HDFS 5123 Chapter 3 - Genes, Environment, and Development
Terms in this set (68)
the genetic endowment that members of a species have in common, including genes that influence biological maturation and aging processes.
the idea that nature "selects" or allows to survive and reproduce those members of a species whose genes permit them to adapt to their environment.
the application of evolutionary theory to understanding why humans think and behave as we do.
we "inherit" from previous generations a characteristically human environment and tried and true ways of adapting to it, learn to adjust to changing conditions and pass on what we learn to the next generation.
the moment when an egg is fertilized by a sperm
a sperm cell and an ovum each have 23 chromosomes to give the fertilized egg (z).
threadlike bodies in the nucleus of each cell and are made up of genes, the basic units of heredity.
At the start of this process, a reproductive cell in the ovary/testis, contains 46 chromosomes splits to form two 46 chromosome cells and then these two cells each split again to form a total of four cells. Each remaining cell receives only 23 chromosomes. The end product is an egg in a female or four sperm in a male.
a cell (and each of its 46 chromosomes) divides to produce two identical cells, each containing the same 46 chromosomes. As the zygote moves to the uterus, it first divides into two cells, then four, then eight and so on. Mitosis continues through life.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the double helix molecule whose chemical code is our genetic endowment. (Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine)
Human Genome Project
researchers mapped the sequence of the chemical units or letter that make up the strands of DNA in a full set of 46 human chromosomes.
The genetic uniqueness of children of the same parents is even greater. The pairs of chromosomes line up before they separate, they cross each other and parts of them are exchanged.
monozygotic twins (one egg), they results when one fertilized ovum divides to form two or more genetically identical individuals.
dizygotic twins (2 eggs), result when two ova are released at approximately the same time and each is fertilized by a different sperm.
the sex chromosome found in both men and women
the sex chromosome found only in males
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
the genetic make-up a person inherits
the characteristic or trait the person eventually has.
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
the activation of particular genes in particular cells of the body at particular times.
whether a particular gene is turned on or off
single gene-pair inheritance
each of thousands of human characteristics are influenced by only one pair of genes-one from the mother and one from the father. Gregor Mendel helped with our understanding of singe gene-pair inheritance with his studies over peas.
A gene that is expressed when paired with a recessive gene because it's dominant. Ex: Tongue curling
a weaker gene that can be dominant Ex: red hair
When a dominant gene incompletely dominates a recessive partner it'll result in a new trait that is blended. Ex: skin color or pink flowers.
Crossing dominant and recessive that exhibits both traits. Ex: flowers that have red and white streaks
influenced by single genes located on the sex chromosomes rather than on the other 22 pairs of chromosomes. Ex: X-linked
a deficiency in the blood's ability to clot. More common in males than in females because it's a sex linked disorder associated with the x chromosome.
they are influenced by multiple pairs of genes interacting with multiple environmental factors, rather than by a single pair of genes. Ex: height, weight, intelligence, personality, susceptibility to cancer.
a change in the structure or arrangement of one of more genes that produces a new phenotype.
developmental disorder; inappropriate social interactions, difficulty with communication and repetitive behaviors
a child receives too many or too few chromosomes at conception.
trisomy 21; associated with three rather than two 21st chromosomes. Distinct eyelid folds, short stubby limbs, and thick tongues.
Intellectual disability; associated with an IQ of below 70. They develop and learn at a slower pace than most children.
A female is born with a single X chromosome rather than two. Remain small, often have stubby fingers and toes, a webbed neck and underdeveloped breasts. Can't reproduce; lower than average spatial or mathematical abilities.
a male is born with one or more extra X chromosomes; tend to have long limbs and are sterile; develop feminine characteristics at puberty like breasts; normal intelligence test scores, but language learning disabilities
fragile X syndrome
all 46 chromosomes are present but none arm of the X chromosome is only barely connected to the rest of the chromosome and looks as if it'll break off. This causes intellectual disability or milder cognitive impairment in most affected persons and autism in many as well. Not diagnosable until age 3.
copy number variations
instances in which a person receives too many or too few copies of a stretch of DNA: Quite common
service that provides info about and guidance regarding the nature or likelihood, effects, and treatment of genetically based diseases and disorders to people who suspect or learn that they or their unborn children are at risk.
This is a blood disease, common in African Americans, in which red blood cells take on a sickle shape and become entangled and distribute less oxygen through the circulatory system
People who don't have the disease but can transmit the gene to their children
a famous example of genetic defect associated with a single dominant gene. Strikes in middle age and disrupts the expression of genes in the nervous system. Effects: motor disturbances such as slurred speech, erratic drunken walk, grimaces, jerky movements and personality changes; dementia.
a metabolic disorder caused by a single pair of recessive genes that results in brain damage and intellectual disability
a condition characterized by excessive restlessness and movement
An imaging technique that uses high frequency sound waves to generate images of internal structures
needle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion;
sampling of placental tissues (chorionic villi) for prenatal diagnosis
maternal blood sampling
a noninvasive method of prenatal diagnosis involving testing for substances in maternal blood
preimplantation genetic diagnosis
involves a mother's egg with a father's sperm in the laboratory using in vitro fertilization (IVF), conducting DNA tests on the first cells that result from mitosis and implanting in the mother's uterus only eggs that do not have chromosome abnormalities or genes associated with disorders.
the scientific study of the extent to which genetic and environmental differences among people or animals are responsible for differences in their physical and psychological traits.
the proportion of all the variability in the trait among a large sample of people that can be inked to genetic differences among those individuals;
the ability of a trait to be passed down from one generation to the next.
Simple: study nature vs. nurture involving whether identical twins reared together are more similar to each other in traits of interest than fraternal twins reared together.
The physical environment of the womb during the 9 months of pregnancy.
studies the effect of heredity; are children adopted early in life psychological similar to their biological or adoptive parents?
pairs of siblings who have a variety of different degrees of genetic similarity (identical/fraternal twins, half siblings, unrelated step siblings) and see the impacts of the environment
the percentage of people studied in which one member of the pair displays the trait, the other does too;
indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
shared environmental influences
individuals growing up in the same environment, common experiences that work to make them similar.
nonshared environmental influences
Experience unique to the individual; those that are not shared by the other members of the family that work to make individuals different from each other.
the analysis of particular genes and their effects; It involves identification specific variants of genes that influence particular traits and comparisons of animals or humans who have these genes with those who do not.
tendancies to response in particular ways, such as sociability and emotional reactivity, that serve as building blocks of later personality.
a serious mental illness that involves disturbances in logical thinking, emotional expression, and social behavior; disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions; emerges in late adolescence or early adulthood; Genetics contribute to the disorder.
The effects of our genes depend on what kind of environment we experience and how we respond to the environment depends on what genes we have.
ways in which a person's genes and his environment or experiences are systematically interrelated: passive, evocative, and active.
passive gene-environment correlation
children receive genotypes correlated with family environment
evocative gene-environment correlation
Individuals genotype also evokes certain kinds of reactions from other people;
individuals are reacted to on the basis of their genetic propensities; Ex: people who smile more build more social skills.
active gene-environment correlation
children's genotypes influence the kinds of environments they seek;
a correlation between environment and genotype that results from active choices made by an organism
the general process through which nature and nurture co-act to bring forth particular developmental outcomes;
mechanism that turns genes on or off and determines functions of body cells;
the continuous bidirectional interactions between genes and environment
environmental factors affect whether those genes are turned on or off;
environmental factors affect whether or not particular genes in particular cells are expressed
involves substituting normal genes for the genes associate with a disease or disorder or otherwise altering a person's genetic make-up