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quiz 3-exam 2 mirco
Terms in this set (46)
what is the difference between anabolism and catabolism and how is energy associated with these processes?
Anabolism: Assembles smaller molecules into larger macromolecules needed for the cell.
Catabolism: Degrades macromolecules into smaller molecules and yields energy.
Energy is converted into ATP or heat
what are some properties of enzymes?
Enzymes are catalysts. can be classified as simple or conjugated
what is a simple enzyme?
consist of protein alone
what is a conjugate enzyme?
contain protein and non-protein molecules
becomes active by binding of coenzyme or cofactors to enzyme
formed when associated cofactors or coenzyme binds to the enzymes active site
organic or inorganic substances (minerals) that facilitate enzyme action
organic molecule serving as a cofactor
break down molecules outside of the cell. more dangerous than endo
break down molecules inside of the cell
always present and in relatively constant amounts
production is either induced or repressed in response to a change in concentration of the substrate
how do enzymes play a role in metabolic pathways?
each step in the metabolic pathway is catalyze by an enzyme. every pathway has one or more enzyme pacemakers that set the rate of a pathways progression.
what types of transfers can enzymes perform?
cell supplies a molecule that resembles the enzymes normal substrate, which then ollie's and blocks the enzymes active site
enzyme has two binding sites-active site and the regulatory site
what gets exchanged in redox reactions?
always occur in pairs (acceptor and donor). biological systems often extract eagerly through these reactions
what is a common electron carrier?
NAD (nicotine mode adenine dinucleotide)
series of reactions that convert glucose to CO2 and allows the cell to recover significant amounts of energy; require oxygen (steps glycolysis, keens cycle, electron transport chain)
Uses only glycolysis to incompletely oxidize glucose
does not use molecular oxygen as the final electron acceptor
in glycolysis, how is ATP made?
what is the starting compound and what is the ending?
starting: one glucose
ending: 2 pyruvic acids
why is pyruvate a pivotal molecule?
pyruvic acid is energy-rich
what gets produced in the krebs cycle?
two pyruvates (3 CO2, 4NADH, 1FADH2, 1ATP)
what happens to the electrons from NAD AND FAD molecules in the electron transport chain?
they pass through membrane carriers. ??
what molecule is the final electron acceptor?
where is ATO made prokaryote?
electron transport chain?
why is fermentation a nice alternative for prokaryotes?
uses organic compounds as the terminal electron acceptors and yields a small amount of ATP. permits independence molecular oxygen. ?
what gets produced in fermentation if you are a prokaryote? a eukaryotes?
the property of a system to interstate catabolic and anabolic pathways to improve cell efficiency
amphibolism-what kinds of molecule synthesis does it allow for?
amino acids, protein synthesis
nucleic acid synthesis
what event occurs when the cell has produced enough macromolecules?
undergoes binary fission
basis of population growth
what is the process by which prokaryotes replicate?
what is the generation time mean?
time required for a complete fission cycle
what is the typical growth pattern of prokaryotes?
what does bacterial growth look like if plotted linearly?
logarithmically: a straight line
arithmetically: constantly curved slope
why do bacteria have growth curves and not growth lines?
a population of bacteria does not maintain its potential growth rate and double endlessly. a population displays a predictable pattern called a growth curve.
how is bacterial growth measured?
1. place tiny number of cells in liquid medium
2. incubate culture over period of several hours
3. sample the broth at regular intervals during incubation
Stages in normal growth curve
1. Lag phase
2. exponential growth phase
3. stationary growth phase
4. death phase
"flat" period of adjustment, enlargement; not multiplying at maximum rate; little growth; varies from one pop to another
growth curve increases geometrically; cells reach maximum rate of cell division; will continue as long as cells have adequate nutrients and the environment is favorable
stationary growth phase
survival mode in which cells either stop growing or grow very slowly; rate of cell inhibition or death balances out the rate of multiplication; depleted nutrients and oxygen; excretion of organic acids and other biochemical pollutants into the growth medium
curve dips downward; cells begin to die at an exponential rate
how are growth curves used in the real world?
growth patterns in microorganisms can account for the stages of infection
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