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Dementia/Neuro Exam 3
Terms in this set (55)
Four main types of dementia
Acute confusional state
How to manage Delirium
Identify the underlying problem
Usually some type of infection
Persistent: longer than 14 days
Loss of attachments
Change in sleep pattern
How to manage depression
Engagement in activities
Sxs of Delirium
Agitated fear panic euphoria
Sudden change in level of consciousness
Worse at night
Assessment tools for depression
What is Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
A progressive, degenerative disease taht attacks the brain
AD is associated with
impaired memory, thinking, and behavior
What happens in the brain in AD
-Accumulation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.
-Decreased Choline Acetyltransferase
Functional definition of Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
The loss of ability to understand shared reality
-misunderstanding of previously understood events & objects in the physical and social environment
What is the most important risk factor or Alzheimers's?
Viral illness that can cause alzheimers
Exposure to______ can cause Alzheimers
A deficiency in ___ can cause Alzheimers
Gradual memory loss
Decline in performing routine tasks
Disorientation and impaired judgment
Difficulty learning and planning
Loss of language skills
Confirmation of a diagnosis of alzheimers requires
examination of brain tissue done by autopsy
Early stage of AD
Mild memory loss
short attention span
little interest in personal affairs
Mild stage of AD
Disoriented to time
Obvious short-term memory loss
Moderate stage of AD
Disintegration of personality
Disoriented to person, time, place
Apraxia- loss of ability to perform purposeful movements
Severe stage of AD
Severe physical & mental deterioration
Inability to communicate
Inability to recognize family or self
AD health care is aimed at
safety & routine
preservation of physical ability
AD goals of nursing care
Retention of dignity
To help the person use as many retained abilities as possible
AD nursing interventions
Plan activities around personal history
Familiar and comfortable routine
Make eye contact
Stay in field of vision
Body language paramount: smile, calm
-Closed ended questions
Redirection or Distraction
Monitor for symptoms of distress
Use behavior to guide assessment and intervention
SAFE AND SECURE SETTING
Second most common form of dementia
What causes vascular dementia?
blockages in the arteries within the brain (such as stroke)
-causes brain cell death
Vascular dementia S&S
trouble speaking or understanding speech
Cause of lewy body dementia
protein builds up inside the nerve cells of the brain
Cause of frontotemporal dementia
Frontal brain atrophy
-often from trauma
What are some of the major concerns with an agitated person with AD?
What are some possible interventions for managing an agitated person with AD?
Redirection, routine, distraction
Ms. D. is a 98 year old female in a skilled nursing facility with a DX of Alzheimer's Disease. Ms. D. comes to the nursing station and appears very upset. She tells you that she is looking for her mother and asks you to help her. You start walking with Ms. D. Which of the following strategies would be helpful in assisting Ms. D.?
C. Attempt to distract/redirect her into a pleasant activity.
apathy, eating disorder, increase in sleep, withdrawn, crying spells, Yesavage geriatric scale, anhedonia
Decreased loss of consciousness, Reversible, underlying illness, fear-panic-euphoria, worse at night, infectious causes, acute, hr/days
Chronic, wandering, neurofibrillary tangles, impaired judgment, more progressive over years, memory loss, insidious, familial
___% of American suicides are elderly
___% of older adults have depression
___% of suicide deaths are in adults over age 65
I know these percentage questions are stupid, but you never know with Dr. Berryman.
successful aging involves maintaining or continuing previous values, habits, preferences, family ties, and all other linkages that have formed the basic underlying structure of adult life.
-As people with chronic illnesses age they are unable to continue doing things they used to which can increase the risk of depression
Loss of interest in things you used to be interested in
The improvement of electroconvulsive therapy for those who do not improve with drugs is___%
Electroconvulsive therapy is the treatment of choice for older adults with______ depression
Psychotherapy is especially effective in preventing __________________________.
Relapses of episodic depression
What is dementia?
a cognitive disorder caused by multiple deficits of physiological causes
How many Americans suffer with Alzheimer's?
Which age group is most likely to get alzheimer's?
85 and older
How much money is spent annually on caring for Alzheimer patients?
A woman is having trouble paying attention, reports having some trouble with memory, and losing interest in personal affairs. Which stage of Alzheimer's might she be in?
A man does not know where he is or what time it is. He is often seen wandering around the facility. What stage of AD might he be in?
A woman with AD needs her diaper changed, she can not communicate with the nurse and is having difficulty swallowing. Which stage might she be in?
A man is experiencing an obvious short-term memory loss and is disoriented to time. What stage of AD might he be experiencing?
Behavioral Strategies for AD
Structured Routine Daily Activities
Activity Therapies Same Person
Occupational or Physical Therapies
Aids for Sensory Impairments
Which type of dementia is associated with Parkinsons Disease?
Lewy Body Dementia
Which type of dementia includes Picks Disease?
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