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Care Exam 1
health and wellness, Community, Nutrition, Oxygenation, Stress and Anxiety, Falls, Immobility
Terms in this set (137)
Who provides most of the care for people and accesses professional health care when they need additional guidance or help?
What does a healthy community include?
access and resources to include health care
What is the primary focus of nursing?
What is the secondary focus of nursing?
What is the third focus of nursing?
This type of care believes that care should reach all in a community, occur outside of acute care healthcare settings, and provides for people with both acute and chronic problems.
community-based health care
What is another name for community-based health care?
public health nursing
What skills are required when working as a community or public health nurse?
understanding needs of a populace, autonomous nursing practice, broad set of skills and knowledge
What three things are need for improved delivery of health care?
assessment of healthcare needs, public health policies, assuring access to care
What does "double vision" mean to a community/public health nurse?
caring for community and assessing individual/family within context of community
What is the term for the science of the distribution of health, injury and disease in groups, communities, and populations?
What three factors make up an epidemiological triangle?
host, environment, and agent
What are six examples of vulnerable populations?
immigrants, poor, abused children, substance abusers, mentally ill, elderly
Vulnerable populations are those who are more likely to develop health problems as a result of...
poor living conditions
In identifying needs for health policy and health program development and services, a community assessment focuses on what?
structure, people, social systems, and environments
What health model addresses the relationship between a person's beliefs and behaviors?
health belief model
What health model is directed at increasing a patient's level of well being?
health promotion model
Can health be measured precisely?
What is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being called?
What health model attempts to meet the patient's basic needs?
basic human needs model
Who developed the Basic Human Needs Model?
What health model attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health?
holistic health model
What are Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from most important to least important?
physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of these needs would the patient seek to meet first?
b. psychological security
d. love and belonging
What are the 5 internal variables that influence health beliefs and practices?
1. developmental stage
2. intellectual background
3. perception of functioning
4. emotional factors
5. spiritual factors
What are the 3 external variables that influence health beliefs and practices?
1. family practices
2. socioeconomic factors
3. cultural background
After evaluating a patient's external variables, the nurse concludes that health beliefs and practices can be influenced by
a. emotional factors
b. intellectual background
c. developmental stage
d. socioeconomic factors
d. socioeconomic factors
What 3 factors must nurses cover during health promotion, wellness, and illness prevention?
1. immunization programs
2. routine/good exercise
3. wellness education
What are the three levels of prevention?
primary, secondary, and tertiary
What level of prevention consists of true prevention that lowers the chances that an injury or disease will develop?
What is an example of the primary level of prevention?
use of helmets
What level of prevention consists of focusing on those who have a disease or are at risk to develop a disease?
What is an example of the secondary level of prevention?
diabetes or hypertension screening fair
What level of prevention occurs when a defect or disability is permanent or irreversible?
What is an example of the tertiary level of prevention?
diabetic or paraplegic
You will use the concept of primary prevention when instructing a patient to
a. get a flu shot every year
b. take a BP reading every day
c. explore hiring a patient with a known disability
d. undergo physical therapy following a cerebrovascular accident
a. get a flu shot every year
What are the four risk factors that increase the vulnerability of an individual or group to illnesses or accidents?
genetic factors, age, environment, lifestyle
What stage of health behavior change is patient in if he is not intending to make changes within the next 6 months?
What stage of health behavior change is patient in if he is considering a change within the next 6 months?
What stage of health behavior change is patient in if he is making small changes in preparation for a change in the next month?
What stage of health behavior change is patient in if he is actively engaged in strategies to change behavior?
How long does the action stage of health behavior change last?
up to 6 months
What stage of health behavior change is patient in if he is sustaining change over a time?
When does the maintenance stage of the health behavior change model begin?
6 months after action has started
What type of illness has a short duration and is severe?
What type of illness persists for longer than 6 months?
What is the state called in which a person's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired?
Sally has decided to set aside 30 minutes a day to walk after work next week. Sally is in what stage of health behavior change (risk factor modification)?
What are the 5 impacts of illness on the patient and family?
1. behavior/emotional changes
2. body image
4. family roles
5. family dynamics
Visibility of symptoms, social group, cultural background, economics, and accessibility to health care are what type of variables that affect illness behavior?
Perception of illness and nature of illness are what type of variables that affect illness behavior?
What is the objective of patient teaching: lifestyle change?
reduce health risk related to poor lifestyle habits through behavior change
What groups are most at risk for hunger and poverty?
elderly and children
What is the term for the sum of taking in and utilizing nutrients?
What is the term for the energy needed to sustain life sustaining activities for a specific period of time?
basal metabolic rate
What is the term for the amount of energy needed over 24 hours for body to maintain all internal working activities?
resting energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate
If you are sick, does your caloric intake need increase or decrease?
What effects the resting energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate?
illness, pregnancy, activity level
What is the main source of energy in the diet?
What type of saccharides are fruits?
What are carbohydrates made of?
What type of saccharides are milk and honey?
What type of saccharide is insoluble in water and includes fiber?
What nutrient is essential for synthesis of body tissue?
How many essential proteins are there?
What is an essential protein?
need to be provided in diet
How many non-essential proteins are there?
What is a non-essential protein?
synthesized in body
What nutrient is the major form of stored energy?
fat or lipid
What circulates in the blood and contributes to athrosclerosis?
What are the two types of fatty acids?
saturated and unsaturated
What is the good type of fatty acid?
What percentage of the body is water?
Where is the majority of water stored?
What are two examples of water soluble vitamins that are essential for normal metabolism?
C and B
What are 4 examples of fat soluble vitamins that are essential for normal metabolism?
A, D, E, and K
What type of vitamin do you have to watch because it can build up and be toxic?
What are the normal ranges for BMI?
18.5 to 24.9
What are the normal ranges for albumin?
3.4 to 5.4 g/dL
What is a good indicator as to whether patient has a chronic nutrition deficiency?
What is a low residue diet?
What does a low sodium diet consist of?
no more than 2 grams a day
What is the term for deficit, excess or imbalance of essential component of a healthy diet?
What is a major indicator of under nutrition?
What is the term for difficulty swallowing?
Warning signs: coughing while eating, voice change after eating, abnormal gag reflex, abnormal swallowing triggers. These warning signs indicate what type of problem?
What complications can arise from dysphagia?
pneumonia, dehydration, weight loss, under nutrition
What nutritional consideration needs to be taken when patient has a pressure ulcer?
What does SMART stand for?
specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timed
What is important to provide prior to meals in patients with respiratory problems?
What is it called when nutrition is provided through the GI tract via nasogastric, jejunal, or gastric tubes?
enteral nutrition (EN)
When can feedings begin through an EN tube?
after x-ray verification of placement
What type of EN formula is milk based?
What type of EN formula is a single macronutrient preparation?
What type of EN formula consists of predigested nutrients?
What type of EN formula consists of patient specific nutritional needs?
Why is enteral nutrition utilized?
GI tract works but problems with swallowing
What is the motto in regards to EN feeding?
"start low and go slow"
What are the side effects if an EN formula is given too quickly?
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
What must the head of bed be elevated to if patient is fed through an EN tube?
30-45 degrees at all times
How many hours before laying a patient with an EN tube down does the feeding tube have to be stopped?
What needs to be measured every 4-6 hours in patients with EN tubes?
gastric residual volume (GRV)
What should you do if on two consecutive assessments of GRV, that are 1 hour apart, more than 250mL are measured?
turn off tube and check order
What should you do if the measured GRV is above 500mLs in a single assessment?
turn off tube and check order
When is parenteral nutrition used?
GI tract is not working
Why is parenteral nutrition not ideal?
only gives patient bare minimum of required nutrients
What is it called when nutrients are administered via a route other than gastrointestinal tract?
Where are parenteral feedings given if they are only short term (a few weeks)?
in veins of extremities (peripheral parenteral nutrition)
Where are parenteral feedings given if they are for long term use (greater than a few weeks)?
central venous catheter (total parenteral nutrition)
How often do vital signs need to be monitored in patients with total parenteral nutrition?
every 4 to 8 hours
What should you do if you expect an air embolus?
roll to left side in fetal position
What BMI do individuals with class I obesity have?
What BMI do individuals with class II obesity have?
What BMI do individuals with class III obesity have?
40 or greater
What should the waist circumference of a female be under?
What should the waist circumference of a male be under?
What should triglycerides be under?
What should HDL cholesterol be above for men?
What should HDL cholesterol be above for women?
What should BP be?
less than 130/85 mmHg
What should fasting glucose be under
What is gynoid obesity?
adipose tissue accumulates around hips and thighs
What is android obesity?
adipose tissue accumulates in abdomen
Which type of obesity is at greater risk for coronary heart disease and diabetes?
What is the term for inadequate oxygen in blood?
What is the term for inadequate oxygen on the cellular level?
What does DOE stand for?
dyspnea on exertion
What does PND stand for?
proximal nocturnal dyspnea
What is the term for collapse of the aveoli?
What are 3 signs of cerebral inadequate oxygenation?
1. altered mental status
What are 3 signs of cardiovascular inadequate oxygenation?
increased HR, R, BP
What are 3 signs of inadequate oxygenation in the integumentary and musculoskeletal muscles?
cyanosis, clubbing, pale/cold skin
What do you want patient's SPO2 to be above?
What should be monitored to determine effectiveness of oxygen?
What is the safety concern with oxygen?
In nasal cannulas after you surpass ____ L/min humidification must occur?
How much do oxygen do face masks deliver?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
HEALTH ASSESSMENT/fundamentals chapter 6
Shenandoah Skills 1 final exam
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