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Environmental Ethics Unit 1 Exam
Terms in this set (47)
What standards does Roderick Frazier Nash suggest that early Western peoples used to evaluate their natural environments?
Nature was judged to be good or bad depending on its effects on humans' material interests.
Which of the following most accurate summarizes Nash's view of why early Westerners often felt antipathy toward the natural world?
Without human improvements, wild nature was typically useless and inhospitable to people.
Nash argues that early Westerners' relationships with wild nature were not always purely adversarial. But why not?
The harshness of wild landscapes could sometimes serve as a source of meaning, allowing people to escape corrupt societies or achieve self-purification.
Why did John Locke think that human labor is the source of most of the value of the goods we consume?
Locke was hoping to justify economic activities that were likely to have serious ecological impacts by minimizing nature's contributions to prosperity.
Which of the following best captures Ralph Waldo Emerson's view on nature's satisfaction of our material needs?
Nature is incredibly generous to us, but human economies need to be recognized as centrally contributing to this generosity.
What does Emerson take to be the contribution of nature's beauty to human wellbeing?
Natural beauty can enrich people more than even the greatest material wealth, but taking advantage of this requires an uncommon state of mind.
Why does Emerson suggest that seeking out natural beauty for its own sake is not the best way to experience nature's value?
The best experiences of nature's beauty accompany virtuous activity, and pleasure-seeking does not fall into this category.
Which of the following most accurately summarizes George Perkins Marsh's position in Man and Nature on the contribution of natural resources to human wellbeing?
Bountiful natural resources are essential to a country's prosperity, and resource-poor nations will therefore be unable to escape poverty.
Which of the following best captures Gifford Pinchot's views on the connection between national prosperity and waste?
The United States can sustain its prosperity indefinitely into the future, but only if it takes control of its current wastefulness.
What was Pinchot's position on the economic development of natural resources?
Natural resources should be developed efficiently in order to meet the needs of current people, with resources not needed to serve this objective preserved for future generations.
Why did John Muir believe that the Hetch Hetchy Valley should be left in its natural state rather than used as a reservoir for San Francisco?
The value of the valley in its natural state was far greater than its value as a reservoir, so damming Hetch Hetchy would reflect misguided priorities.
What was Aldo Leopold's position on approaches to conservation rooted in appeals to self-interest?
They are limited because the benefits of protecting nature will not always be obvious, and they will often be shared by the whole community.
How does Leopold think economic considerations fit into good land use decisions?
Economic considerations help to set the limits of what can be done to protect nature, but they should not be the sole drivers of our decisions.
who wrote the land ethic
when was the land ethic written
what did aldo leopold do in 1924
- he helped to establish the gila wilderness
- wanted to have this resource so that future generations wouldn't grow up in a country where everything had been developed for the sake of product
- wanted people to experience in the natural world in a way that was largely divorced from the influence of civilization
aldo leopold in 1933
- published monumental textbook on game management
- really first major and memorable text
the land ethic by aldo leopold
- Brings experience of a game manager and as a forestry professional whose life had been devoted to protecting natural areas and protecting them for the sake of maximizing material returns
- Believed from a young age really intensely of the role that well preserved wild places can play in our cultures and our lives and our ability to develop as people with good characters
the big picture for leopold
- leopold defending an extension of moral concern to nature
- This proposal rooted in his dissatisfaction with prevailing approaches to conservation
- These proposals resolved around appeals to self interest and economic analysis
why does the appeal to self interest not work according to leopold
- not always obvious that preventing deterioration is profitable to landowners
- people need to look out for the community, not just on themselves
a story about soil
- In wisconsin, large quantities of soil lost to erosion
- 1933: government offers labor, materials, and machinery to farmers if they implement remedial practices for five years
- Outcome: after five years, farmers maintain only those practices that produce clear benefits
- Second try: government offers free technical services and machinery to farmers if they join committees to write their own rules for soil conservation
- Outcome: farmers take advantage of technical services and machinery, but don't write any rules
leopold's sum up
- Leopold dissatisfied with conservation driven by appeals to self interest and economic analysis
- His proposal: to cultivate a distinctively ethical relationship between people and their environments
- This might induce people to behave responsibly even when they couldn't see the benefits of doing so
how did early peoples view nature
as wild and something "evil" and should be eliminated and avoided
what was wilderness to early peoples
the opposite of paradise
what was the ultimate goal early peoples thought
to bring nature into cultivation as quickly as possible and to reduce the amount of wilderness asap
filmer vs. locke's thoughts
- filmer: kings own the land, since got gave the world to their lineage (therefore, our rights to our land come from the pleasure of our rulers)
- locke: god gave the world to humanity in common (rulers have no more right to the land than anyone else)
how does locke view natural resources
natural resources belong to those who first put them into productive use
locke's first argument
- its disrespectful to take the products of others labors without their consent
- a laborer invest part of herself in her products
- it would be wrong to simply seize these products just as it would be wrong to seize the laborer herself
locke's second argument
- people who develop resources do no important harm to others-interest
- in fact they provide a service to humanity
- people can have natural rights to their property
- thus rulers do not automatically own their lands
- governments gain their legitimacy from our consent and by protecting our rights
who wrote man and nature
what did marsh conclude from living abroad in italy (think the roman empire)
concluded that the ancient civilizations had used up all the natural resources, and that after the civilizations fell, the land was "broken"
what did people think before marsh
that humanity was the source of prosperity, not natural resources
who wrote nature
ralph waldo emerson
what does emerson argue in nature
that the natural world is valuable for human beings in a wide variety of ways
how do modern perspectives (around emersons time) depict wilderness
as valuable independent of human improvement
what are the two kinds of value according to emerson
nature's capacity to satisfy our physical and material desires
key innovation by emerson
commodity's value is only one part of natures worth
how does emerson explain natures beauty/resources
natural beauty/resources is an extremely valuable source of enrichment for human beings
how does emerson want people to grasp nature's full beauty
you have to have a poetical sense in the mind
what did pinchot develop
the forest service of 1905
according to pinchot, what is the key to national prosperity
according to pinchot, what would happen if resources are depleted
poverty will follow
what does pinchot say we need to do asap
we need to get things under control or poverty is bound to happen
according to pinchot, what is the main culprit behind our woes
what are the many faces of waste according to pinchot
- using resources inefficiently
- failing to capture and use resources
- destroying capacity for renewal
- using only the best portions
- failing to develop resources
- failing to exercise control (this one makes pinchot highly controversial)
This set is often in folders with...
Environmental Ethics Test 1
Module 1 Quiz
Module 2 Quiz
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