Sensation and Perception
Terms in this set (27)
process of detecting and encoding environmental energy.
organization and interpretation of sensory information.
the psychological processes that influence the degree to which meaning is taken from our sensations.
context, motivation, judgment, past experience, affect, memory.
Task of Perception
take input from sensory receptors and figure out what is out there in the world.
unaware of the inference of perception.
illustrate perceptual mechanisms at work and can help us understand them
photons reflect off objects and are absorbed by eye
objects cause vibrations in air, which travel and are absorbed by ear
we bump into things, and stimulate receptors in skin
we lick things; molecules in substances interact with taste receptors in tongue
substances in world give off volatile molecules which float through air and interact with receptors in nose
Bottom Up Processing
processing based on incoming stimuli from the enviornment
AKA: Data-based processing
Top Down Processing
processing based on the perceiver's previous knowledge (cognitive factors)
AKA: knowledge based processing
stimulus for visual perception. conceptualized as both a wave when observed.
non reflected light
accounts for 80% of focusing
adjusts shape for object distance, accounts for 20% of focusing.
area where retinal ganglion cells (the optic nerve). brings about a gap in vision.
solution: completion- the brain attempts to fill in the missing information
used for low light level conditions (night vision).
poor visual acuity (not good for detail).
do not convey any information about color-light detectors.
"wash out" (max out activity) at even moderate lighting condition and then cease to send any information.
large and cylindrical. In the Peripheral Retina and periphery (120 million).
moderate to hight light conditions (day time vision).
good for detailed vision (high visual acuity).
convey information about color vision.
small and tapered and reside in the Fovea and peripheral retina and periphery (only some- 5 million).
Key components of neurons:
cell body, dendrites, axon/nerve fiber, and synapse.
gap between axon of one neuron and dendrite of next
specialized neurons that respond to specific kinds of energy
the negative charge of the neuron relative to its surroundings
stereotyped change in membrane potential.
released by the presynaptic neuron from vesicles
received by the postsynaptic neuron on receptor sites
matched like a key to a lock into specific receptor sites
used as triggers for voltage change in the postsynaptic neuron
regulates sleep, consciousness and is innervated by most sensory pathways