Unit One Exam Review
Northlake College: History 1302 (Roy Vu)
Terms in this set (68)
Ten Percent Plan
as soon as 10% of the white male population of a rebellious (confederate) state can agree to 1. emancipate the slaves 2. take the loyalty oath 3. recognize the authority of the federal govt.---Lincoln's primary goal was to UNIFY the states.
was soft on the South, opposed Radical Republicans, first president to be impeached.
Freedman's Bureau (1865)
formed by congress and Radical Republicans to assist the former slaves with land ownership, education, and voting.
abolished slavery in the U.S forever
male ex-slaves are given the right to vote
Tenure of Office Act
Made it illegal for president to replace officers who have been confirmed by Congress without Congressional approval
thought that the South should be justly punished and want to assist former slaves (Thaddeus Stevens), overrided Johnson's veto of the 14th amendment, took over during the radical reconstruction (1868-74)
swear that you did not support the confederacy during the war; three groups who COULD take the oath--former slaves, southern unionists, and white northerners the rest of the south could not vote
Southerner that supported Radical Reconstruction
will REPLACE slavery-where blacks and whites (poor) work on farms of elite planters and sign a contract
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Compromise of 1877
took a few months- Tilden and democrats will GIVE UP states rights so that Hayes can gain ONE more electoral vote and win the election--once president, he will END reconstruction.
Policy of Retrenchment
did not have any money to expand anything for the public
state governments are going to lease their convict to major companies, would extend the prison time for any offense, etc. to GENERATE REVENUE
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
legalized racial segregation
Booker T. Washington
Built one of the most respectable African American colleges; was in an extreme supporter of education; came up with the Atlantic Compromise.
Respectable African American. Didn't like segregation at all. Rejected Atlanta compromise. Wanted better education and opportunity for all races.
Policy of Concentration
American Indians were forced by the government to live in reservations
Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
Black Kettle and Cheyenne Indians were not armed and were all killed--this tragedy caused all other Indian tribes to NOT leave their reservations and arm themselves.
Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
one of the few Sioux Indian victories
Nez Perce Indians
Chief Joseph--wanted to escape to Canada, had to take a zig-zag route to get rid of the US army, rested 26 miles out of the Canadian border and got trapped and snowed in, army arrived to battle them in the Battle of Bear Paw Mountain where they were escorted by the army to Oklahoma.
series of conflicts from the early 1850s through the late 1870s between Native Americans and the United States, along with its Indian allies, over control of the Great Plains between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains.
Policy of Allotment
about the US govt allotting a certain amount of land for each Indian family, trying to "Americanize them" and tried to break up communal land ownership
Dawes Act (1887)
strip away the tribal identity-granted US citizenship to all American Indians. Forced Indians to become loyal to the US and cannot involve themselves or identify themselves in any tribe or Indian culture.
Wounded Knee Massacre (1890)
US army gathered Sioux Indians and searched for weapons- US troops formed a line above the mountain above the Indians in the valley--shots were fired and set off an exchange between both parties; only a few of the Sioux had guns- they were outnumbered, no weapons--massacre over 200
a strategy to increase your market share by taking over a similar company. This take over / merger / buyout can be done in the same geography or probably in other countries to increase your reach.
controlling every step of the production from start to finish
Carnegie (Steel), Rockefeller (Oil), Morgan (Banking), Vanderbilt (Railroad), and Swift (Meatpacking)---filthy rich, ruthless towards workers, wanted to eliminate competition, great organizational skills, worried about public opinion
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
Fire at a factory that was the largest industrial dister in the history of the city; doors were locked to prevent workers from taking unauthorized breaks, so a lot of people jumped from 8th, 9th, and 10th floors to the street; 146 workers died. significance - led to legislation requiring improved factory conditions.
Idea created by Herbert Spencer which said all businesses are in competition with each other and only the fittest survive.
Settlement Home Movement--provided working poor with facilities, learning skills, to find better jobs, escape poverty
Hull House--free classes for the working poor-with gymnasium
Knights of Labor
established in 1869-was initially a secret- but became inclusive to people. Unskilled women and minorities joined. At its peak, had 750,000 members--later got divided by president Terrence Powderly--he wanted a more smooth and harmonious relationship with employers.
American Federation of Labor
very exclusive, no minorities allowed- Samuel Gompers-did not want political people involved, he wanted to negotiate with management rather than strike.
Homestead Strike (1892)
Andrew Carnegie had a steel company-left town- Henry Clay Frick took charge--lowered wages, causing the workers to strike--900 died but the strikers still won--pinkerton agents surrender then got the government involved and strikers were outnumbered--causing them to lose the strike and their jobs as well
Push and Pull Factors
-Hunger and the Irish Potato Famine (1848) 1 million wiped out perished--bacteria on crops (potatoes) Another million left the country Hunger and Starvation
-Growing European Population
-Decline in land ownership- new advances & technology, bigger farms took smaller ones out of business, people were homeless and unemployed, therefore, left the US
-Pogroms and religious persecution- escaped the persecution-left to the US and abroad
-economic and educational opportunities in the US
-religious tolerance and freedom
a violent riot aimed at massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews.
was a Japanese American businessman in California who became the first Japanese American millionaire. At one point, he produced about 85% of the state's potato crop, which earned him the nickname "The Potato King"
A sociopolitical policy, especially in the United States in the 19th century, favoring the interests of established inhabitants over those of immigrants
Rock Springs Massacre (1885)
local mining company hired Chinese immigrants to work for them; white miners did not approve, so they attacked and killed them- drove away 700+ immigrants out
"Farmers Party" push reforms--demanding govt regulation over railroad rates, warehouses, and want more money circulation (add more silver to gold standard)
"Free Coinage of Silver"
The movement was precipitated by an act of Congress in 1873 that omitted the silver dollar from the list of authorized coins (the "Crime of '73"). Supporters of free silver included owners of silver mines in the West, farmers who believed that an expanded currency would increase the price of their crops, and debtors who hoped it would enable them to pay their debts more easily. For true believers, silver became the symbol of economic justice for the mass of the American people.
political reforms- voters have the right to initiate or introduce a bill before the government/senator
political reforms - voters vote on a certain bill or bond (citizens should have the right)
William J. Bryan
He was a dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as the Party's candidate for President of the United States (1896, 1900 and 1908). He served two terms as a member of the United States House of Representatives from Nebraska and was the 41st United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson (1913-1915). With his deep, commanding voice and wide travels, he was one of the best known orators and lecturers of the era. Because of his faith in the wisdom of the common people, he was called "The Great Commoner." In the intensely fought 1896 and 1900 elections, he was defeated by William McKinley but retained control of the Democratic Party
Election of 1896
The United States presidential election of 1896 was the 28th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1896. It climaxed an intensely heated contest in which Republican candidate William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in one of the most dramatic and complex races in American history.
Frederick Jackson Turner
-Wrote "Frontier Thesis"
-United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951)
Alfred Thayer Mahan
wrote The Influence of Seapower upon History which said that America had a crummy navy; every nation except America was seafaring; since the ships were steam powered, he said that there should be coaling stations around the world.
Sensationalistic media; exaggerates everything that is happening.
William R. Hearst
A crafty news publisher, who was wanted money. He wanted a war so he can write about it and sell his newspaper to the public.
US ship blew up in 1898 and killing 260 sailors. It was believed it was shot down by Cuba, which caused the War between the US and Cuba
A war between Spain and the United States, fought in 1898. The war began as an intervention by the United States on behalf of Cuba. The United States acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines in the war and gained temporary control over Cuba.
Modifies the Teller Amendment; says that it is our right to intervene in Cuba when we feel it necessary to "preserve their independence"; we also had a 99 year lease at Guantanamo Bay. Significance - we have military presence in Cuba now.
Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902)
America's first conflict of the twentieth century. On 1 May 1898, at the beginning of the Spanish-American War Commodore George Dewey sank the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, Philippines.
Open Door Policy
Made it to protect trade with China; pledges the imperial powers to respect territorial integrity of China and grant equal trading rights with everyone. Significance - prevents China from petitioning off.
Upton SInclair/The Jungle
The Jungle is a book about how horrible it was in a meat factory, giving super in depth descriptions of everything that went on. After Roosevelt found out how horrible it is, he called for the Meat inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Social Gospel Movement
a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was the most prominent in the early 20th century US and Canada
The only amendment to be repealed from the constitution. This unpopular amendment banned the sale and drinking of alcohol in the United States. This amendment took effect in 1919 and was a huge failure.
National Consumers League
founded in 1891, this is an American consumer organization. The National Consumers League is a private, nonprofit advocacy group representing consumers on marketplace and workplace issues.
Public nurse who witness lots of abortion and bad pregnancies. Wanted birth control.
gave women the right to vote in 1920
Have the right to elect US senators.
A political leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Roosevelt was president from 1901 to 1909. He became governor of New York in 1899, soon after leading a group of volunteer cavalrymen, the Rough Riders, in the Spanish-American War.
Food and Drug Act
a law passed in 1906 to remove harmful and misrepresented foods and drugs from the market and regulate the manufacture and sale of drugs and food involved in interstate trade.
the term used to describe Theodore Roosevelt's political philosophy that the nation is the best instrument for advancing progressive democracy
dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard A. Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 presidential election and helped to define the U.S
Bull Moose Party
a former political party in the United States; founded by Theodore Roosevelt during the presidential campaign of 1912; its emblem was a picture of a bull moose
Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) was the 28th President of the United States, serving two terms from 1913-1919. A
was the 28th President of the United States, serving two terms from 1913-1919. As president of Princeton University and later as governor of New Jersey, Wilson was a leading Progressive, arguing for a stronger central government and fighting for anti-trust legislation and labor rights.
a collection of speeches Woodrow Wilson made during his presidential campaign of 1912. The speeches promised significant reforms for greater economic opportunity for all, while ensuring the tradition of limited government.