329 terms

Psych Ch. 3 Test (Dr. Young) -incomplete

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Cognition
Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

Unconscious, emotional processing
Concepts
Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people
Prototype
Best example of category that allows the organization of new information but can fail us when the examples stretch our definitions
Prototype Example
Chair
Trial and Error
Trying various solutions until one works
Algorithm
Step by step strategy to problem solving that will methodically lead to a specific, sure solution
Heuristic
Short-cut thinking strategy that generates a solution quickly but is more likely to have error
Confirmation Bias
We are predisposed to verify our hypothesis instead of challenge it
Fixation
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective
Example of Fixation
Arranging match sticks to form six equilateral triangles- must be done 3D, not 2D
Mental Set
Having to come up with a completely new idea but only being able to focus on solutions used in the past
Example of Mental Set
A physician seeing a patient with similar symptoms to someone from the past
Insight
Sudden realization that leads to a solution
Insight Brain Activity
Occurs in the temporal and frontal lobes
Intuition
An effortless, immediate, automatic (implicit) feeling or thought (as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning)
Availability Heuristics
Estimating the event likelihood based on memory availability that allows us to make snap-judgements
Flaws with Availability Heuristics
Can lead to over/under-estimation
Example of Availability Heuristics
Over-estimation of homicides and under-estimation of suicides due to what the media exposes the public to
Belief Perseverance
Clinging to beliefs despite evidence proving they are wrong
Overconfidence
The tendency to be more confident than correct; an over-estimation of the accuracy of our own beliefs (not bothering to find new information)
Framing
Sways decisions and judgements by influencing the way an issue is posed
"Just Sleep On It"
Research shows that, when making complex decisions, we can let our brain work on it for a while
Two Track Mind
Effortful and unconscious (quick)- employed by critical thinkers
Divergent Thinking
Expands the number of possible solutions, seeking as many as possible (especially solutions not apparent)
Convergent Thinking
Narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution; traditional school with one best answer
Components of Guilford's Test of Divergent Thinking
Originality, Fluency, Flexibility, Elaboration
Guilford's Test of Divergent Thinking
Alternative uses for a certain product based on four factors
Originality
Percent of similarity in answers
Fluency
How many you came up with
Flexibility
Category
Elaboration
How many details were include; one word or many sentences
Robert Sternberg and Colleagues
Proposed the six ingredients of creativity
Six Ingredients of Creativity
Expertise, Imaginative thinking skills, Venturesome personality, Intrinsic motivation, Creative environment, and intellectual abilities
Expertise
How well versed
Venturesome Personality
Whether or not we seek out new experiences
Intrinsic Motivation
Driven by interest
Creative Environment
How we are raised; access and support
Animal Cognitive Skills
Insight, self-awareness, altruism, cooperation, and grief
Satino
Male chimp in Swedish zoo famous for rock throwing
Chaser
Dog who works with an old man and knows over three hundred words
Language
Spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning; used to transmit civilization's knowledge from one generation to the next
Semantics
Similar sounding words
Syntax
Word order and meaning
Example of Semantics
Him VS. Hymn
Example of Syntax
The boy hit the ball VS. The ball hit the boy
Receptive Language
Understanding language; infants begin to understand what is said to them at around four months
Production Language
Producing language; infant ability to produce words begins at around ten months
4 Month Old Infants
Babbles speech sounds
10 Month Old Infants
Babbling resembles household language ("ma-ma")
12 Month Old Infants
One-word stage
24 Month Old Infants
Two-word speech
24+ Month Old Infants
Rapid development of speech into complete sentences
Language Diversity
Over 700 languages worldwide, each structurally very different
Chomsky's Hypothetical Theory
We are biologically preprogramed to understand language (humans are born with a language acquisition device)
Chomsky Theorized...
Humans are born with predisposition to learn grammar rules, not a built-in specific language
Statistical Learning
Infant brains discern word breaks and analyze which syllables most often go together
Infants can understand all phonemes...
Before 8-10 months of age
Critical Periods
Vital time during childhood for mastering certain aspects of language
Critical Period for Language
Exposure to language by seven years old
Genie
Kept in a basement with no social interaction for around twelve years; after seven years of rehabilitation, she could only master around 100 words and simple phrases
Genie's Brain Development
Left hemisphere appears almost entirely removed
Broca's Area
Speaking words, motor cortex
Wernicke's Area
Hearing words, auditory cortex
Non-Fluent Aphasia
Broca's area in the left frontal lobe; prevents forming of words and causes slow, slurred speech
Fluent Aphasia
Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe; can speak clearly but the sentences don't make sense
Whorf's Linguistic Determinism Hypothesis
Language determines basic ideas; words influence but do not determine thinking
Bilingual Speakers
Evidence suggests that these people think and behave differently in different languages (switching languages to express emotions)
Bilingual Advantage
Bilingual speakers use executive control over language to inhibit attention to irrelevant information
Executive Control
Higher level thought processes and function that is tied to the frontal lobes; skilled at tuning things out and avoiding distraction
Cognitive Reserve
A protective mechanism based on our life experiences that may help an individual later in life and prevent age related health declines and cognitive impairments
Bilingual Advantage Side Effect
May promote the cognitive reserve
Non-Declarative/Procedural Memory
Located in the cerebellum; rehearsing and coming up with mental images which can dramatically improve performance
Intelligence
The ability to adapt to one's environment and the capacity to learn from experience
When You Use Intelligence
Thinking abstractly, gathering information, understanding complex ideas, solving problems, and reasoning
Spearman's Two-Factor Theory
Humans have one general intelligence (g) that is at the heart of everything a person does (I.Q.)
Spearman
Created the IQ test
Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities
Fifty-six different tests mathematically identified seven clusters of primary mental abilities
Thurstone's Seven Clusters of Mental Abilities
Word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial visualization, number facility, associative memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed
Seven Clusters of Mental Abilities Findings
Found that scoring well on one cluster generally matched high scores on the others, providing some evidence of g
Cattle and Horn
Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
Crystallized Intelligence
Accumulated knowledge and facts
Examples of Crystalized Intelligence
Vocabulary and history tests
Fluid Intelligence
Ability to reason speedily and abstractly; decreases with age
Example of Fluid Intelligence
Solving unfamiliar logic problems
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Developed in 1983; thought that people did not just score the same in different categories and believe that there was no general g factor or intelligence
Garnder's Multiple Intelligences
Visual-spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, naturalistic, and intrapersonal
School
Linguistic and logical (Garder's Intelligence)
Therapists
Intrapersonal (Gardner's Intelligence)
Ninth Intelligence of Gardner's Theory
Existential; what is life and its meaning
Sternberg's Three Intelligences is called...
The Triarchic Theory
Sternberg's Three Intelligences
Analytical intelligence, practical intelligence, and creative intelligence
Analytical Intelligence
Taps into our information processing abilities and academic problem solving; school smarts and traditional I.Q. tests
Creative Intelligence
Looks at how we solve new problems and how we can have divergent thinking
Practical Intelligence
Common sense and street smarts; largely dependent of socioeconomic status
Criticism of Gardner and Sternberg
Factor analysis confirms the existence of g and that success is more than high intelligence
Ericsson's Work on Experts
Expert performers spend about a decade practicing, which includes motivation and devotion
Salovey Emotional Intelligence
Perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions; correlates with well-being
Adolescences with Higher Emotional Intelligence
Better relationships with peers, secure attachments with parents, overall successful
College Students with High Emotional Intelligence
More likely to seek out therapy and support during hard times
Intelligence Test
Assessing an individual's mental aptitudes with the purpose of comparing them to others using a numerical scale
Aptitude Test
Predicting a person's future performance
Achievement Test
Assessing what a person has actually learned
Aptitude and Intelligence Scores
The higher the I.Q., the higher the SAT score, generally
Francis Galton
Attempted to assess intellectual intelligence in 1884 and found no correlation between measures; provided statistical techniques such as normal distribution; persisted in the belief of inheriting genius
Alfred Binet
Measured each child's mental age; assumed that all children follow the same course but not rate of intellectual development; believed in environmental explanations of intelligence differences
Simon and Binet
Developed the traditional understand of I.Q. (mental age) to see if they could predict how well children do in school
Lewis Terman
Revised Binet's I.Q. test by extending the upper end of the test's range and renaming the test the Stanford-Binet; theorized intelligence tests reveal the intelligence a person is born with
Stanford-Binet Test (I.Q.) Formula
Mental age of ten DIVIDED BY chronological age of 8 TIMES one-hundred
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale???
???
David Wechsler
Created the most widely used intelligence test that provides clues to strengths and weaknesses; called the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Available in pre-school, school-age, and adult versions
Criteria of a "Good" Test
1. Was the test standardized?
2. Is the test reliable?
3. Is the test valid?
Standardization
Defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
Reliability
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
Validity
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what is supposed to
Content Validity
The extent to which a test samples the behavior of interest
Predictive Validity
Success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; assessed by computing the validity
IQ Scores 130 and above
Very superior
IQ Scores 90-109
Average
IQ Scores 69 and Below
Extremely low
IQ Scores in the US
Average scores are going up by 3-4 points per decade
Phase I of Research Development (Intelligence across lifespan)
Evidence for intellectual del=cline with age
Phase II of Research Development (Intelligence across lifespan)
Longitudinal evidence for intellectual stability; restudied people over a long period of time and found indications that intelligence remains stable or even increases
Phase III of Research Development (Intelligence across lifespan)
Crystallized intelligence increases with age and fluid intelligence decreases with age
Deary
Intelligent people live longer and are more likely to have healthier lifestyles
Childhood Intelligence Related to Cause of Death Study
Higher scores on a childhood intelligence test were associated with lower risk of mortality

(ascribed to coronary heart disease and stroke, cancers related to smoking- particularly lung and stomach-, respiratory diseases, digestive diseases, injury, and dementia)
Criteria for Low Extreme of Intelligence (intellectual disability)
1. Low IQ score
2. Low adaptive/daily life skills
3. Onset before 18 years old
Causes of Low Extreme of Intelligence
1. Down syndrome
2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
3. Fragile X syndrom (more commonly found in men)
Supreme Court case of Freddie Hall
Required states with death row inmates who scored just above 70 on IQ tests to consider other evidence; recognized imprecision of fixed-cut off scores at 70
Freddie Hall
Had multiple IQ scores ranging from 60-80
Booby Moore VS. Texas Case
Low IQ scores, debate over death penalty for extreme low intelligence; scores ranged just above cut-off
Mensa Test
Score in the upper 2% of the general population on approved intelligence test
Terman Study
Studied students with IQs over 140 and tracked them throughout life; high scoring children tended to be healthier, taller, well-adjusted, had good leadership abilities, and were unusually successful academically
Critique of Terman Study
Children label as ungifted may have long-term consequences and be less likely to work hard
Heritability of Intelligence
Extent to which IQ score can be attributed to genetics; range from 50%-80%
Identical Twins
Have similar gray and white brain matter
White Brain Matter
Made of axons and connects different parts of brain matter to one another
Intelligence is...
polygenetic (having many sources)
British Study on Intelligence
Found genes that predicted 9% of the variation in school achievement at age sixteen
Environment Influences on Intelligence
Adoption enhances the intelligence scores of mistreated or neglected children; "virtual twins" (adopted together as infants) have a correlation of +0.28
Twins and Intelligence
Fraternal twins are more similar when raised together
Head Start
Began in the 1960s to promote school readiness and contribute later health and high school completion rates; aptitude benefits fade over time; different curriculum per school
Abecedarian Project
Infancy through age five; each child assigned a case worker who provided advice and assistance; more successful in completing school and going to college, lower rates of obesity and diabetes, higher paying jobs, saves tax payers $2.50 per dollar spent on program
Dweck
Growth Mind Set
Growth Mind Set
Is fostered with the belief that intelligence is changeable and increased when effort is encouraged over ability
Growth Mindset Formula
Ability + Opportunity + Motivation = Success
Fixed Mindset
More nature than nurture
Effects of Growth Mindset
Made teens more resilient when frustrated by other and more likely to persist when challenged (intrinsic motivation)
Differences in Intelligence Test Score: Girls
Spelling, verbal fluency, locating objects, detecting emotion, and sensitive to touch, taste, and smell
Differences in Intelligence Test Score: Boys
Spatial ability, complex math problems, and vary in their mental ability scores more
Similarities between Boys & Girls in Intelligence Test Score
Gender differences are fairly minor, social expectations and opportunities matter, little gender gap found in gender-equal countries
Cause of Differing Intelligence Test Scores Among Racial/Ethnic Groups
Bias with tests, stereotype threat, and implicit racial associatiions
Self-Fulfiling Stereotype Threat
Self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
Claude Steele
Created the self-fulfilling stereotype threat
Examples of the Self-Fulfilling Stereotype Threat
Black students performed worse when reminded of their race before the test
How to Eliminate the Self-Fulfilling Stereotype Threat
Counterbalance it thought specific statements opposing the stereotype: "You make have heard women don't typically perform as well, but on this test the women do just as well if not better!"
Motivation
A need or desire that energizes and directs goal oriented behavior
College Students Motivation
Career goals, earning goals, GPA, planning for additional degrees, and 6% claim they simply want to increase their knowledge or be a good family influence
Darwin
Classified many behaviors as instincts
Instinct
Fixed, unlearned, species-typical behavior, sometimes predisposed by genes
Benefit of Instincts
Help us to recognize and get out of dangerous situations
Drive-Reduction Theory
A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates the organism to satisfy the need
Clark Hole
Created Drive-Reduction Theory
Yerkes-Dodson Law
The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases
Yerkes-Dodson Curve
Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks
Yerkes-Dodson Effect on Runners
Allows them to excel when aroused by competition
Yerkes-Dodson Effect on Test Takers
High anxiety can disrupt performance levels
Yerkes-Dodson Curve Low Arousal
Disengagement influenced by boredom, sleepiness, too easy of a class, etc.
Yerkes-Dodson Curve High Arousal
Frazzles with low performance; influenced by too much stress/cortisol, no time for studying, and mental health disorders such as anxiety
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
Determined that, in order to reach one's optimal performance level, a person must enter flow
Flow
The mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity
Maslow
Viewed human motives as a pyramid with psychological needs at the base and self-transcendence needs at the peak
Maslow's Pyramid
Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, and self-transcendence needs
Self-Actualization Needs
Need to live up to our fullest and most unique potential
Hunger
Automatic regulation of caloric intake through a homeostatic system to prevent energy deficits and maintain stable body weight; connected to the hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus
Washburn
Showed that stomach contractions accompany our feeling of hunger by swallowing a balloon and pressing a key each time he feels hungry
Glucose
Sugar that circulates in the blood and provides energy
Low Glucose
Triggers the feeling of hunger
Arcuate Nucleus
Secretes appetite-stimulating hormones; if destroyed, even starving animals will show no interest in food
Ghrelin
Secreted by the stomach wall, triggers feelings of hunger as mealtimes approach; Growling (stimulates appetite)
Ghrelin with Diets
Levels increase as dieters lose weight, making dieting difficult
Insulin
Secreted by the pancreas, suppresses appetite by acting on the brain; allows cells to take and use glucose and its energy
Insulin after Eating
Lowers and promotes glucose uptake
Orexin
Secreted by the hypothalamus, triggering hunger; associated with arousal and wakefulness
Low Orexin Levels
Found in narcoleptic patients
Leptin
Produced by the adipose (fat) tissue; levels increase as appetite is suppressed
Leptin with Decreased Body Fat
Levels fall and appetite increases
PYY
Secreted by the small intestine after meals; acts as an appetite suppressant that counters gherlin
Set Point
Point at which your "weight thermostat" is set; when your body falls below this weight, an increased hunger and lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore lost weight
Factors that Change Set Point
Age- you gain weight as you grow older
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Body's resting rate of energy output; The amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep their body functioning
Social Surrogate
Non-human that can create a sense of goodness and wellbeing
Example of Social Surrogate
Comfort foods
Taste Preferences
Influenced by body chemistry and environmental factors
Social Facilitation
The presence of others increases our typical eating pattern
Example of Social Facilitation
Grazing on food due to nervousness at a party
Unit Bias
The size of food portions affects how much we eat
Food Variety
The buffet effect; more likely to grab and eat a variety of one food group than had a single portion been offered
Self-Refilling Bowls Experiment
Tested college students by offering unlimited soup, either through a waiter or through a hidden device that constantly refilled their bowl. Result: second group estimated that they did not eat a ton of food, despite their portion size almost doubling
Obesity Percent in the U.S.
Over 36% of adults and 17% of youth
Obesity Facts
One of the leading causes of preventable death and the annual medical cost is around $150 billion
Racial Group with Highest Rate of Obesity
Non-hispanic blacks
Racial Group with the Lowest Rate of Obesity
Non-hispanic asians
Obesity
An excessively high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass, not taking muscle mass into account
BMI Overweight
25-30
Mental Health and Social Risks of Obesity
Lower quality of life, higher rates of mental illness (depression and anxiety), lower self-esteem, higher rates of discrimination
Obese Women in Workforce
More likely to get fired and less likely to get hired or promoted
Projected Rate of Obesity by 2030
Around 50% of adults will be obese
Biological Factors of Obesity
Diabetes, genetics and metabolism, thyroid disease, medications, resting metabolic rates, biological parents and identical twins
Psychological Factors of Obesity
Depression, stress, abuse, emotional eating
Environmental Factors of Obesity
Energy imbalance, access to healthy foods and costs, sedentary lifestyle, sleep
Cultural Factors of Obesity
The food your family makes, portion sizes, sedentary lifestyle
Testosterone
Most important male sex hormone, though both males and females have it
Additional Testosterone in Males
Stimulates the growth of male sex organs during the fetal period and development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
Estrogen
Peaks during ovulation in non-human females, contributes to female sex characteristics, and greater amounts of estradiol is secreted in greater amounts by females
Primary Sex Characteristics
Biological
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Develop in puberty and are not necessarily tied to reproduction
Hormonal Surges and Declines
Occur predictably at puberty and menopause (women), and occasionally at a third point due to drugs or surgery
The Sexual Response Cycle
Excitement - Plateau - Orgasm - Resolution
Excitement (Arousal)
Increased blood flow to genitals, secretion of lubricant, accelerated heart rate, and flushed face
Plateau
Even more increased heart rate (intensity of arousal); the average length of erect penis is 5.6 inches
Orgasm
Shortest part of sexual response cycle (lasts seconds); includes muscle contractions, rapid intake of oxygen, increased heart rate, and increased chance of conception
Resolution
Final phase of sexual response cycle; refractory period
Refractory Period
Men have to wait longer than women to orgasm again
Sexual Response Cycle Criticisms
Population was originally composed of sex workers, the model is linear, and does not account for other complications (the study is purely physical and physiological, not relational or external)
Masters and Johnson
Conducted study in 1950s and 1960s with willing participants that developed the Sexual Response Cycle
Cindy Meston
Studies sexual psychophysiology lab at UT, Austin; considers victims of trauma and sexual abuse, body image and self-esteem, and religion
Sexual Dysfunctions
Really common; impair sexual arousal, motivation, and functioning; includes paraphilia
Sexual Dysfunctions in Males
Erectile disorder, premature ejaculation, and delayed/infrequent ejaculation
Sexual Dysfunctions in Females
Female orgasmic disorder (delay/infrequency), female sexual interest/arousal disorder (motivation)
Percent of Sexual Dysfunction
43% of women and 31% of men self-reported
Factors of Sexual Dysfunction
Diabetes, heart disease, stress, anxiety, etc.
Sexual Orientation
An enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes
Heterosexual
Having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to members of the other sex
Gay/Lesbian
Having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to members of one's own sex
Bisexual
Having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions with both men and women
Sexual Orientation % of Exclusively Gay/Lesbian
3%-4% in men and 2% in women
Sexual Orientation % of Bisexual
5% of men and 13% of women
Erotic Plasticity
Sexual orientation of women and their sex drive is more fluid and likely to change throughout their life span
Gay-Straight Brain Differences
INAH 3, a hypothalamic cell cluster, is smaller in women and gay men than in straight men
Hypothalamus Reaction to Smell of Sex-Related Hormones
Gay men and straight women's hypothalamus react different than straight men
Simon Levay
The first to document differences in brain structure regarding sexual orientation; hypothalamus participates in regulating sexual activity, primarily in men
Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation
Men with several older biological brothers are 2%-3% more likely to be gay (due to a maternal immune system reaction)
Social Pain
Research states that this activates the same parts of our brain as physical pain
Factors the Predict Sexual Restraint
High intelligence, religious engagement, and father presence, participation in service learning programs
Factors that Influence Teen Pregnancy
Minimal communication about birth control, guilt related to sexual activity, alcohol use, and mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity
Ostracism
Social exclusion; exile, imprisonment, solitary confinement
Cyberball??
????
Self-disclosure
Sharing ourselves (joys, worries, weaknesses, etc.) with others
Narcissism
Excessive self-love and self-absoption
Tips for Maintaining Balance (Social Media)
Monitor time and feelings, "hide" online distracting friends, turn off or leave mobile devices, try time-controlled media, and put a limit on how much you use your phone
Emotional Components
Bodily arousal (sweat, heart rate), expressive behaviors (laughing, yelling), and conscious experiences (thoughts and appraisals)
James-Lange Theory
Arousal comes before emotion
James
Known as the father of American psychology, known for setting up first psychology lab and studying emotions
Cannon-Bard Theory
Arousal and emotion happen at the same time; emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion
Schachter and Singer Two-Factor Theory
Conducted experiment in 1962 that should emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
Spillover Effect
epinephrine and placebo shots given to men,knowingly and unknowingly, before placing them in a room with a confederate who was either irritated or euphoric
Zajonc and LeDoux
Two-track brain; some emotional responses go from the thalamus to the brain's cortext to the amygdala (an emotion control center) while other emotions take a "low road" and go straight from the thalamus to the amygdala.
Lazarus
Two-track brain; brain processes information without conscious awareness but while mentally functioning; stressor leads to primary appraisal
Lazarus' Primary Appraisal
Threat or challenge
MEMORIZE CHART
PAGE 464 OF BOOK!
Sympathetic of the Autonomic Nervous System
Arouses and expands energy, enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles, and increases heart rate and turns of digestion
Autonomic Nervous System
Arouses and calms
Parasympathetic of the Autonomic Nervous System
RESTS AND DIGESTS; Calms and conserves energy, allowing routine maintenance activity and control involuntary muscles and glands
(returns system back to normal)
Insula
Pain, pride, disgust, and sadness
Amygdala
Fear, anxiety, and anger (PTSD treatment)
Right (pre)Frontal Lobe
Depression, loneliness, disgust, and general negativity
Left Frontal Lobe
Happiness, enthusiasm, and energy
Paul Eckman
Expert lie detector who identifies micro-expressions
Micro-Expressions
Last about 1/15-1/20 of a second
Emotional Responses
Introverts are usually better at detecting, extroverts are usually easier to read
Women and Emotions
Tend to read emotional cues more easily (except for anger), are more empathetic, express more emotion with their faces, and experience negative emotions more intensely
Facial Expressions
Women show more emotion in their face than men
Gesture Misinterpretations
Thumbs up (Middle East), beckoning (asian cultures), hook 'em horns (latin cultures), and okay (Brazil)
Facial Feedback Effect
Facial expressions can trigger emotional feelings and signal our body to respond accordingly; people also mimic others' expressions (empathy)
William James
Determined you can change your emotion by changing your physical posture
Behavior Feedback Effect
Tendency of behavior to influence our own and others' thoughts, feelings, and actions
Carroll Izard
Isolated ten basic emotions most present in infancy;

Joy, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, guilt, surprise, and interest-excitement

(typically appear before six-months old, except embarrassment and shame which develop around eighteen-months)
Cause of Anger
Negative and high arousal; triggers 'fight' reaction; evoked by misdeeds interpreted as willful, unjustified, and avoidable
Catharsis
Emotional release
Catharsis Hypothesis
"Releasing" aggressive energy through action or fantasy to reduce anger (connected with Freud)
Consequences of Anger
Increased risk of heart problems and stroke, weakened immune system, increased risk of anxiety and depression, increased risk of respiratory problems, decreased life span
Rumination
Continued replaying of the same situation in your heard which keeps you angry and increases the risk of depression
Anger Management (according to book)
Wait, distract, and distance
Anger Management (according to Young)
Relax, cognitively restructure, problem solve, improve communication, and use humor
Happiness
"Feel-good, do-good" phenomenon; people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Subjective Well-being
Self-percieved happiness or satisfaction with life; used to help evaluate quality of life
Positive Psychology
Scientific study of human functioning with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive
Research Areas of Positive Psychology
Positive emotions, health, neuroscience, and education
Three Pillars of Positive Psychology
Positive well-being, positive character, and positive communities/groups and culture
Walter Cannon
Perceived the stress response to be highly adaptive because it prepared the organism for fight or flight
Chomsky
All language share basic elements called universal grammar
Psychoneuroimmunology
Studies our mind-body interactions; most broadly concerned with how the psychological, neural, and endocrine systems together affect the immune system
Ingredients of Emotion
Physiological arousal, expressive behavior, and conscious experience
Adaptation Level Phenomenon
Happiness is relative to our own experiences; does not permanently stay with us because we always want something greater
Relative Deprivation Phenomenon
Happiness is relative to others' success; the perception that we are worse off than we really are based on who we compare ourselves to
World's Happiness Report
Respondent's were asked to imagine life as a ladder with the top rung, labeled a ten, being the best life for themselves that they could imagine, and the bottom rung, labeled zero, being the worst life.

Respondents were asked how satisfied they were with their lives.

Respondents were asked how happy they were with their lives as a whole.

US ranked #18 on the list of happiness. Burundi ranked the lowest, #156.
Average people said #7.
Factors Un-Related to Happiness
Age, gender, and physical attractiveness (debatable because self-esteem)
Predictors of Happiness
High self-esteem
Personality traits (agreeableness/extroversion)
Optimism
Religion
Satisfying marriage
Community contribution (volunteering)
Genetics
Stress
A process by which we perceive and respond to certain events (stressors) that we appraise as threatening or challenging; WE ARE PARTICIPANTS IN THIS
Stressor
An event or condition that we view as challenging (related to Lazarus)
Example of Stressor
Poverty, difficult home life, catastrophes, school, etc.
Selye
Created the general adaptation syndrome system (GAS)
General adaptation syndrome system (GAS)
Three stages we go through to deal with a single stressor: alarm, resistence, and exhaustion.
Alarm (GAS)
Mobilized nervous system (the sympathetic nervous system is activated)
Resistance (GAS)
Actively trying to cope with the stressor, adding cortisol to arousal response
Exhaustion (GAS)
Occurs when reserves are depleted and creates vulnerability to illness; the result of multiple stressors at once
B Lymphocytes
White blood cells; release antibodies to fight (bacterial) infections
T Lymphocytes
White blood cells; attack cancer cells and viruses; kill any harmful cells
Macrophages
Ingest harmful or worn out cells; "big eater"
Natural Killer Cells (NK Cells)
Pursue diseased cells
Stress & Heart Disease
About 610,000 North American coronary heart disease-related deaths yearly
Type A
Competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, anger-prone; open negative emotion
Type B
Easy going, relaxed, live in the moment, less susceptible to coronary heart disease
Type D
Suppress negative emotions to avoid social disproval; susceptible to negative emotions; increased heart problems
Pessimism
Refers to the assumption that negative outcomes will happen and often face them by complaining or giving up
Inflammation Related to Stress
Triggered by chronic stress which increases risk of heart disease and depression
Problem-Focused Coping (with stress)
Alleviate the stress directly; changing the cause of the stressor or changing the ways we interact with it; best used when we have control and can change the situation
Emotion-Focused Coping (with stress)
Avoiding or ignoring the stress; seeking social support; good when there is little control of the situation
Example of Problem-Focused Coping
Diagnosed with diabetes, learn about disorder and treatments, and take control of how one can improve life
Seligman Experiment
Classically conditioned dogs to hear a tone and expect a shock which resulted in the dog becoming helpless
Learned Helplessness
Expecting something bad to happen and not making any changes
Learned Helplessness Process
Uncontrollable (bad) event leads to a perceived lack of control, resulting in a generalized helpless behavior
External Locus of Control
Believe that chance or outside forces control their fate
Internal Locus of Control
Believe they control their destiny; leads to higher levels of achievement and better health
Self-Control
Ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards
Relaxation
Over 60 studies found that these procedures can provide relief from headaches, high blood pressure, anxiety, and insomnia (fewer somatic symptoms)
Relaxation Training
Has been used to help Type A heart attack survivors reduce risk of future heart attacks
Faith Factor (stress)
Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not religiously active