Campbell Biology: Ninth Edition - Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
Vocabulary: macromolecule, polymer, monomer, condensation reaction (dehydration reaction), enzyme, hydrolysis, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, glycosidic linkage, polysaccharide, starch, glycogen, chitin, cellulose, lipid, fatty acid, fats/oils, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, ester bond, phospholipid, steroid, cholesterol, catalyst, polypeptide, protein, amino acid, peptide bond, hydrophobic interaction, disulfide bridge, denaturation, chaperonins, nucleic acids, nucleotides, phosphodiester bond, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, ATP, double helix, antiparallel, nitrogenous base
After attending lectures and studying the chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Distinguish between inorganic and organic substances and give examples of each.
2. For each of the functional groups listed below, show the structural formula of the groups, give an example of a biologic organic molecule on which is can be found.
3. List the 4 categories of organic macromolecules that make up all living things and the
main functions of each
4. Explain how organic macromolecules are polymers made up of monomer subunits.
5. Recognize the condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis) process of making
organic macromolecules from monomers
6. Know the following bonds made as a result of dehydration synthesis and the
macromolecules that result:
2 amino acids -----peptide bond (proteins)
2 sugar molecules -----glycosidic bond (carbohydrates)
2 nucleotides ---------- phosphodiester bond (nucleic acid)
glycerol and fatty acid ------ ester bond
7. Describe the hydrolysis process of breaking down organic macromolecules to monomer subunits.
8. Relating to carbohydrates:
a. Distinguish between and give examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides,
Know which types of organism make the following polysachharides as well as the function of each
Cellulose, glycogen, chitin, starch
b. State the monomer subunits that make up carbohydrates.
c. State the name given to the bond between monosaccharides.
9. Relating to lipids:
a. Describe a major difference between carbohydrates and lipids.
b. Give examples of lipids and the function of each
Triglycerides (fats/oils), phospholipids, steroids, waxes
c. State the subunits that make up fats.
d. Describe a triglyceride molecule and state the name given to the bond between
glycerol and a fatty acid.
e. Distinguish between the structure of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
10. Relating to proteins:
a. Give examples of protein functions (p.90)
b. State the monomer subunits that make up proteins.
c. Show the structural formula of an amino acid, including the amino group, the carboxyl group, and the R group.
d. Describe the hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of each of the following types of amino acids: nonpolar, polar, and electrically charged.
e. State the name given to the bond between amino acids.
f. Distinguish between a polypeptide and a protein.
g. Specifically describe the four levels of protein structure that give proteins their specific shape: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
h. Describe what is meant by denaturation and renaturation of a protein.
i. Explain why proteins function best under optimum pH and optimum temperature conditions.
11. Relating to nucleic acids:
a. State the 2 kinds of nucleic acids.
b. State the monomer subunits that make up nucleic acids.
c. Describe the molecular structure of a nucleotide.
d. State the name given to the bond between nucleotides.
e.Explain the function of DNA.
f. Explain the function of RNA