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Forensic Chapter 17- Questioned Documents
Terms in this set (44)
Change of a written or printed portion of a document, usually accomplished after obliterating or masking the original information
Initial stroke of a letter
Lack of one continuous movement of a writing instrument as it touches paper in the initial writing stroke
Joining the ending stroke of one letter to the beginning stroke of another letter.
Instruction manual for learning penmanship
Alteration of handwriting for the purpose of concealment
a piece of written, printed, or electronic matter that provides information or evidence or that serves as an official record
Eletrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA)
is a specialized piece of equipment commonly used in questioned document examination to reveal indentations or impressions in paper that may otherwise go unnoticed.
Terminal stroke of a letter
Example or representative item usually undamaged condition to which a damaged item can compared. Writing that is produced upon request.
Attempt to copy or draw a signature without the use of mechanical aids
Mechanical "fingers" in a copy machine or printer that draw the paper through the machine.
Ratio of heights of letters compared to others.
Writing on a page that is captured on the second sheet of paper below the one that contains the orginal writing.
Appearance of a written stroke determined by a combination of factors, such as speed shading, pen position, and skill; ranges from smooth and legible to tremulous and awkward.
A device utilizing a scale calibrated with stage micrometer for measurement of the physical dimensions of material viewed with a microscope.
Normal writing, done without attention to the writing process.
Normal Hand Forgery
A type of forgery in the individual does not attempt to copy the victim's signature or writing but rather uses his or her own handwriting style.
Lighting cast across a page of writing at an angle almost parallel with the page.
Marking over or through existing writing in an attempt to destroy or remove it.
Addition of a written stroke to improve a defect in a written line.
Break in a written line
Amount of force applied to a pen or pencil while writing
Questioned Documents (QD)
Document whose authenticity or orgin is suspect
Handwritten standards issued in the presence of an investigator or examiner.
Going back over a written line to correct a defect or improve its appearance
Contrast between the written upstroke and downstroke of a line
Material added to paper to change its smoothness, finish, absorbency, and appearance
Angle of writing with respect to a baseline
The ending or last stroke made when writing a letter
Fraudulent signature produced by following the outline of a genuine signature.
Marks left on a finished copy during photocopying; results from imperfections or dirt on the cover glass, cover sheet, drum, or camera lens of a photocopy machine.
Video Spectral Comparision (VSC)
Comparison and differentiation of inks by analyzing the infrared reflecting and luminescing qualities inherent to the ink; most often accomplished using a device made by Foster & Freeman, Ltd
Translucent design impressed into paper during manufracture. The design becomes visible when the paper is subjected to transmitted light and helps date a document.
Is it possible for a document examiner to tell the personality of an individual from their handwriting?
No. This is done through the field of Graphology, where it is possible to describe and determine specific behavior and personality traits as observed and identified in a person's handwriting.
Can you determine sex and age of the writer from his or her handwriting?
No hand writing does not have an appearance of being feminine or masculine
What is the differences between requested handwriting standards and non-requested standards?
Non-request standards are quite simply writings which were indisputably prepared by the accused when he had no reason to think that they would be used for a handwriting comparison.
Requested standards are those in which the subject is asked to write specific material.
Explain the meaning of the term "class characteristics" in relation to handwriting.
they are writing attributes observed in a group of writers that are probably derived from a penmanship system they learned
Can a document examiner identify all types of writing?
Sometimes it could be difficult to identify certain ways of writing due to sloppiness or the way it is written or if they have nothing to compare it to
Name one of the methods of ink differentiation for similar appearing inks.
Using a microscope to reveal subtle differences such as slight chance in shading or hue
Name one of the methods for the recovery of indented writing.
the use of electrostatic detection apparatus
What is a photocopy trash mark and how does it occur?
they are made by dirt marks, scratchesm and other extraneous marks on the surfaces of the drum, cover, glass plate, or camera lens of the photocopy machine
What instrumentation is used to test paper thickness?
A vernier caliper is a high-precision measurement tool that can be used in multiple types of measurements.
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