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Chapter 46 Biology
Terms in this set (59)
___- all of the bodily activities and chemical reactions in an organism to maintain life.
___- breaking polymers into monomers.
___- making monomers into polymers.
___- rate at which an organism uses energy to power metabolism.
How is metabolism related to body temperature?
absorptive and postabsorptive
What are the two phases of nutrient utilization?
when ingested nutrients enter blood stream from GI tract
When does the
When GI tract is empty of nutrients
When does the
some is used for immediate energy needs and some is stored
What happens right when you eat in the absorptive phase to the nutrients?
glucose, galactose, fructose
What are the chief monomers absorbed from carbohydrates? (3)
synthesize ATP and skeletal muscle
What are two major uses of glucose?
glycogen, liver and muscles
What is glucose stored as and what two places is it stored?
___- enzyme that releases fatty acids to diffuse into cells of the body.
they are too large to diffuse across epithelial cells
Why are triglycerides digested into monoglycerides and fatty acids?
What is the main use of amino acids?
fat, liver cells
What are excess amino acids converted into? What converts them?
synthesis of glycogen and fat slows and breakdown begins
What happens in the postabsorptive phase?
What's the CNS' only use for glucose?
___- glycogen hydrolysis in liver to produce glucose.
___- liver converts noncarbohydrates into glucose.
Which organ makes insulin and glucagon?
regulation of glucose in blood
What is the function of insulin?
binding to cell receptor and activating signaling pathway which causes GLUTs to rise to the surface of the cell and more glucose can be used
How does insulin facilitate the diffusion of glucose?
What's the acronym for glucose transporters?
the pancreas secretes more insulin
What happens when glucose levels rise very high in the absorptive phase? (negative feedback)
___- low glucose level in blood.
___- stimulates the processes of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.
at rest, postabsorptive state, and standard temperature
When is basal metabolic rate achieved?
___- organisms that generate their own heat.
___- organisms whose body temperature changes with environment.
What's an advantage of being an ectotherm?
What's an advantage of being an endotherm?
skeletal muscle activity, mass-specific BMR, gender, food thermogenesis (protein)
What are some factors that impact metabolic rate?
Do smaller or larger organisms have a higher BMR?
___- period extended over months in which animals lower metabolic rate and sleep.
___- process in which animals lower body temperature at night to lower metabolic rate.
___- short term control of feeding in which the body feels "full".
___- hormone produced by adipose cells that acts as a satiety factor in regulating appetite.
leptin and satiety (stretch receptors and hormones)
What are two ways that the body controls appetite?
Which region of the brain does leptin communicate with?
Which mass of individuals have
it can denature proteins
How does temperature affect chemical reactions? (proteins)
Which is better tolerated: extreme cold or heat?
massive outpour of glucose
How can some animals respond to cold to survive?
birds and mammals
What are two examples of endothermic homeotherms?
reptiles and most invertebrates
What are two examples of ectothermic heterotherms?
___- organisms that are able to maintain a stable temperature.
___- organisms whose body temperature is fluctuating.
1. large amounts of food 2. overheating 3. water must be plentiful
What are three disadvantages of endothermy?
radiation, evaporation, convection, conduction
What are the 4 forms of heat exchange?
___- emission of electromagnetic waves by the surfaces of objects.
___- whenever water vaporizes from the body's surface. (cools the animal)
___- transfer of heat by movement of air or water net to the body. (bird flapping wings)
___- body surface loses or gains heat through direct contact with cooler or warmer substances.
countercurrent heat exchange
___- heat moves from warm arteries to adjacent veins carrying cooler bloods. This is used in dolphin fins and bird legs to exchange heat.
muscle activity, shivering thermogenesis, nonshivering thermogenesis
What are 3 forms of heat production?
What's the main control of heat production in endotherms?
___- primarily in brown fat's mitochondria where uncoupling proteins use H+ gradient to generate heat.
___- skeletal muscle contractions without locomotion to produce heat.
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