop of Rome. Four of them. Resided in important spiritual and political centers. Above bishops.
Bishops
Presided over religious affairs in their districts
New Testament
Part of Holy Bible. Compiled of stories of Jesus's life written by his disciples.
Jainism
Early form of Hinduism. Believed everything had a soul. Took extreme precautions to not hurt things with souls.
Legalism
Form of government that rules with strict laws and harsh punishments.
Nirvana
Salvation in Buddhism.
Four Noble Truths
Buddhist doctrine about suffering
1. There will always be suffering
2. Suffering is caused by desire
3. The only way you can get rid of suffering is to get rid of desire
4. Living by the Eightfold Path will end suffering
pi
Number found by Gupta people to find area of a circle
South China Sea
South of China had sea lanes for trade
Pythagorean Theorem
Created by Ionian Greeks
Stoicism
Greek philosophy. Virtue was most important. Maintain even balance, not too happy, not too sad.
Lyceum
University created by Aristotle
Academy
A school created by Plato
Qin Shi Huangdi
First emperor of unified China. Very strict (burned books on philosophy, history, etc.) Created strong military.
Attila
Leader of nomadic Huns. Invaded the Roman Empire.
City of Rome
Capital of the Roman Empire. Very lavish with a lot of wealth. Lots of construction (concrete, aqueducts, etc.)
Mediterranean Sea
Sea in central Europe surrounded by Mediterranean basin. Had sea lanes for TRADE.
Gupta Empire
Dynasty in China. Conquered by making alliances (let people rule themselves as long as taxes were paid)
Han Dynasty
Most successful dynasty. After Qin dynasty. Strong military (locals couldn't rebel) and highly educated bureacracy.
Carthage
Town in North Africa. Romans fought with them over Sicily. Romans won.
Palestine
In West Asia by Mediterranean.
Hannibal
Military leader in Carthage
Bible
Consists of Old Testament and New Testament. Holy doctrine for Christians
Consul
Two leaders in Roman Empire elected by patricians. Served 1 year terms.
Pythagoras
Created Pythagorean theorem in Greece