1,346 terms

FTCE - Professional Education

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Which of the following tests relates an individual's test performance to standards rather than to the performance of others?
criterion-referenced
Sharon, a 3rd-grade student, received the following scores on a formal reading assessment: identifying main idea - raw score of 18/25
recalling details - 70th percentile
making inferences - 30% correct
determining author's purpose - grade equivalent of 4.5
A teacher who interprets these data can accurately conclude that Sharon
scored higher than 70% of students who took the same test in recalling details, and above grade level in determining author's purpose.
Which of the following is the most appropriate assessment for measuring student mastery of content in a high school algebra class at midyear?
teacher-made test
A teacher is assessing a student's oral reading skills. Which of the following assessment tools is the most appropriate?
running record
A science teacher uses the phrase, "My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas" to help the students remember the order of the planets. This phrase is an example of a
mnemonic device.
A teacher asks, "How was the Grand Canyon formed, Patty?" Patty answers, "There is a river at the bottom." The teacher then says, "Patty, tell us how the river affected the formation of the Grand Canyon."
What technique is the teacher using in her last statement?
probing
While a student is giving a report to the class, the teacher smiles, nods, leans forward, and listens attentively. Her behavior best demonstrates
nonverbal positive acknowledgement.
Mr. Robinette is a new teacher who teaches high school algebra courses. He has difficulty maintaining student interest in instruction and has an excessive number of disciplinary referrals.
What strategy would be the best first step to address this situation?
discussing problems with a mentor teacher to identify strategies for reducing the number of discipline problems
As part of her planning process, Mrs. Smith is concerned about the levels of reading comprehension in her class. Which of the following would provide the richest source of data for the beginning analysis of her class?
student test records
Which of the following situations is the best example of a teacher promoting middle school students' creative thinking after reading a given fiction selection?
students rewrite the ending of the selection to change the resolution of the plot
Identify the classroom practice that best encourages a positive learning climate for all students.
The teacher includes all students in class discussions, showing equal respect and sensitivity to each student.
At the beginning of the school year, a 2nd-grade teacher determines there are children from diverse cultural backgrounds in the class. One of the best ways to study cultural similarities and differences would be to have students
participate in a classroom international festival to complete the unit on cultural study.
While students are completing individual work, the teacher leaves the classroom to pick up handouts that have been copied for the next class.
This teacher's behavior
violates the professional duty to protect the safety of students.
Which statement is true with respect to physical growth patterns of children in the upper elementary school?
Girls reach puberty before boys
Wesley has been identified as a slow learner. He is frequently frustrated by class activities and seatwork assignments and sometimes cries when he cannot do the work that others complete quickly. Which of the following teacher actions is best in this situation?
Arrange what Wesley is to learn into a series of small steps, each followed with immediate feedback.
A teacher finds that students can deal with abstractions and hypothetical-deductive questions, offer interpretations, and draw conclusions. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, at what stage of cognitive development are the students functioning?
formal operations
Which of the following behaviors may indicate the need to refer a child for speech-language evaluation?
having difficulty comprehending words and concepts
A science teacher suspects a new student of having problems with reading comprehension. To assist the student, the teacher should
arrange for diagnostic testing in reading.
More than 65% of a 3rd-grade class scored at high risk on the oral reading fluency measure of the school's progress-monitoring instrument. Which instructional practice would be most effective for improving the students' oral reading fluency?
repeated reading of familiar text with corrective feedback
Which instructional method would be the most effective for fostering vocabulary development in a secondary content area?
presenting target words in context several times during each week
Before sending pairs of students to practice with a text, a teacher models how to choose unfamiliar words and write an explanation, create a title for the passage they are reading, write questions based on their passage, and guess what will happen in the next passage.
These are examples of comprehension strategies that include
clarifying, summarizing, questioning, and predicting.
Which 3rd-grade students' unit culminating activity provides the best opportunity for them to integrate language art skills?
having students prepare and give a software presentation
A group of 5th-grade students collected information on how many kindergarten students like chocolate, vanilla, or strawberry ice cream. What is the best format for an initial presentation of results to the kindergarten students?
stacks of three different colored cubes representing each student's choice
A teacher reviews a student's cumulative scores on a comprehensive fluency progress monitoring measure at midyear. Based on the data presented above, what is the most appropriate method of differentiating instruction for this student?
intensive instruction in phoneme segmentation fluency
Which of the following is an example of a classroom that has been best arranged to facilitate student safety?
furniture placed to accommodate traffic patterns
Which procedure should a middle school teacher follow at the beginning of a class?
Assign students to complete "Do Now" activity already written on the board when the class starts.
In a middle school classroom, the teacher observes that many students are calling out answers during large group discussions, even after being reminded of the posted classroom rules. What would be the best strategy for the teacher to follow next?
Have students brainstorm ways to participate in large group discussions and amend the classroom rules as necessary.
Before the teacher has had a chance to explain the school's procedure for fire drills, the fire alarm sounds. Which of the following procedures would be most appropriate in this situation?
Have students line up quickly and quietly and lead them out of the building; review procedures upon returning to the classroom.
A high school teacher wants students studying the Civil War to understand the attitudes of the soldiers on both sides. Of the following, which activity would best help meet this objective?
Role-playing: based on class reading, have each student write a letter to a family member about war experiences from the perspective of first a Northern and then a Southern soldier. Students will read the letters out loud.
A 4th-grade teacher has a group of students with mixed abilities. As he plans his unit on early Florida settlers, he should pay special attention to
varying the delivery models of instruction to compensate for different reading levels.
A 7th-grade student is frequently tardy for 1st-period class. The teacher questions the student and discovers that the student has been left in charge of his younger siblings while his parents are "working things out" with their marriage.
Which of the following should the teacher suspect?
child neglect
The social studies teachers in a middle school are seeking ways to interest their students in local history. Which of the following would be an effective means of achieving this goal?
Have students create a documentary in which they interview local residents about the community's past.
A 4th-grade teacher notices that one of her students is wearing clothing that is inapproriate for the season. This appears to be an attempt to cover up bruising on his arms. The teacher speaks privately with the student and he becomes noticeably upset and tells her "mind your own business." Based on information the student has given the teacher in the past, the teacher suspects that the student may be fighting with his father.
Which of the following actions should the teacher take?
Call and report what she suspects to the Florida Abuse Hotline.
A teacher receives a request for information on a middle school student from an independent psychologist. What procedures should the teacher follow?
Share the request with the administration and follow their guidelines.
The teacher's role in meeting with parents in the academic improvement plan is to
inform the parents of the student's strengths and weaknesses and recommend remediation.
A teacher would like to use software to create an instructional slide show for a large group. Which type of software would be the most appropriate?
presentation
John just received his 4th-grade FCAT writing score of 5. His teacher wants to interpret the result to his parents. His teacher can say that John is
performing above grade level.
Mary's mother is confused about her 4th-grade daughter's norm-referenced test results in reading and mathematics. Mary received a stanine score of 3 in mathematics and 3 in reading. At the parent-teacher conference Mary's teacher explains the following:
Mary is performing below her peer group.
Network firewalls are installed to
block students from sending out inappropriate electronic mail messages.
What is the primary benefit of an acceptable use policy (AUP)
promotion of student responsibility for ethical online behavior
A class is given three topics to research on the Internet. The teacher tells the students to independently search each topic using three specific search engines. After the searches are completed, the students are asked to compare the results obtained from each search engine.
This scenario best illustrates the use of which instructional strategy?
discovery
From the beginning of our nation there has been a continuous and large flow of immigrants who in the great majority of cases have been impoverished and committed to seeking a better life. The schools have provided the primary means of socializing these new citizens to live in our country. This process continues to provide a challenge to American education today.
The best term for the process described in the above statement is
cultural assimilation.
"Meeting academic standards should be the highest priority in a classroom." This statement reflects the current philosophy of
accountability
Pauline, an English language learner, has been in the United States for one year. In mathematics class, she is very attentive and does well on all class work and assignments. However, Pauline never volunteers to answer questions in class and refuses to speak except for one-word responses such as "yes" and "no."
a developmental stage of language acquisition.
An English language learner refers to his feet as "feets." This is an example of
overgeneralization
A teacher issues and models commands. Students actively respond to the commands. Later, a student volunteer issues commands for the class to enact.
Which of the following methods does this scenario describe?
total physical response (TPR)
A non-English-speaking student who has learned to read and write in her native language is placed in the 1st grade. According to current research, the best strategy for developing her literacy skills in English is to
continue literacy instruction in her native language while scaffolding and connecting the two systems during English literacy instruction.
An English language learner placed in the 4th grade has had a strong educational background in his native country. His English is at an early production stage. His teacher plans to have the class learn the names and order of the planets in the solar system by reading and answering questions.
This student would most likely be successful at this assignment because it is based upon
low context and low cognitive demand.
What type of curriculum is a teacher using when students are confronted with a scenario and asked to generate hypotheses and solutions?
problem-based
An instructional strategy in which students work in small, peer-assisted groups is
cooperative learning.
When a teacher reads aloud to students, which of the following strategies is the teacher using?
modeled reading
An elementary mathematics teacher uses the phrase "My dear Aunt Sally" to teach the order of operations. This phrase is an example of a
mnemonic device.
According to Bloom's taxonomy, what is the lowest level of question in the cognitive domain that the teacher could use?
knowledge
To ensure that ALL students are aware of the assignments required for a semester-long chemistry class, the teacher should
create a course outline and distribute a hard copy to each student.
A student is capable of completing assignments but often lacks the motivation to do so. Which strategy would address the problem directly?
creating an academic contract between the student and teacher
Which of the following is an example of a teacher employing a nonverbal communication strategy?
using enthusiastic hand and eye gestures to introduce a unit on Florida history
To ensure that a new student feels welcome, the teacher should
assign a responsible peer buddy to assist the new student.
Which of the following situations is the best example of a teacher promoting a climate of openness, respect, and inquiry in the classroom?
promoting student cultures that are studied, shared, and celebrated
A beginning teacher notices that students are having difficulty mastering the properties of light on a science test. The best next step for the teacher to take would be
seeking input from a peer teacher.
In a community-centered approach to teaching, a teacher plans classroom activities that require students to
assist others in solving problems.
A teacher has students use their background information to make predictions about a story. This lesson would most likely be representative of a(an)
learner-centered environment.
During the introduction of a new mathematics lesson, several students appear uninterested in the lesson. To determine if the behavior is content related, the teacher should
ask students concept questions.
A math teacher is in the initial stages of planning a unit. The teacher realizes homework will play an important role in student success. The teacher examines the following research table that displays the effectiveness of various approaches to assessing homework assignments. What approach to assigning homework will have the greatest positive impact on student performance?
assigning select problems and grading them with specific feedback
Students are given a demanding task and then asked to respond to that task orally, in writing, or by constructing a product. This type of evaluation is a(an)
performance assessment.
Which of the following assessments would be best for comparing a student's knowledge with that of other students in the same grade level?
norm-referenced
A 4th-grade team analyzes student test scores from the beginning and the end of the school year to determine whether to continue using the current core reading curriculum. Which of the following is the best type of assessment to use for this purpose?
summative
A student appears to be struggling with a reading subskill after initial instruction. The teacher wants to find out what component of reading is hindering comprehension. Which of the following assessments would best aid the teacher?
diagnostic
Which of the following would help a teacher identify reasons why a student is misbehaving in class?
anecdotal records
After attending a reading workshop, a teacher realizes that the current reading strategies are not improving student academic achievement. The most appropriate next step is to
request assistance from a reading coach.
A teacher wants to analyze areas of need in the curriculum. Which of the following would reflect the necessary data?
a teacher's grade book
A teacher would like to encourage parents and guardians to be involved in their students' education. Which of the following strategies is the best way for the teacher to encourage diverse parents and guardians to come to the classroom for a cultural activity?
Asking the principal to develop a schoolwide cultural activity to be held in the evening for students and their parents and guardians.
When a student with a large bruise on their face is questioned by the teacher, the student says that they fell at home while playing. Having previously noticed bruises on the student, the teacher suspects that the child is being abused. The teacher is required by law to contact the
school administration.
When parents request copies of software to use at home with their children, a teacher should consult
site license guidelines.
Permitting students access to e-mails with attachments can be a potential danger to a school's network, because of
viruses
A class has students from various cultural backgrounds. The teacher notices that students of like cultures are exhibiting similar skills and knowledge that differ from students of other cultures. This could be due to the impact of cultural knowledge on
transfer
Which of the following teaching strategies would best show sensitivity to English language learners' language challenges?
encouraging safe times to use academic English in class.
A teacher is preparing students for a statewide assessment. The teacher asks the students to underline the bold type in the questions on the practice test. This test- taking strategy is known as
recognizing the key words.
A teacher instructs students to read a selection and then retell the information from the selection. The students are using the study skill of
summarizing
Teachers who conduct action research might:
Videotape their lessons to reflect on instructional strategies.
A student-centered classroom uses reciprocal teaching to analyze a selection of text. The 4 basic steps that are used in reciprocal teaching are:
Predicting, questioning, clarifying, summarizing.
What type of test could a school district use to determine if state standards were being effectively taught?
Criterion-referenced test
Which of the following is the best example of a cognitive objective?
Students will complete a two-digit multiplication skills test with 85% mastery.
An educator signed up for a paid online professional development session that required watching short video segments and personally reflecting on their content. The educator let the videos run in the background, and quickly clicked through the acknowledgments without completing the reflections. What portion of the Code of Ethics does this violate?
The obligation to the profession.
Learning activities should always be based on:
specific objectives.
An elementary reading teacher wants to get parents reading nightly with their children. The most effective way to do this while fostering parent communication is to:
Invite parents to a "reading night" where student and parents meet to read and share favorite poems.
Which of the following statements from a teacher would be considered classroom management through use of negative reinforcement?
"If you would start turning in your homework, I wouldn't have to call your mother every afternoon!"
In order to practice effective behavior management, classroom rules
should be followed by all students and be consistently enforced.
Which of the following would be a responsibility of a school advisory council?
Developing a school improvement plan
Which of the following would be an example of negative reinforcement?
The teacher stops complaining about the messy floor after the students clean it up.
A teacher has discovered and implemented a new online behavior-management program that is improving student behavior while providing an easy way to communicate with parents. The teacher should
Meet with the principal to discussing sharing the new product at the next professional development day.
The best tool for a teacher to use to keep a running, averaged record of student scores throughout the year is
Spreadsheet
The most effective way to present vocabulary is
in context to convey rich meaning to the students.
The best graphic organizer for analyzing similarities and differences is
a Venn diagram
An ELL joins the classroom mid-year. She appears to speak fluent English and participates well in class, yet struggles academically in reading and science. When questioned, the teacher learns that the student has only lived in America for 2 years. The student's academic struggles are likely the result of
Not having mastered cognitive academic language proficiency due to the length of time she has been speaking English.
The input-hypothesis model developed by Steven Krashen would suggest that ELLs would benefit from
Being given information that is just slightly above their ability level in the second language.
The No Child Left Behind Act states that
Student whose first language is not English may only be tested in English.
Student test performance reflects
a student's understanding of the topic and the quality of instruction.
When teaching idioms it is important to
Explicitly teach the implied meaning of the phrase.
A teacher wants to know if he is allowed to copy software onto more of his classroom computers. To find this out he should consult the
site license
A student comes to school and says that her report is done but she is out of ink on her home printer. She asks the teacher if she can email the assignment to school and have the teacher print it out. The teacher should
be cautious because emails can contain viruses.
Prior to teaching a unit on bacteria and viruses, a teacher has students evaluate a list of content-area statements as being true or false. After the lesson is complete, the students reevaluate the statements. What was the purpose of giving the assignment before the lesson if it was also to be complete afterwards?
The teacher using an anticipation chart to increase student interest and focus the instruction.
A culturally responsive teacher should be aware of students'
social skills, home culture, interests & attitudes.
A teacher gets a ticket for running a red light in a school zone. According to the Code of Ethics, the teacher should
Do nothing. This was a minor traffic violation.
A convergent question
has a simple, short answer and requires the use of lower-order thinking skills.
Shared classroom materials should be
easily accessed, assembled prior to beginning the lesson, and safe for student use.
Drill and practice is primarily used to
re-teach a skill that a student has failed to master.
A teacher is arrested for domestic violence, but does not report the incident because it was unfounded. The teacher
will be terminated as soon as the State of Florida learns of the offense.
A teacher notices that a student has lost her appetite and has difficulty walking or sitting. She also seems to be behaving in a sexually sophisticated manner. The teacher should
immediately contact the Florida Abuse Hotline (DCF).
Teachers that meet regularly to reflect on instructional methods are members of
a reflective learning community.
When planning a unit, a teacher must ensure that the lessons
activate prior knowledge and ensure coherence throughout the unit.
Who is responsible for implementing the school improvement plan?
The principal and staff
A teacher's professional development goals should be
relevant, measurable, and based on student needs.
Which of the following professional development classes would be most beneficial to a teacher wanting to focus on general instructional practices?
Action Research- How to Do It
What type of question elicits a written, pictorial, or graphic response from a student?
Constructed response
An intermediate science teacher wants to develop a lesson that would teach her students to categorize items like a scientist while appealing to students with a naturalistic intelligence. Which plan would best meet her objective?
Plan an outdoor trip and have students gather items, then work in groups to sort them based on their categories.
Learning communities provide educators an opportunity to
Meet with other educators to discuss and study more effective instructional practices.
A high-school English teacher reviewed data from a benchmark review and determined that the results showed that the students had not mastered a key concept. The teacher feels that she could improve her instructional practices and is looking for a scientifically-based approach to improve her teaching methods. How should she do this?
Attend a learning community meeting to discuss her instructional practices with other teachers with the same goal.
A first-grade teacher has students change the beginning letters of words to make new words (b-at, c-at, v-at), then has them switch the ending sounds on words (c-at, c-ar, c-ake). The teacher is having the students manipulate
onset-rimes
What would be the best way for a teacher to prepare her students for the state mandatory criterion-referenced test that is administered every year?
Make sure that the students have been taught the standards and are familiar with the test format.
A 6th grade history classroom is set up with desks facing each other in clusters of students mixed gender, ability, and cultures. Students are working on document-based questioning about Valley Forge. The teacher moves throughout the classroom, ready to offer guidance if necessary. What type of activity is the class performing?
A student-centered learning activity
The initial stages of language acquisition are:
pre-production, early production, speech emergent, intermediate fluency.
If a teacher does not want guessing to have a positive effect on test scores, she should avoid
true and false questions.
The purpose of asking a divergent question is to
promote critical thinking
In order to maintain good classroom management, a teacher should assist students in
self-monitoring their own behavior.
If a high school literature teacher wants to assess if her students understand sub-concepts that fall under a larger theme, she could have students create a
concept map.
Anecdotal records are
useful to compare student development over a period of time.
A student portfolio is an effective tool because it
provides a collection of student work over time.
If a teacher wants to be sure that her students are prepared for the state-administered standards test at the end of the year, she should
plan her instruction around state standards and benchmarks.
Well-formed teacher-made tests
are designed to assess student comprehension of specific skills based on state standards.
If a student repeatedly fails a mastery test, the teacher should
revisit prerequisite skills.
Which of the following activities would encourage students to use their critical thinking skills?
Problem-based learning activities
A beginning teacher is assigned a mentor that
promotes and supports peer teacher growth
A classroom teacher has a visually impaired student in his class. When preparing a class assessment, the teacher should
enlarge one copy of the test for the visually impaired student.
When testing for mastery,
students may retest on a skill until they demonstrate that they mastered it.
Teachers can bring rigor to their classrooms by incorporating
critical-thinking assignments
A high-school teacher responds to a student's solution by asking the class if they agree or disagree with the answer. The teacher is using
a redirect
Which is more effective for improving fluency, reading aloud or reading silently, and why?
Reading aloud, because students tend to skip words they do not understand when reading silently rather than making the effort to decode them.
The most appropriate time to give feedback on an assessment is
24 to 48 hours later.
What is the advantage of analyzing case studies?
-They present scenarios that teachers can study and apply to their own classrooms.
-They allow teachers to anticipate possible situations that may someday occur in their classrooms and prepare to respond accordingly.
-They provide teachers with the opportunity to discuss possible solutions to actual problems that have occurred in other classrooms.
If a teacher asks a complex question and the student gives a brief response, the teacher can...
continue to ask follow-up questions of the same student to elicit a more thorough answer.
A 4th grade teacher notices that students bump into each other on the way to the pencil sharpener. Before changing the layout of the classroom, the teacher should
consider traffic flow patterns.
When would a teacher ask a follow-up question?
-When the original answer was too brief
-When the original answer contained a misconception
-When the teacher is trying to elicit higher-order thinking skills from the student
A student in the pre-production stage of 2nd language acquisition will
participate in a "silent period" where the language is heard but not spoken.
Which of the following accommodations would be appropriate for any student to use, regardless of their learning abilities?
The use of highlighters to mark text.
When a teacher notices burns, bites, or bruises on a student and notices that the student withdraws at the approach of adults, the teacher should
contact the Florida Abuse Hotline
Which of the following is NOT an element of classroom instruction that can be differentiated by the teacher?
Standards
A classroom teacher has a student that needs extra practice with multiplication tables. The class has a single copy of a practice program, but the teacher doesn't want to risk losing it. What should the teacher do?
Never copy software since there are no situations where this is legal.
In addition to using audio or videotapes to conduct action research, teachers should also use
students' scores on assessments
A classroom teacher that understands how to differentiate instruction plans in advance should
provide tiered activities that allow students of all levels to understand the concepts but perform at different levels with necessary support.
Which of the following is true of how teachers should question students during a class discussion?
Below level-learners should be asked higher-order, critical-thinking questions that match their ability level.
In the middle of the year, a teacher has a gifted, physically-impaired student join her in the classroom. The student struggles to hold a pencil and writes very slowly. This student would benefit most from
a speech-to-text program
An 8th grade science teacher decides to work collaboratively with a teacher in the mathematics department to design a unit using basic algebra to calculate the density of various objects. By creating a cross-subject activity
student interest is increased as the science lesson gives relevance to the math.
According to the State of Florida, how long does a teacher have to self-report an arrest for possession of a controlled substance?
48 hours
A student has been given an alternative assessment to the end-of-the year criterion-based test that is required by the state. This an example of
a modification
A classroom teacher struggles with using base-ten blocks to teach multiplication and division of decimals. What would be the best resource for assistance?
A peer teacher
A student's individualized education program may require a modification if the students is
performing below grade level and classroom modifications are not sufficient.
When a teacher elects to participate in a professional development activity in technology, the primary focus should be on
how the design and delivery of instruction will impact student learning.
An ESOL teacher wants to find a way to make connections between English words and terms in Spanish that have the same meaning and similar pronunciation. The best way to achieve this would be to
build a word wall that includes cognates.
Enlarged text, use of speech-to-text programs, and talking word processors are all
accommodations for visually-impaired students.
When a teacher instructs students to put away their math textbooks and get out their science lab book she is managing the class learning environment through the use of
transition statements
A thematic unit
is a series of activities across the curriculum that focuses on one theme that addresses multiple standards in the same context.
A teacher asks a question, then pauses to call on a student even though many hands are waving in the air. The teacher is using
wait time.
Which type of learning experience develops peer interaction skills?
Cooperative Learning
A local reporter asks a teacher her opinion on the new curriculum that has been implemented by the state. The teacher should
decline to comment
Which of the following gives the school districts the right and responsibility to establish programs for English language learners?
The No Child Left Behind Act
A classroom teacher needs to document a student's lack of focus in the classroom in order to develop accommodations to assist the student's academic achievement. The teacher should begin by
completing behavior inventory
The disadvantage of using drill and practice math programs on classroom computers is that
most classrooms do not have enough computers for the entire class.
A classroom teacher can foster higher-order thinking skills by asking students
-Follow-up and divergent questions
-To elaborate on a question that was already answered by classmates
A teacher uses extinction when she is
ignores negative behavior so that students don't receive positive reinforcement by gaining the teacher's attention.
Which of the following describes a student-centered learning environment?
-Students work together on a jigsaw activity in cooperative learning groups.
-Students use a collaborative approach to research and develop a solution to a real-world problem.
-Students analyze multiple sources to develop their list of loaded words in persuasive articles as the teacher acts as a facilitator.
Which of the following would not be used by a kindergarten teacher to develop phonemic awareness in her students?
Having students spell the words as they sound them out.
Project-based learning, problem-based learning, and inquiry-based learning all
require inductive reasoning and would be appropriate for a student-centered learning environment.
Running records
are used to document reading performance.
Which of the following does not describe 1 of the 5 big ideas in beginning reading?
Semantics
Which of the following is not a text feature?
Copyright date and city of publication
During a science lesson, a 6th grade science teacher shares with her students how an invasive species of a plant is choking out a native species. She asks them to generate a hypothesis and possible solutions to the problem. What type of activity is this?
Problem-based
A high-school American History teacher conducts a 15 min. lecture about how triangular trade operated in the colonies. The teacher was using
direct instruction
According to Webb's Depth of Knowledge, the most complex cognitive level is
Extended Thinking
A good classroom teacher knows that students have different strengths and learning styles. To meet the needs of all students, teachers should
use differentiated instruction in the classroom.
Personal discovery inventories require
inductive thinking.
Students who excel in science and mathematics probably
have participated in many hands-on activities in science and math.
Recognizing text features, decoding word meaning in context, and identifying narrative elements are all parts of
reading comprehension
Which of the following is an example of a mnemonic device ?
Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally
In order to incorporate rigor in classroom instruction, a teacher should focus on
creating opportunities for students to use higher-order thinking skills.
Cooperative learning groups are most effective when they are
temporary, mixed ability level, and as diverse as possible.
Which organization is responsible for investigating alleged misconduct by educators?
The Office of Professional Practices Services
When sharing assessment data with a parent or guardian, it is important to
start with a specific, positive comment before voicing concerns.
Teachers can use advanced organizers to
assess what the students know about a topic prior to beginning the lesson.
A 1st grade teacher reads a story aloud to her class. This is an example of
modeled reading
Which of the following is the term for when the class and teacher all read the same selection aloud at the same time?
Choral reading
When middle-school math students memorize metric prefixes using "K-King, H-Henry, D-died, B-by, D-drinking, C-Chocolate, M-milk," to represent the metric divisions of kilo-,hecto-,deka-,base,dec-, centi-, milli-, they are increasing retention through use of a
mnemonic.
A student' academic grades on report cards are derived from
scores on tests, homework, and assignments.
According to Piaget, most children are capable of completing assessment problems that require logical thinking by what age?
8
Which of the following is the best way that a teacher can improve student retention of new material?
Outlining the material to be covered at the beginning of the unit then reviewing it at the end.
Homework is appropriate
for practicing previously learned skills.
While the rest if the class is working silently on a personal narrative, 2 students in the back of the classroom begin chatting and giggling. The least disruptive way to deal with this off-task behavior is to
use proximity control
Which of the following activities would require using critical-thinking skills?
Drawing conclusions after reading an article about global warming.
Select the learning that best promotes 2nd language acquisition?
Preparation, evaluation, & meta cognitive strategies.
A teacher notices that students seem disinterested in a class topic. The teacher wants to liven up the discussion portion of the lesson to increase student's participation. What is the best procedure for the teacher to follow?
Ask questions that require students to show, explain, or describe.
Which of the following class characteristic will be assessed only by direct observation?
Amount of student time on task.
Maintaing anecdotal records of effective instructional strategies offers teachers practice in the skill of?
Reflecting
Which teacher action is a part of the communication technique for active listening?
The teacher re-states the student's message.
The most efficient use of computer lab time for an elementary class orientation when each student has access to a computer is to?
Allow individual student time to explore the computer.
Which technique will most effectively establish a 9th grade teacher's expectation for an assignment?
A list of due dates of each assessment for the grading period.
For a 6th social studies class for both native speakers of English and ESOL students who are to study mythology, the teacher's best app. is to
Have a competition to see which student had the most creative way of meeting the lesson objective.
What is the best way to help students who are shy and insist on being near the teacher whenever possible?
Assign the student tasks to help other students.
What principle is illustrated by conducting a 20 min. review session each Monday during a class?
A periodic review enhances long term memory.
The purpose underlying the enactment of the consent decree (META) was to?
Understand and successfully meet the various linguistic and cultural need for the non English speaking students.
A teacher who plans content rich lessons targeting all students' learning styles in various activities and group work should also consider?
Requirement from the school district.
Which strategy would most effectively encourage multi-disciplinary students?
Promoting instructional reading & writing on content areas.
An English teacher who wants her students to appreciate Shakespeare and wants to convert this into a form of behavior objective. What is the 1st question she needs to ask them?
How can I measure student's individual perception of Shakespeare work?
A teacher wants to find out if a student has mastered the instructional objective at the end of the unit. What type of test should the teacher use?
Diagnostics
What practice does the most to perpetuate educational equality?
Tracking
The Education Profession Commission may permanently revoke the educator's certificate once an educator is?
Adjudge delinquent in meeting a court ordered child's support obligation.
What does the general knowledge teacher bring to the IEP team?
Knowledge of the general curriculum.
When faced with the need to adapt materials for students to master the objective, what is the important variable to consider?
Stages of the cognitive development
An ESOL student applies the use of their 1st language in acquisition of English. This is an example of?
Language Diffusion
A teacher asks each student to bring an object representative of his/her cultural background as a part of show and tell exercise. The teacher is using?
Regalia
A divergent thinker is best described as one who is?
A careful observer seeing things from different perspective, or looks for meanings of things.
Which is the best procedure for providing feedback after a classroom test?
Return test paper to student and go over each question.
Which of the following tests relates an individual's test performance to standards rather than
to the performance of others?
...
Sharon, a 3rd-grade student, received the following scores on a formal reading assessment:
identifying main idea - raw score of 18/25
recalling details - 70th percentile
making inferences - 30% correct
determining author's purpose - grade equivalent of 4.5
A teacher who interprets these data can accurately conclude that Sharon
...
A teacher instructs students to read a selection and then retell the information from the selection. The students are using the study skill of
Summarizing
A teacher is preparing students for a statewide assessment. The teacher asks the students to underline the bold type in the questions on the practice test. This test-taking strategy is known as
recognizing the key words
Which of the following teaching strategies would best show sensitivity to English language learners' language challenges?
encouraging safe times to use academic English in class.
A class has students from various cultural backgrounds. The teacher notices that students of like cultures are exhibiting similar skills and knowledge that differ from students of other cultures. This could be due to the impact of cultural knowledge on
transfer.
Permitting students access to e-mails with attachments can be a potential danger to a school's network, because of
viruses.
When parents request copies of software to use at home with their children, a teacher should consult
site license guidelines.
When a student with a large bruise on their face is questioned by the teacher, the student says that they fell at home while playing. Having previously noticed bruises on the student, the teacher suspects that the child is being abused. The teacher is required by law to contact the
abuse hotline.
A teacher would like to encourage parents and guardians to be involved in their students' education. Which of the following strategies is the best way for the teacher to encourage diverse parents and guardians to come to the classroom for a cultural activity?
Having students write a personal invitation inviting parents and guardians to attend a cultural activity during school.
A teacher wants to analyze areas of need in the curriculum. Which of the following would reflect the necessary data?
a teacher's grade book
After attending a reading workshop, a teacher realizes that the current reading strategies are not improving student academic achievement. The most appropriate next step is to
request assistance from a reading coach.
Which of the following would help a teacher identify reasons why a student is misbehaving in class?
anecdotal records
A student appears to be struggling with a reading subskill after initial instruction. The teacher wants to find out what component of reading is hindering comprehension. Which of the following assessments would best aid the teacher?
diagnostic
A 4th-grade team analyzes student test scores from the beginning and the end of the school year to determine whether to continue using the current core reading curriculum. Which of the following is the best type of assessment to use for this purpose?
summative
Which of the following assessments would be best for comparing a student's knowledge with that of other students in the same grade level?
norm-referenced
Students are given a demanding task and then asked to respond to that task orally, in writing, or by constructing a product. This type of evaluation is a(an)
performance assessment.
During the introduction of a new mathematics lesson, several students appear uninterested in the lesson. To determine if the behavior is content related, the teacher should
ask students concept questions.
A teacher has students use their background information to make predictions about a story. This lesson would most likely be representative of a(an)
learner-centered environment.
In a community-centered approach to teaching, a teacher plans classroom activities that require students to
assist others in solving problems.
A beginning teacher notices that students are having difficulty mastering the properties of light on a science test. The best next step for the teacher to take would be
seeking input from a peer teacher.
Which of the following situations is the best example of a teacher promoting a climate of openness, respect, and inquiry in the classroom?
promoting student cultures that are studied, shared, and celebrated
To ensure that a new student feels welcome, the teacher should
assign a responsible peer buddy to assist the new student.
Which of the following is an example of a teacher employing a nonverbal communication strategy?
using enthusiastic hand and eye gestures to introduce a unit on Florida history
A student is capable of completing assignments but often lacks the motivation to do so. Which strategy would address the problem directly?
creating an academic contract between the student and teacher
To ensure that ALL students are aware of the assignments required for a semester-long chemistry class, the teacher should
create a course outline and distribute a hard copy to each student.
According to Bloom's taxonomy, what is the lowest level of question in the cognitive domain that the teacher could use?
knowledge
An elementary mathematics teacher uses the phrase "My dear Aunt Sally" to teach the order of operations. This phrase is an example of a
mnemonic device.
When a teacher reads aloud to students, which of the following strategies is the teacher using?
modeled reading
An instructional strategy in which students work in small, peer-assisted groups is
cooperative learning.
What type of curriculum is a teacher using when students are confronted with a scenario and asked to generate hypotheses and solutions?
problem-based
Which of the following would require inductive reasoning?
Students are presented with the question, "How does competition for resources affect population growth in an ecosystem?" then are asked to research the topic to find possible answers.
A student is doing a cold read, and the teacher documents that the student is reading at a 75% accuracy level. After reading the selection, the student takes a multiple-choice quiz on the material and scores 60% correct. What does this mean?
The student is reading at a frustration level and the teacher needs to select a more level-appropriate text.
Who elects parents to the school advisory council?
The principal and vice-principal
According to the Code of Ethics of the Education Profession in Florida, what is a professional educator's primary concern?
The student and the development of the student's potential.
If a high-school science teacher wants to ensure that guessing has a minimal effect on the students' grades, what type of test acquisition should be avoided?
True/False
A classroom teacher is frustrated when an English language learner refuses to make eye contact when speaking to adults. What is the teacher failing to take into account?
Making eye contact with adults is considered disrespectful in some cultures.
A history teacher begins the unit on he Civil War by asking his students to brainstorm a detailed list of what they think motivated the southern states to seceded. Why would the teacher start the lesson this way?
To activate and access prior knowledge in his students.
At the end of a lesson, an elementary mather teacher has students complete an exit ticket that includes one thing that they learned and one thing that still confuses them. The exit ticket is used
to gather data that can be used to assess the effectiveness of instruction.
A student is having difficulties sounding out words then immediately comprehending the meaning of the words. The teacher develops a variety of letter-sound recognition activities to help the student improve their reading skills. On what skill is the teacher focusing?
decoding
Why would a teacher use the fishbone diagrams?
to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships
A teacher wants to make sure that her students understand and remember the classroom rules. The best way to accomplish this is to
present them to the class, clearly post them, then review them periodically
A teacher wants to build a spirit of community and peer-support in a student-centered classroom. Which of the following would best meet the objective?
The teacher would put them into mixed-ability, cooperative learning groups, then give them tasks that require them to work to meed a common goal.
A performance-based assessment would include
creating a model, assembling a collection, or writing a term paper
Which of the following format accommodations is not allowed on the stated standardized testing?
Only requiring very few questions that actually cover the standards.
Jerome Bruner would encourage teachers
to not just teach content, but to teach students how to apply critical thinking skills to new situations.
Which of the following is not a way that a teacher can officially respond to or dispute a decision by the office of Professional Practices.
the teacher can draft a formal letter to the school board to request a review of the charges
A local school advisory council has the important responsibility of
developing and evaluating the school improvement plan
When would a teacher use a formative assessment?
to assess comprehension of an individual skill in the middle of a unit
Which of the following provides intrinsic motivation for a student?
curiosity
When planning a lesson, teachers should take into account student interests because
this leads to an increase in learning through student motivation
The purpose of an accommodation is to
allow students to overcome limitations related to their disability
If a teacher determines that mastery of a particular skill is at 75%, what must the student do to show mastery?
The student must get at least 75% of that particular skill question correct on an assessment.
What is automaticity?
A fluency skill that requires reading a word and automatically identifying it.
Which of the following attributes is not necessarily a characteristic of an effective teacher?
One who follows the district selected textbook without variation
In a culturally mixed classroom of different ability levels, is it common for students from the same culture to have a similar knowledge base. This is caused by
knowledge transfer due to sharing a similar cultural experience
Which of the following accommodations are NOT available for English language learners who are taking state-mandated, end-of-course exams in math or science?
The student can take the test in his or her native language
A student with an IEP is permitted to use a speech-to-text program to make notes in class. This is an example of
an accommodation
Why would a teacher use anecdotal records?
to conduct action research
A well-designed lesson
is built around state standards, starts with an attention getter, and reviews prerequisite skills before presenting new material.
What is the most effective way to present instructional videos to the class?
The teacher should stop about every 10 minutes to review important content.
Teachers regularly take time after teaching a lesson to evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction. After teaching a unit and grading related assessments, the teacher reviews the data and determines that more time needs to be spent on a specific concept. This teacher is practicing
reflection
Effective teachers do not
stick to tried-and-true instructional practices, despite their results
A teacher suspects that a current curriculum may be lacking in certain areas. What would the teacher use to very his suspicions?
his grade book
Which of the following offenses is NOT punishable by revocation of your teaching credentials in the state of Florida?
Failure to report a traffic ticket for running a red light
Which of the following is the most appropriate use of homework?
To review previously acquired skills
Due to limited time and funding, professional development opportunities should focus on
addressing disaggregate student performance in the classroom
ANI
Academic Needs Identification; 1st and 2nd year students
AMAOs
Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives
As students experience cultural assimilation, they must
as students experience cultural assimilation, they must balance the social norms of their native culture with the customs of their classmates.
BICS
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
-day to day experiences
-6months to 2 yrs
CALLA
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
-contecnt focused while language skills are acquired in context as needed
CALP
Cognitive Academic Language
-demands are higher than social situations
-contextual support(gestures) cannot be counted on
--5to 7 yrs
CELLA
Comprehensive English Language Learners Assessment
-measures progress in listening speaking, reading, and writing
-annually
CI
Comprehensible Input
ELD
English Language Development
EFL
English as a Foreign Language
ELL
English Language Learners
ESE
Exceptional Student Educations
ESOL
English for Speakers of Other Languages
Florida Consent Decree
protects the civil rights of ELL.
-identification and assessment
-equal access to appropriate programming
-equal access to appropriate categorical and other programs for LEP students
-Personnel
-Monitoring Issues
-Outcome Measures
- trained ELL teachers that monitor and evaluate ELL students
LEP
Limited English Proficiency
LER
Limited English Reader
LF
The code for a student that is in the two-year follow-up period after exiting the ESOL program
LP
4-12 grade ELL fluent orally but not reading/writing
LY
The code for a student enrolled in an ESOL class; k-12 classes specifically designed for ELLs
LZ
former ELL student who exited program more than 2 yrs ago
MBE
Maintenance Bilingual Education
META
Multicultural Education, Training, Advocacy
NCLB 2001
ELL can receive testing accommodations including but not limited to...
- teacher to explain instructions
- native language dictionary
- extended time
NEP
Non English Proficient
SALA
Bureau of Student Achievement through Language Acquisition
SLA
Second Language Acquisition
TPR
Total Physical Response; Asher; uses commands and physical activities to increase retention and understanding; "stand up"
ZZ
In Florida, the code used for a non-ELL is____
proficiency
The Florida Consent Decree specifies that he main goal of the ESOL program is to develop sudent's ___________in English and academic potential
Parent Leadership Council
a group that provide parents an opportunity to be involved in and participate in their students' educational program. The majority must be parents of ELLs.
Home Language Survey
Survey that is given to all Florida students at the time of enrollment
ELL (LEP) Students
-not born in us or non native english
-other language has impact on English proficiency(Native American)
-insufficient english skills to learn successfully
Assessment Procedure
test given within 20 days to potential ELLs
-must score at or above 33rd percentile to be placed as ZZ
Basic ESOL
using enlgish language a medium of instruction- speaking, listening, reading, and writing
ELL student plan
document that identifies student, instruction, schedule, date of ELL id, assessment data, date of exit
District ELL plan
approved procedures and methodologies by district for serving ELLs-
Parent Leadership Council
majority must be parents of ELLs
-consulted prior to submission of district ell plan
Stage 1: Pre-production
- silent period
- know up to 500 words but not ready to attempt oral communication
Stage 2: Early Production
- begin to say 1 or 2 word short responses
- use memorized phrases
- know up to 1,000 words
- last up to 6 months
Stage 3: Speech Emergent
- know up to 3,000 words
- converse with classmates, complete classwork with assistance, able to read simple text
- teacher keeps error correction to a minimum to not discourage the student
Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency
- know up to 6,000 words
- speak and writes in complete sentences
- high number of errors
- can use HOT when communicating
- BICS
Stage 5: Advance Fluency
- fluent in writing and communication skills
- trouble decoding
- master CALP in 5-7 yrs.
-exit ELL program
Acquisition Learning Hypothesis (Krashen)
-subconsious acquisition: requires meaningful interaction and natural communication
-consious learning:formal instruction and error correction
Monitor Hypothesis
conscious learning can be used ply as a monitor for language attempts in acquisition; there is such thing as overuse and underuse of monitor system
Natural Order hypothesis
Natural Order hypothesis grammatical structures and rules of language are acquired in a predictable order
Input Hypothesis
learners shout receive input that slightly exceeds current level of ability
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Emotions can impact acquisition; negative affective filters can create mental block; affective filter must be "down" for positive affective factors ( self confident, motivation, low anxiety)
Level I: Cognitively Undemanding + Context Embedded Level (Cummins)
conversation with friends, ordering food
Level II: Cognitively Undemanding + Conext Reduced
ordering food over telephone; reading a letter
Level III: Cognitively Demanding + Context Embedded
solving math problems using graphs hands-on science experiment; playing interactive computer simulation game
Level IV: Cognitively Demanding + Context Reduced
proving math thermos; writing a research report; listing to presentation on unfamiliar topic
ESOL Sheltered-Instruction/ Structured Submersion
-subject classes included only ELLs; instruction ing English; adapted to proficiency levels and contextually supported
ESOL Mainstream/Inclusion Instruction
- subjects taught along non ELL students but provided support
Home Language/Maintenance Bilingual Education
- subjects taughat in native language by bilingual teacher; aim to build on and preserved native language skills as they learn English
Dual Language (Two-Way)
composed of both ELLs and non ELLs; both groups become proficient in both languages
Language Experience Approach
students can produce language form firsthand experiences; experience, depict, write, share, read
The Natural Approach (Krashen)
in accordance with stages of acquisition and how children acquire language naturally
Whole Language Approach
integration of listening, speaking, reading, and writing
Integrated Language Teaching
- language learning interwove with instruction in content area; not isolate topic
Storytelling/Retelling
telling or reading predictable stories that make regular use of patterns that can be acted out
Code Switching
alternate use of two languages: Good, hijo (son)
Dialect
variation of language used by a particular group of people
Expressive Language Skills
productive language skills; speaking and writing
False Cognates
words in different language that are similar in appearance but different in meaning
instrumental function of language
to satisfy wants an needs of others
regulatory function
to control behavior of others
interactional function
to exchange information with others
personal function
to maintain contact with others
heuristic function
to assert identity, make choices, and take responsibility
imaginative function
to pretend and create images
informative function
to inform
idioms
expression characteristic of a given language
jargon
technical language
lexicon
vocal used in particular profession or subject
linguistics
structural aspects of a language
literacy
ability to read and write
morpheme
smallest unit of meaning; dogs as two meaning (root and plural)
morphology
study of word patterns and how they are formed
overcorrection
overdoing a grammatical rule unnecessarily (peoples)
overgeneralization
extending a grammatical rule inaccurately (goed)
phoneme
smallest unit of meaningful sound
phonology
study of speech sounds
pragmatics
use of language in social context
receptive language skills
listening and reading
register
form of language determined by setting and relationship
semantics
study of the meaning of words
submersion
placing ells in regular classroom
syntax
systematic arrangement of words in a sentence
target language
2nd language being learned
Strategies for Building a Culturally Responsive Relationship
- inviting parents in the learning environment
- asking sensitive questions about a student's native background
- allowing students to share their stories to find commonalities within the group
Accomodations
A change in the way a studet learns new material. Teachers use accomodated teaching methods when directed to do so by a student's individual educational program (IEP).
Achievement Test
A standardized test desinged to efficiently measure the amount of knowledge and/or skill a person has acquired, usually as a reult of clasroom instruction. Such testing produces a statistical profile used as a measurement to evaluate student learning in comparison with a standard or norm.
Acquisition-Leasrning Hypothesis
Students can acquire language in two ways: they can acquire it (acquisition) by steadily absorbing it in a natural manner through meaningful interactions or they can learn it by intentionally studying vocabulary and grammar. These two methods work in tandem, and both are necessary for second-language acquisition.
Action Research
A reflective process of researching instructional methods based on student scores and the teacher's observations.
Adolescent Literacy Support Framework
A literacy structure focused on motivation, literacy strategies, "across the curriculum," and organizational support.
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Emotional factors contribute greatly to a student's ability to learn a second language. A student that experiences high anxiety in the classroom is said to have a high affective filter which prevents them from learning a new language.
Alphabetic Principle
Also called graphophonemic awareness, it refers to the fact that each individual sound has a graphical representation of individual letters or letter blends. The second part is the correspondence betwen sounds and letters that leads to reading.
Analytic Scoring
A type of rubric scoring that separaters the whole into categories of criteria that are examined one at a time. Student writing, for example, might be scored on the basis of grammar, organization and clarity of ideas. This is useful as a diagnostic tool.
Anecdotal Records
A type of informal evaluation. A teacher records observations of student performance and over time they can see patterms of growth.
Assessment
In an educational context, the process of observing learning; describing, collecting, recording, scoring and interreting information about a student's or one's own learning. Tradiationally, student assessments are used to determine placement, promotion, graduation, or retention. In the context of school reform, assessment is an essential tool for evaluating the effectiveness of changes in the teaching-learning process.
Assistive Technology
Any assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices that are used to provide accommodations for students with disabilities.
Authentic Assessment
Evaluating by asking for the behavior the learning is intended to produce; ideally mirroring and measuirng student performance in a "real-world" context. Tasks used in authentic assessment are meaningful and valuable, and are part of the learning process. It is also the concept of model, practice, feedback in which students know what excellent performance is and are guided to practice an entire concept rather than bits and pieces in preparation for eventual understanding. A variety of techniques can be employed in authentic assessment. The goal of authentic assessment is to gather evidence that student can use knowledge effectively and be able to critique their own efforts.
Automaticity
The ability to see a word, decode it, and automatically understand its meaning.
Bandura, Albert
He believed that learning occurs without direcgt consequences to one's actions. He proposed that learners observe modeled behavior and the consequences of the behavior, and then project the consequences on themselves.
Benchmark
Student performance standards (the level(s) of student competence in a content area); also, an actual measurement of group performance against an established standard at defined points along the path towward the standard. Subsequent measurements of group performance use the benchmarks to measure progress toward achievement.
Basic Interersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
The vocabulary a student uses to carry on social conversations in low-stress environments such as the lunch room and the playground.
Blending
A component of fluencey that requires students to blend together phonemes, the smallest units of sound, to form words.
Bloom's Taxonomy
A classification of learning objectives proposed by Benjamin Bloom in 1956. It is used to classify educational goals. The original Bloom's Taxonoy included the following levels: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The Revised Bloom's Taxonomy describes the levels as Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyszing, Evaluating and Creating.
Brain Hemispheres
The two halves of the brain. The left controls the right side of the body and functions primarily as the more academic and logical side of the brain. The right controls the left side of the body and functions primarily as the artistic and creative side of the brain.
Bruner, Jerome
A psychologist who is known for his work in cognitive psychology and the cognitive learning theory.
Bullying
Using superior strength or social stature to intimidate or influence the decisions of another person.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALPS)
The academic language that an English language learner must learn to successfully understand and communicate the content of academic texts.
Choral Reading
Students read together, aloud and in unison with the teacher to practice fluency.
Classroom Management
Planning and implementing methods to ensure that the learning environment of the classroom provides an effective venue for learning.
Code of Ethics
The set of standards that apply to ethical decision-making within the field of education in the state of Florida.
Cognates
Words from different languages that have the same meaning and similar pronunciation and spelling.
Cognitive Objective
A learning objective that has thre main components: condition, behavior, and degree.
Competency Test
A test intended to establish that a student has met established minimum standards of skills and knkowledge and is thus eligible for promotion, graduation, certification, or other official acknowledgement of achievement.
Connotation
The implied meaning of a word based on its context.
Constructive-Response Questions
A question that requries students to construct or create something to answer the question rather than choosing from a given list.
Convergent Questioning
A type of question that requries a student to "converge" on the answer. An example of a onvergent question is, "What is 4+2?" Generally, this type of questioning requires lower-level thinking skills.
Cooperative Learning
A student-centered learnking approach in which heterogeneously grouped students work cooperatively to accomplish a shared task.
Correlational Research
The statistical association between two or more variables that is used to determine the relationship between the variables.
Creative Thinking
The process students use to devlep ideas that are unique, useful, and worthy of further elaboration.
Criterion-Referenced Test
A test in which the results can be used to determine a student's progress toward master of a content area. Performance is compared to an expected level of mastery in a content area rather than to other students' scores. The scores have meaning in terms of what the student knows or can do, rather than how the test-taker compares to a reference or norm group. Criterion-referenced tests can have norms, but comparison to a norm is not the purpose of the assessment.
Critical Thinking
The process students use to reflect on, assess and judge the assumptions underlying their own and others' ideas tand efforts.
Cummins, Jim
Famous fo his work with second-language acquisition, Cummins coined the terms Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALPS).
Curriculum Alignment
The degree to which a curriculum's scope and sequenece matches a testing programs's evaluation measures.
Cyberbullying
Bullying that occurs online, primarily on social media sites.
Decoding
A component of fluency that requries students to convert letters into words.
Deductive Thinking
A method of reasoning that requires students to take one or more general statements and then work their way down to a more specific conclusion.
Denotation
The literal meaning of a word.
Differentiation
Structured learning envornoments that adddress the variety of learning styles, interest, and abilities found within a classroom. Differentiated instruction is based upon the belief that students learn best when they make connections between the curriculum and their diverse interests and experiences.
Direct Instruction
A teaching method in which the teacher provides knowledge by directly presenting it to the students, generally in the format of a lecture.
Discrimination
The unfair treatment of another individual based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or age.
Divergent Questioning
A type of question that requires critical thinking, since it allows for students to generate multiple answers to a defined questioin. An example of a divergent question is, "What is freedom?" Generally, this type of questioning requires higher-order thinking skills.
Dual Language Programs
A learning environment in which students who are learning English are placed together with students who are fluent in English, and English language learners receive specialized English language instruction. All students in a dual language program receive core/basic subject area instruction in English and another language.
Educational Objectives
Goals developed by a teacher, based on state standards, which direct student learning.
Effective Feedback
Timely, specific communication provided to students based on growth and development.
Elaboration
The ability of a student to develop critical thinking skills which lead to the skill of developing ideas.
Encapsulation
The process of stating ideas in a concise, precise form.
Encoding
Turning messages into symbols which could include something as simple as translating spoken language into text or as advanced as converting math word problems into an equation.
Essay Test
A test that requires students to answer questions in writing; responses can be brief or extensive.
Evaluation
Both qualitiative and quantitative descriptions of progress towards and attainment of project goals. using collected information (assessments) to make informed decisions about continued instruction, programs and activities.
Expermental Research
Research in which an independent variable is manipulated and its effect on one or more dependent variables is measured. In a true experimental design, the researcher randomly assigns the participants who are being studied (also called the subjects) to two or more comparisons groups. Sometime the comparison groups are referred to as treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group receive some type of treatment, such as a special reading program.
Extinction
The practice of ignoring an undesired behavior in the hopes that it becomes extinct on its own. For instance, a child that makes noises to gain the teacher's attention may cease if the teacher ignores the behavior.
Extrinsic Motivation
Motiviation through the use of external rewards. Behaviorists contend that extrinsic motivation can be effectively used to manage student behavior.
Flexibility
The ability of a student to categorize ideas.
Florida Abuse Hotline
The communication tool utilized by educator to report suspected abuse.
Florida Consent Decree
The document that addresses the civil rights of English language learners in the state of Florida, including their right to equal access to all education programs. It provides a structure that ensures the delivery of the comprehensible instruction to which English language learners are entitled.
Fluency
The ability to read with preciasion, speed and the proper intonation.
Formative Assessment
Assessment occurring during the process of a unit or a course.
Graphic Organizer
A visual tool for organizing knowledge.
Graphophonemic Awareness
Also called the Alphabetic Principle, refers to the fact that each individual sound has a graphical representation of individual letters of letter blends. The second part of the correspondence between sounds and letters that leads to reading.
High-Stakes Testing
Any testing program whose results have important consequences for students, teachers, schools. and/or districts. Such stakes may include promotion, certification, graduation, or denial/approval of services and opportunity.
High-Traffic Areas
Paths that students oftentravel in the classroom, such as where they line up to leave the room and the path they take to frequently used supplies.
Holistic Method
In assessment, assigning a single score based on an overall assessment of performance rather than by scoring or analyzing dimensions individually. The product is considered to be more than the sum of its parts, and so the quality of a final prodjct or performance is evaluated rather than the process of dimension of performance.
Home Language Survey
The initial questionnaire that is given to all incoming Florida students. The Home Language Survey asks questions about the primary language spoken in the home. If any question on the Home Language Survey is answered "yes" the student is evaluated for English proficiency.
Individualized Education Program
A written document that is developed through a team effort for each publich school child who is eligible for special education and reviewed at least once a year.
Individual Needs Assessment
The process by which the educator identified individual professional learning goals with primary emphasiss on student learning needs by reviewing certificaiton needs, classroom-level disaggregated student achievement, and behavioral data related to content area skills, school initiatives, the School Improvement Plan, and school and team goals.
Individualized Instruction
Instructional strategies that are tailored to a student's specific learning style.
Inductive Thinking
A method of reasoning that requires students to take specific facts and use them to develop a general conclusion.
Input Hypothesis
The believe that in order to challenge a student, the teacher needs to provide material that is slightly above the student's ability level in any language.
Instructional Objective
The educational goal of a lesson; specifically, what a teacher wants the students to know at the conclusion of a lesson.
Intellectual Property
A work that is personally created by an individual. Intellectual property can be copyrighted.
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation that comes from an internal souce such as self motivation, and the satisfaction that is created when personal goals are achieved.
Item Analysis
Analyzing each item on a test to dermine the proportions of students selecting each answer. Can be used to evaluate student strengths and weaknesses; may point to problems with the test's validity and to possible bias.
Journals
Students' personal recods and reactions to various aspects of learning and developing ideas. A reflective process often found to consolidate and enhance learning.
Krashen, Steven
An educational activist who is famous for his contributions to the fields of second-language acquisition, bilingual education, and reading.
Learning Styles
The ways in which a student recognizes and process informaiton in the context of an educational setting. They are clearly delineated by the ways in which learners prfer to concentrate, store and remember new and challenging information. The sevel learning styles are visual, aural, verbal, physical, logical, social and solitary.
Lecture
A type of teacher-centered direct instruction where the teacher gives information while the students take notes.
Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
A term to describe students who are not native English speakers and struggle with speaking, listening, reading, or writing in English.
Mainstream/Inclusion
An ESOL program where the students who are learning English are grouped with students who are fluent in English. Instruction is only in English and students are supported in basic core/subject areas through the use of ESOL strategies.
Mastery Test
An assessment that shows mastery of a given skill or concept. If a sutdent struggles to pass, he or she may be lacking a prerequisite skill.
Mean
One of several ways of representinga group with a single, typical score. It is figured by adding up all the individual scores in a group and dividing them by the number of people in a group. This is also known as the average, and ti can be affected by extremely low or high scores.
Measurement
Quantitative descriptions of students learning and qualitative description of student attitude.
Median
The point on a scale that divides a group into two equal subgroups. The median is not affected by low or high scores as is the mean.
Metacognition
The knowledge of one's own thinking processes and strategies, and the ability to conscously reflect and act on the knowledge of cognition to modify those processes and strategies.
Mind Mapping
A method of visual note-taking that helps students organize information in unique and personal ways.
Modeled Reading
A method wherein the teacher reads aloud a book which is above the students' reading level. Students may or may not have a copy of the text with which to follow along. The purpose of modeled reading is to deomonstrate a skill or ability such as fluency or a fix-up strategy.
Modality Preference
The way a child prefers to learn. Students may be auditory, visual, kinesthetic or mixed modality learners
Modification
A change in the curriculum's learning requiements due to a student's inability to master the required state standards.
Monitoring Hypothesis
A hypothesis developed by Krashen that states if a student can learn the grammatical rules of a new language, he or she will be able to monitor written and spoken language in the future.
Multicultural Education
An educational approach that focuses on five key areas: content integration, knowledge construction, equity pedagogy, prejudice reduction, and empowerment of school culture.
Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner of Harvard University defined seven distinct intelligences which relate to the learning environment. Multipl intelligences is a theoretical framework for defining, understanding, assessingg and developing learner's different intelligence factors. Through Gardner's research, one can easily see that teachers must create learning environments based on a avariety of intelligences.
Native Language
Any language that is spoken regularly in the home.
Natural Order Hypothesis
States that second-language acquisition will follow a predicatable pattern, and that certain grammatical structures will be acquired before others. Krashen contends that for this reason, educators should follow a specific order of grammatical instruction.
Negative Reinforcement
A method of influencing behavior through removing an adverse stimulant in order to strengthen a behavior. For example, a parent may stop complaining about a messy room if the child begins to clean his or her room. The lack of nagging is the removal of the stimulant as a result of the room remaining clean.
No Child Left Behind Act
Legislation that supports the need for standards-based education reform. This is achieved by setting high standards and establishing measurable goals to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction.
Norm
A distribution of scores obtained from a norm group. The norm is the midpoint (or median) of scores or performance of the students in that group. Fifty percent will score above and 50 percent below the norm.
Norm Group
A random group of students selected by a test developer to take a test to provide a range of scores and establish the percentiles of performance for use in establishing scoring standards.
Norm-Referenced Tests
A test in which a student or a group's performance is compared to that of a norm group. The student or group scores will not fall evenly on either side of the median established by the original test takers. The results are relative to the performance of an external group and are designed to be compared with the norm group providing a performance standard. Often used to measure and compare students, schools, districts, and states on the basis of norm-established scales of achievement.
Objective Test
A test for which the scoring procedure is completely specified enabling agreement among different scorers.
Office of Professional Practice Services
Department which provides follow-up and accountability for educators based on the Code of Ethics and principles of Professional Conduct.
Onset
The beginning sound in a word. For example, in the word grin, the sound made by gr- is the onset. Use of onsets and rimes is an important component of phonemic awareness.
Originality
A focus area for developing critical-thinking skills that emphasizes combining ideas in new ways or coming up with unusual ideas.
Outcome
An operationally defined educational goal, usually a culminating activity, product, or performance that can be measured.
Paired Reading
Students work in pairs, taking turns reading aloud a selection of texg in order to build fluency skills. This is commonly called buddy reading.
Pavlov, Ivan
A Nobel Prize-winning Russian psychologist known for his work in classical conditioning: the relationship between behavior and direct rewards. His work greatly influenced behaviorism.
Percentile
A ranking scale ranging from a low of 1 to a high of 99, with 50 as the median score. A percentile rank indicates the percentage of a reference or norm group obtaining scores equal to or less than the test-taker's score. A percentile scofe does not refer to the percentage of questions answered correctly; it indicates the test-taker's standing relative to the norm group standard.
Performance-Based Assessment
Performance-based assessment is a test of the ability to apply knowledge in a real-life setting. Assessment of the performance is done using a rubric or an analytic scoring guide, to aid in objectivity.
Performance Criteria
The standards by which student performance is evaluated. Performance criteria help assessors maintain objectivity and provide students with important information about expectations, giving them a target or goal to strive for.
Phonemes
The smallest units of sound, which are blended to create words.
Phonemic Awareness
A subset of phonological awareness. A child with phonemic awareness can hear, identify and mainpulates phonemes, the smallest units of sound.
Phonological Awareness
The ability to detect individual sounds in a spoken word. It is a critical first step in learnng to read and provides the foundation for phonics.
Planning
The process of designing the method of instruction used to teach a learning objective, and the way to assess the mastery of the objective.
Portfolio
A systematic and organized collection of a student's work that exhibitis to others the direct evidence of a student's efforts, achievements, and progress over a period of time. The collection should involve the studen in selection of its contents, and should include information about the performance criteria, the rubric or criteria for judging merit, and evidence of student self-reflection or evaluation.
Portfolio Assessment
Portfolios may be assessed in a variety of ways. Each piec may be individually scored, or the portfolio might be assessed merely for the presence of required pieces, or a holistic scoring process might be used and an evaluation made on the basis of an overall impression of the student's collected work.
Positive Reinforcement
Anything that is added in order to cause in increase in a behavior. This can be a tangible reward or verbal praise. Scolding a child can cause positive reinforcement of a negative behavior if receiving attention enforces an undesired behavior.
Pragmatics
How context contributes to the meaning of a word.
prosody
Reading with a natural rhythm and pace.
Premack Principle
Pairs undesirable behaviors with desireable acts, and is employed friequently to induce studets to engage in the former. An example is telling students they can go outside to play kickball, a desired outcome, after clean ing the art station, an undesirable task.
Principles of Professional Conduct
The set of principles which outline the appropriate conduct, parameters and repercussions for educators in the state of Florida.
Print Concept
The realization that books have front and back covers, that the words start at the top of the page and progress from left to right and that as you finish a line of text, you move to the next line. Students must learn print concepts prior to learning to read.
Prior Knowledge
Previously acquired knowledge that applies to a current lesson.
Problem-Based learning
A method of student-centered learning where the students work individually or cooperatively to solve a problem.
Process
A general method of doing something, involving steps or operations which are usually ordered and/or interdependent. Process can be evaluated as part of an assessment, as in the example of evaluating a student's performance during pre-writing exercisses leading up tht eh final production of an essay or paper.
Product
The tangible and stable result of a performance task. Ans assessment is made of student performance based on evaluation of the product of a domonstration of learning.
Professional Learning Communities
A group of educators who act as reflective practitioners, analyzing student data in order to improve instruction methods.
Profile
A graphic compilation of the performance of an individual on a series of assessments.
Project
A complex assignmnet involving more than one type of activity and production. Projects can take a variety of forms; some examples are a mural construction, a shared servie project, or another type of collaborative or individual effort.
Punishers
Punishment decreases the likelihood a behavior is repeasted, provided it is not reinforcing in some way, such as giving a violator status with peers.
Qualitiative Research
Research that is based on unmeasurable qualitities, such as teacher observation and examination of case studies.
Quantitative Research
Research that is based on measurable data, such as how methods of instruction influence student test scores.
Quartile
The breakdown of an aggregate of percentil rankings into four categories: 0-25th percentile, 26th-50th percentile, etc.
Realia
Concrete abjects that are used to gie meaning to a lesson. Use of these objects from the real wordl help deepen student understanding.
Reflective Practitioner
An educator who reflects on instructional practice and self-evaluates the effectiveness of the instruction that is being provided.
Reliability
The measure of consistency for an assessment instrument. The instrument should yield similar results over time with similary populations in similar circumstances.
Rime
The ending phoneme in a word. For example, in the word brim, the sound made by the ending 'im is the rime. Use of onsets and rimes are an important compoent of phonemic awareness.
Rubric
In general, a scoring guide used in subjective assessments. A rubric also can be an explicit description of performance characteristics corresponding to a point on a rating scale.
Running Record
A tool used to assess reading as a student reads from a benchmark book or selection.
Scaffolding
The practice of providing sufficient assistance to a student in order to facilitate learning.
Scale Scores
Scores based on a scale ranging from 001 to 999. Scale socres are useful in commparing performance in one subject area across classes, schools, districst and other large populations, especially in monitoring change over time.
School Advisory Council
An organization composed of the principal and a group of elected students, teachers, parents, and appointed community members, who develop the annual school improvement plan.
School Improvement Plan
A plan developed annually by the School Advisory Council and implemented by the principal and school staff to improve the school in a specific area, such as math scores.
School Needs Assessment
At least annually the school identifies professional learning needs through a classroom-by-classroom analysis of disaggregated student achievement data by content and skill areas, subgroups needing special assistance, and other school data.
Scoring Criteria
Rules for assigning a score or the dimensions of proficiency in performance used to describe a student's response to a task. May include rating scales, checklists, answer keys and other scoring tools.
Segmenting
A component of fluency in which a student breaks a word into phonemes, the samllest unit of sound.
Self-Assessment
The learner uses an assessment list or rubric and benchmarks to assess his or her own work.
Self-Report
Term which focuses on the responsibility of an educator to alert public authorities of an arrest.
Semantics
The study of words and their meanings.
Sheltered English Approach
A program for English-language learners where the classes include only Limited English Proficiency students (LEP) (hence the term sheltered). Students may have the same home language or many different home languages. Instruction is entirely in English, and students receive special instruction in English while being supported in basic core/subject areas through the use of ESOL strategies.
Simulation
A tool which focuses on imatating the operations of a real-world process or system.
Site License
The documentation that outlines the privacy rights of publishers; must be utilized to determine if software or materials can be distributed or printed.
Skinner, B.F.
An American psychologist and behaviorist knownb for his theory of operant conditioning, which states that a behavior is controlled by the consequence that follows it.
Stakeholders
Parents, teachers, administrators, and community members who are invested in the academic success of a student.
Standardized Test
An objective test that is given and scored in a uniform manner. Standardized tests are carefully constructed, and items are selected after trials for appropriateness and difficulty.
Simple Descriptive Research
A mthod used when daa are collected to describe persons, organizations, settings or phenomena. For example, a researcher administers a survey to a random sample of teachers in the state in order to describe the characteristics of the state's population of teachers.
Sociocultural Theory
Vygotsky believed that students experience incremental gains in learning. A student who is operating in his or her "zone of proximal development" will be able to easily learn when provided help by a more experienced person.
Standards
Agreed-upon values used to measure the quality of student performance, instructional methods, curiculum, etc.
Subjective Test
A test which the impression or opinion of the assessor determines the score or evaluation of performance; this type of test does not provide the learner with answers in advance.
Summative Assessment
Evaluation at the conclusion of a unit or units of instruction, or an activity or plan to determine or judge either student skills and knowledge or the effectiveness of a plan or activity.
Submersion
The practice of submerging an English-language learner in a mainstream classroom with no teacher support. Submersion is a sink-or-swim approach to second-language acquisition that is no longer practiced in the state of Florida.
Stages of Second-Language Acquisition
The stages in which a second language is acquired. The four stages are pre-production, early production, speech emergent and intermediate fluency.
Text Marking
The practice of highlighting important details and main ideas in the text as a component of active reading.
Thorndike, E.L.
A behavioral theorist who focused on the law of effect and believed that behaviors which result in favorable consequences are likely to be repeated and that behaviors which result in unfavorable consequences are not likely to be repeated.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
A technique that pairs repetitive physical movement with vocabulary.
Transfer
The idea that students from the same cultural background may share common knowledge with each other. This knowledge would be unknown to students from other cultures.
Transitions
The times of switching from one classroom activity to another.
Validity
The degree to which a test measures the desired performance and appropriate inferences can be drawn from the results; a judgement that the assessment accurately reflects the learning it was designed to measure.
Visualization
An instructional strategy which opens up student thinking by using sensory information to stimulate imagination with both spoken and written words.
Vygotsky, Lev
An educational theorist known for his sociocultural theory that stresses the importance of social interaction on learning.
Wait time
The time between when a teacher asks a question then calls on a student to answer.
Whole Language Approach
A method of language instruction that is integrated and in which listening, speaking, reading, and writing are used along with other instructional strategies to build proficiency. It is student cenrered, context embedded, and literature or academic content-based.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The difference between the level at which a child can independently solve a problem and the level at which a child can solve a more difficult problem with adult guidance or the assistance of a more skilled peer.
communication
the process of sending and receiving both verbal and nonverbal messages in order to convey information, ideas, attitudes, or feelings
vocal cues
include such vocal elements as tone, pitch, tempo, loudness, and inflection
eye contact
an indication of a person's openness to communication
facial expressions
can send positive or negative nonverbal messages
gestures
this type of nonverbal communication includes movement such as pointing and illustrating with limbs or other body parts
body language
indicates the listener's respect for the speaker and interest in the speaker's message
proximity
refers to the physical distance separating individuals
dress
often an overlooked form of nonverbal communication
posing questions
crucial skill that teachers use to provide focus to the discussion and elicit and extent students' reasoning and critical thinking
active listening
listening in a way that indicates to the speaker that you are paying attention and hearing the speaker's message
identifying relevant information
extracting major ideas or themes from the statements of others
probing
the technique of eliciting more information from students, often for the purpose of clarifying students' contributions or to justify their answers
prompting
or asking leading questions is the technique of providing hints or suggestions to encourage students to keep trying and not give up
redirecting
the technique of posing a question or prompt to students for a response or to add new insights
drawing inferences
the process of reaching conclusions based on implications from students' input
teacher expectations
a phrase used to describe a teacher's opinion of the likelihood that students will be successful
media/technology communication
communication through the use of overhead projectors, computers, videos, DVDs, CDs, TV, the Web and so on
compare students based on a normative sample of students who have already completed the test. Students are then ranked to see where they land on the bell-curve.
Norm-Referenced Tests
Norm-referenced tests, because each students who completes the exam is ranked with the % scores in relation to the sample.
Which tests limit the number of students who can score well?
After a delay of a day or two
It is favorable to provide feedback to tests when?
It is authentic and low-key and is used frequently
Praise has been shown to be most effective when?
When students repeat basic facts, spellings, and laws
Choral chant?
missing supplies, late to class. They are minor disruptions that can be minimized with procedures that are already in place.
What are some examples of controlled interruptions?
a student that a teacher is listening, but not making a judgment or pointing the conversation in a specific direction
Non-directive statements show?
Do not have the ability of understanding the language or to grasp complexities. Teachers should use simple language when working with these children.
According to Piaget, children under the age of 8?
derive concepts and definitions based on the information provided to them, (given to them) which can be fostered through personal-discovery activities
In inductive thinking students...
cognitive (memory and reasoning), affective (emotions), and psychomotor (physical abilities)
Bloom classified educational objectives into a systems that was divided into three parts
unlimited and permanent.
Long term memory is said to be?
divergent or creative thinking
Spelling errors do not allow for?
deductive reasoning
Applying spelling rules or guidelines to improve spelling would be an example of what?
A student learns a second language after mastering the first
Sequential language acquisition occurs when?
an abusive home environment, but is not required to report the abuse through the state of Florida code of ethics.
The educator has legal obligations to protect a student from
using a manipulative to teacher math for students under the age of 11.
An example of cognitive learning theory in practice would be?
removing a stimulus which causes a behavior to increase. All reinforcement increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.
According to the operant model in behavior theory, negative reinforcement is...
physical growth
Students diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder would not exhibit a delay in...
the aspects of language proficiency strongly related to literacy and academic achievement
Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency Test
students acquire a new vocabulary through experiences and associations with words because the words are used in meaningful ways and contexts.
The Natural Approach (ESOL)
pre-production, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency
Willig and Lee Four Stages of Development (ESOL)
assists the students in the transition from a language arts program in which the content is made comprehensible through the use of ESOL strategies
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
students should be provided with steps of learning that allow for consolidation and success.
Scaffolding (ESOL)
students draw on several language skill areas. These are reading tests that provide an indication of overall language ability and consist of passages from which words are omitted at regular intervals
CLOZE Testing
informing a student of what the expected tasks are as the class moves from one subject to another
A transition statement is used for...
a teacher asks one student to react to the response of another student
A ridirect occurs when...
tests the students ability to apply information, evaluate information, and create new information
High-Ordered Activity....
be aware of future events, topics, and expectations. It helps them with the pace of the classroom and the teaching
Transitions allow students to...
it has been shown that students can internalize what a teacher expects of them and will perform at that level, whether its positive or negative.
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
provided an outline detailing what would be discussed during a lesson and a summary of the lesson at the end
Kallison Jr found that retention was increased when a teacher...
the students are provided with examples and non-examples are are expected to derive the definition from this information.
In inductive teaching...
various examples
in Deductive teaching, the teacher provides
one where the class is organized to learn through their own active involvement in the lesson
A discovery learning lesson is...
moves from specific example to general rules or definitions
the egrule method
Comenius. He believed in using the senses to assist the intellect
Who wrote the book, "Orbis Pictus"?
daily living experiences
Oral language proficiency is easily acquired through...
receptive skills which always exceed the productive skills of speaking and writing
According to James Cummins, reading and listening are...
maintain that native language of the second-language learned.
The goal of the maintenance bilingual education model is to...
develops basic communication skills with the way individuals naturally acquire language
According to Krashen and Terrell, the topic centered language approach...
providing an overview and identifying key concepts
Instructional lesson modification includes...
redirect
When a teacher asks the class if they agree or disagree with a student's response, the teacher is using
Each student is measured against uniform objectives or criteria.
Criterion-Referenced Assessment
Allows students to use higher-level thinking skills to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate ideas and data
Performance-based Assessment
Focuses on the process, how the learner arrives at a response or answer. Believes intelligent thinking can be taught.
Information Processing Theories
Three features of learning: a) the mechanics or components of intelligence. b) the learner's experiences, c) the learner's context.
Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
A term used to describe what, how, and why people know what they know when they know it.
Metacognition
The six levels of Taxonomy are:
1) knowledge, 2) comprehension, 3) application, 4) analysis, 5) synthesis, 6) evaluation.
What are the six levels of Taxonomy?
Four stages to describe intellectual development:
sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
preoperational stage (2-7 years)
concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
formal operational stage (adolescents and adults)
Jean Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development
Massachusetts
The first compulsory education law was passed in
Massachusetts
The child labor law was passed requiring all children under 14 can be employed without attending public or private schools for at least 6 months prior by who?
Massachusetts
Who established the 1st compulsory education law requiring all children between 8 and 14 must attend school for at least 12 weeks per year?
Middle Atlantic Colonies
The first vocational schools were established by who?
Virginia
Private schools with no public funding began where?
Pennsylvania
The first parochial schools were established where?
First compulsory law (Massachusetts)
The law that did NOT established schools but required that parents make sure their kids could read and understand the laws and religions of their community was what?
Herbart
Who found and proposed that there are 5 steps in the teaching process?
social learning theory
The learning theory based on the assumption that people can learn from observing other people's behavior and consequences to those behaviors.
performance based assessment
The type of assessment that allows students to be creative in their solutions to problems, questions, and requires higher level thinking
operational definition
a clear and precise definition of a learning goal that should be performed as well as an accurate means to measure that goal as students strive to achieve it
nature
internal variables represent
nurture
the environment around us represents
inductive lessons
the type of lesson that involves higher level thinking by both teacher and students and a result in higher student motivation, interest, and retention
Blooms taxonomy - synthesis
putting information together in a new way, developing a new way of solving problems
intERdividual knowledge
how learners are a like and how they are different
Flavell
meta cognition was created by who?
intRAdividual knowledge
What the learner knows or understands about themselves
meta cognitive thinking
Self-examination and self-evaluation are both examples of what?
emphasis
a technique to help students identify and retain significant information
compare students based on a normative sample of students who have already completed the test. Students are then ranked to see where they land on the bell-curve.
Norm-Referenced Tests
Norm-referenced tests, because each students who completes the exam is ranked with the % scores in relation to the sample.
Which tests limit the number of students who can score well?
After a delay of a day or two
It is favorable to provide feedback to tests when?
It is authentic and low-key and is used frequently
Praise has been shown to be most effective when?
When students repeat basic facts, spellings, and laws
Choral chant?
missing supplies, late to class. They are minor disruptions that can be minimized with procedures that are already in place.
What are some examples of controlled interruptions?
a student that a teacher is listening, but not making a judgment or pointing the conversation in a specific direction
Non-directive statements show?
Do not have the ability of understanding the language or to grasp complexities. Teachers should use simple language when working with these children.
According to Piaget, children under the age of 8?
derive concepts and definitions based on the information provided to them, (given to them) which can be fostered through personal-discovery activities
In inductive thinking students...
cognitive (memory and reasoning), affective (emotions), and psychomotor (physical abilities)
Bloom classified educational objectives into a systems that was divided into three parts
unlimited and permanent.
Long term memory is said to be?
divergent or creative thinking
Spelling errors do not allow for?
deductive reasoning
Applying spelling rules or guidelines to improve spelling would be an example of what?
A student learns a second language after mastering the first
Sequential language acquisition occurs when?
an abusive home environment, but is not required to report the abuse through the state of Florida code of ethics.
The educator has legal obligations to protect a student from
using a manipulative to teacher math for students under the age of 11.
An example of cognitive learning theory in practice would be?
removing a stimulus which causes a behavior to increase. All reinforcement increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.
According to the operant model in behavior theory, negative reinforcement is...
physical growth
Students diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder would not exhibit a delay in...
the aspects of language proficiency strongly related to literacy and academic achievement
Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency Test
students acquire a new vocabulary through experiences and associations with words because the words are used in meaningful ways and contexts.
The Natural Approach (ESOL)
pre-production, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency
Willig and Lee Four Stages of Development (ESOL)
assists the students in the transition from a language arts program in which the content is made comprehensible through the use of ESOL strategies
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
students should be provided with steps of learning that allow for consolidation and success.
Scaffolding (ESOL)
students draw on several language skill areas. These are reading tests that provide an indication of overall language ability and consist of passages from which words are omitted at regular intervals
CLOZE Testing
informing a student of what the expected tasks are as the class moves from one subject to another
A transition statement is used for...
a teacher asks one student to react to the response of another student
A ridirect occurs when...
tests the students ability to apply information, evaluate information, and create new information
High-Ordered Activity....
be aware of future events, topics, and expectations. It helps them with the pace of the classroom and the teaching
Transitions allow students to...
it has been shown that students can internalize what a teacher expects of them and will perform at that level, whether its positive or negative.
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
provided an outline detailing what would be discussed during a lesson and a summary of the lesson at the end
Kallison Jr found that retention was increased when a teacher...
the students are provided with examples and non-examples are are expected to derive the definition from this information.
In inductive teaching...
various examples
in Deductive teaching, the teacher provides
one where the class is organized to learn through their own active involvement in the lesson
A discovery learning lesson is...
moves from specific example to general rules or definitions
the egrule method
Comenius. He believed in using the senses to assist the intellect
Who wrote the book, "Orbis Pictus"?
daily living experiences
Oral language proficiency is easily acquired through...
receptive skills which always exceed the productive skills of speaking and writing
According to James Cummins, reading and listening are...
maintain that native language of the second-language learned.
The goal of the maintenance bilingual education model is to...
develops basic communication skills with the way individuals naturally acquire language
According to Krashen and Terrell, the topic centered language approach...
providing an overview and identifying key concepts
Instructional lesson modification includes...
redirect
When a teacher asks the class if they agree or disagree with a student's response, the teacher is using
Each student is measured against uniform objectives or criteria.
Criterion-Referenced Assessment
Allows students to use higher-level thinking skills to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate ideas and data
Performance-based Assessment
Focuses on the process, how the learner arrives at a response or answer. Believes intelligent thinking can be taught.
Information Processing Theories
Three features of learning: a) the mechanics or components of intelligence. b) the learner's experiences, c) the learner's context.
Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
A term used to describe what, how, and why people know what they know when they know it.
Metacognition
The six levels of Taxonomy are:
1) knowledge, 2) comprehension, 3) application, 4) analysis, 5) synthesis, 6) evaluation.
What are the six levels of Taxonomy?
Four stages to describe intellectual development:
sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
preoperational stage (2-7 years)
concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
formal operational stage (adolescents and adults)
Jean Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development
Massachusetts
The first compulsory education law was passed in
Massachusetts
The child labor law was passed requiring all children under 14 can be employed without attending public or private schools for at least 6 months prior by who?
Massachusetts
Who established the 1st compulsory education law requiring all children between 8 and 14 must attend school for at least 12 weeks per year?
Middle Atlantic Colonies
The first vocational schools were established by who?
Virginia
Private schools with no public funding began where?
Pennsylvania
The first parochial schools were established where?
First compulsory law (Massachusetts)
The law that did NOT established schools but required that parents make sure their kids could read and understand the laws and religions of their community was what?
Herbart
Who found and proposed that there are 5 steps in the teaching process?
social learning theory
The learning theory based on the assumption that people can learn from observing other people's behavior and consequences to those behaviors.
performance based assessment
The type of assessment that allows students to be creative in their solutions to problems, questions, and requires higher level thinking
operational definition
a clear and precise definition of a learning goal that should be performed as well as an accurate means to measure that goal as students strive to achieve it
nature
internal variables represent
nurture
the environment around us represents
inductive lessons
the type of lesson that involves higher level thinking by both teacher and students and a result in higher student motivation, interest, and retention
Blooms taxonomy - synthesis
putting information together in a new way, developing a new way of solving problems
intERdividual knowledge
how learners are a like and how they are different
Flavell
meta cognition was created by who?
intRAdividual knowledge
What the learner knows or understands about themselves
meta cognitive thinking
Self-examination and self-evaluation are both examples of what?
emphasis
a technique to help students identify and retain significant information
compare students based on a normative sample of students who have already completed the test. Students are then ranked to see where they land on the bell-curve.
Norm-Referenced Tests
Norm-referenced tests, because each students who completes the exam is ranked with the % scores in relation to the sample.
Which tests limit the number of students who can score well?
After a delay of a day or two
It is favorable to provide feedback to tests when?
It is authentic and low-key and is used frequently
Praise has been shown to be most effective when?
When students repeat basic facts, spellings, and laws
Choral chant?
missing supplies, late to class. They are minor disruptions that can be minimized with procedures that are already in place.
What are some examples of controlled interruptions?
a student that a teacher is listening, but not making a judgment or pointing the conversation in a specific direction
Non-directive statements show?
Do not have the ability of understanding the language or to grasp complexities. Teachers should use simple language when working with these children.
According to Piaget, children under the age of 8?
derive concepts and definitions based on the information provided to them, (given to them) which can be fostered through personal-discovery activities
In inductive thinking students...
cognitive (memory and reasoning), affective (emotions), and psychomotor (physical abilities)
Bloom classified educational objectives into a systems that was divided into three parts
unlimited and permanent.
Long term memory is said to be?
divergent or creative thinking
Spelling errors do not allow for?
deductive reasoning
Applying spelling rules or guidelines to improve spelling would be an example of what?
A student learns a second language after mastering the first
Sequential language acquisition occurs when?
an abusive home environment, but is not required to report the abuse through the state of Florida code of ethics.
The educator has legal obligations to protect a student from
using a manipulative to teacher math for students under the age of 11.
An example of cognitive learning theory in practice would be?
removing a stimulus which causes a behavior to increase. All reinforcement increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.
According to the operant model in behavior theory, negative reinforcement is...
physical growth
Students diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder would not exhibit a delay in...
the aspects of language proficiency strongly related to literacy and academic achievement
Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency Test
students acquire a new vocabulary through experiences and associations with words because the words are used in meaningful ways and contexts.
The Natural Approach (ESOL)
pre-production, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency
Willig and Lee Four Stages of Development (ESOL)
assists the students in the transition from a language arts program in which the content is made comprehensible through the use of ESOL strategies
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
students should be provided with steps of learning that allow for consolidation and success.
Scaffolding (ESOL)
students draw on several language skill areas. These are reading tests that provide an indication of overall language ability and consist of passages from which words are omitted at regular intervals
CLOZE Testing
informing a student of what the expected tasks are as the class moves from one subject to another
A transition statement is used for...
a teacher asks one student to react to the response of another student
A ridirect occurs when...
tests the students ability to apply information, evaluate information, and create new information
High-Ordered Activity....
be aware of future events, topics, and expectations. It helps them with the pace of the classroom and the teaching
Transitions allow students to...
it has been shown that students can internalize what a teacher expects of them and will perform at that level, whether its positive or negative.
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
provided an outline detailing what would be discussed during a lesson and a summary of the lesson at the end
Kallison Jr found that retention was increased when a teacher...
the students are provided with examples and non-examples are are expected to derive the definition from this information.
In inductive teaching...
various examples
in Deductive teaching, the teacher provides
one where the class is organized to learn through their own active involvement in the lesson
A discovery learning lesson is...
moves from specific example to general rules or definitions
the egrule method
Comenius. He believed in using the senses to assist the intellect
Who wrote the book, "Orbis Pictus"?
daily living experiences
Oral language proficiency is easily acquired through...
receptive skills which always exceed the productive skills of speaking and writing
According to James Cummins, reading and listening are...
maintain that native language of the second-language learned.
The goal of the maintenance bilingual education model is to...
develops basic communication skills with the way individuals naturally acquire language
According to Krashen and Terrell, the topic centered language approach...
providing an overview and identifying key concepts
Instructional lesson modification includes...
redirect
When a teacher asks the class if they agree or disagree with a student's response, the teacher is using
Each student is measured against uniform objectives or criteria.
Criterion-Referenced Assessment
Allows students to use higher-level thinking skills to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate ideas and data
Performance-based Assessment
Focuses on the process, how the learner arrives at a response or answer. Believes intelligent thinking can be taught.
Information Processing Theories
Three features of learning: a) the mechanics or components of intelligence. b) the learner's experiences, c) the learner's context.
Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
A term used to describe what, how, and why people know what they know when they know it.
Metacognition
The six levels of Taxonomy are:
1) knowledge, 2) comprehension, 3) application, 4) analysis, 5) synthesis, 6) evaluation.
What are the six levels of Taxonomy?
Four stages to describe intellectual development:
sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
preoperational stage (2-7 years)
concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
formal operational stage (adolescents and adults)
Jean Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development
Massachusetts
The first compulsory education law was passed in
Massachusetts
The child labor law was passed requiring all children under 14 can be employed without attending public or private schools for at least 6 months prior by who?
Massachusetts
Who established the 1st compulsory education law requiring all children between 8 and 14 must attend school for at least 12 weeks per year?
Middle Atlantic Colonies
The first vocational schools were established by who?
Virginia
Private schools with no public funding began where?
Pennsylvania
The first parochial schools were established where?
First compulsory law (Massachusetts)
The law that did NOT established schools but required that parents make sure their kids could read and understand the laws and religions of their community was what?
Herbart
Who found and proposed that there are 5 steps in the teaching process?
social learning theory
The learning theory based on the assumption that people can learn from observing other people's behavior and consequences to those behaviors.
performance based assessment
The type of assessment that allows students to be creative in their solutions to problems, questions, and requires higher level thinking
operational definition
a clear and precise definition of a learning goal that should be performed as well as an accurate means to measure that goal as students strive to achieve it
nature
internal variables represent
nurture
the environment around us represents
inductive lessons
the type of lesson that involves higher level thinking by both teacher and students and a result in higher student motivation, interest, and retention
Blooms taxonomy - synthesis
putting information together in a new way, developing a new way of solving problems
intERdividual knowledge
how learners are a like and how they are different
Flavell
meta cognition was created by who?
intRAdividual knowledge
What the learner knows or understands about themselves
meta cognitive thinking
Self-examination and self-evaluation are both examples of what?
emphasis
a technique to help students identify and retain significant information
acronym (1)
Word formed from the first initials of a title or phrase.
Bloom's Taxonomy (1)
A classification of learning objectives proposed in 1956. It is used to classify educational goals. Originally it included the following levels: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. Revised, it describes levels as Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating. Three domains for classifying educational objectives: Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor.
brain hemisphere (1)
The two halves of the brain. The left controls the right side of the body and functions primarily as the more academic and logical side of the brain. The right controls the left side of the body and functions primarily as the artistic and creative side of the brain.
Bruner, Jerome (1)
A psychologist who is known for his work in cognitive psychology and the cognitive learning theory.
choral reading (1)
Students read together, aloud, and in unison with the teacher to practice fluency.
classroom management (1)
Planning and implementing methods to ensure that the learning environment of the classroom provides an effective venue for learning.
Teachers' strategies that create and maintain an orderly classroom environment.
convergent questions (1)
A type of question that requires a student to "come together" on one answer. An example of a this type of question is, "What is 4 + 2?" Generally this type of question requires a lower-level thinking skills.
Single answers require recall or memorization.
cooperative learning (1)
A student centered learning approach in which heterogeneously grouped students work cooperatively to accomplish a shared task.
Strategies in which students work together to help one another learn by sharing perspectives and providing models of slightly advanced thinking.
deductive thinking (1)
A method of reasoning that requires students to take one or more general statements and then work their way down to a more specific conclusion. General to specific.
direct instruction (1)
A teaching method in which the teacher provides knowledge by directly presenting it to the students, generally in the format of lectures. A teacher-led instructional procedure that provides students with specific instructions on a task, teacher-led practice, independent practice, and immediate corrective feedback. Also referred to as explicit instruction.
divergent questions (1)
A type of question that requires critical thinking, since it allows for students to generate multiple answers to a defined question. An example is, "What is freedom?" Generally, this type of question requires higher-order thinking skills. Higher-level thinking questions; require students to analyze, evaluate, or synthesize a knowledge base and then project or predict different outcomes... the intent of these questions is to stimulate imaginative, creative, or inventive thought, or investigate "cause and effect" relationships
educational objective (1)
Goals developed by a teacher, based on state standards, which direct student learning. A clear goal indicating what the student should be able to know or do as a result of the training.
graphic organizer (1)
A visual tool for organizing knowledge. A diagram, chart, or graph used to organize information in a meaningful way
individual educational program (1)
A written document that is developed through a team effort for each public school child who is eligible for for special education and reviewed at least once a year.
individualized instruction (1)
Instructional strategies that are tailored to a student's specific learning style.
inductive thinking (1)
A method of reasoning that requires students to take specific facts and use them to develop a general conclusion. Specific to general.
instructional objective (1)
The educational goal of a lesson; specifically, what a teacher wants the students to know at the conclusion of a lesson.
learning styles (1)
The ways in which a student recognizes and processes information in the context of an educational setting. They are clearly delineated by the ways in which learners prefer to concentrate, store, and remember new and challenging information. They are visual, aural, verbal, physical, logical, social, and solitary.
lecture (1)
A type of teacher-centered direct instruction where the teacher gives information while the students take notes.
lesson cycle model (1)
An instructional approach that includes the following components; focus, explanation, check for understanding, re-teach, guided practice, check for mastery, independent practice, enrichment, and closure. The components of the _____________ do not necessarily all occur in a single lesson, nor must a particular sequential order be followed.
mnemonic device (1)
Strategies that increase memory, especially for material that is not easily organized. Method of improving memory by associating new information with previously learned information.
modality preference (1)
The way a child prefers to learn. Students may be auditory, visual, kinesthetic, or mixed learners.
modeled reading (1)
A method wherein the teacher reads aloud a book which is above the students' reading level. Students may or may not have a copy of the text with which to follow along. The purpose of this reading is to demonstrate a skill or ability such as fluency or a fix-up strategy. A teacher reads modeling fluency , tone , rate.
multiple intelligences (1)
Howard Gardner of Harvard University defined seven distinct ____________ which relate to the learning environment. This is a theoretical framework for defining, understanding, assessing and developing learner's different intelligence factors. Through Gardner's research, one can easily see that teachers must create learning environments based on a variety of _____________. Seven defined types: linguistic, logical/math, musical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal
paired reading (1)
Students work in pairs, taking turns reading aloud a selection of text in order to build fluency skills. This is commonly called buddy reading. Student working in pairs (higher and lower); higher gain fluency from teaching; lower show improvement.
planning (1)
The process of designing the method of instruction used to teach a learning objective, and the way to assess the mastery of the objective.
prior knowledge (1)
Previously acquired knowledge that applies to a current lesson. Knowledge about or experience with a topic that enables connections for learning; a basis for comprehension or understanding.
problem-based learning (1)
A method of student-centered learning where the students work individually or cooperatively to solve a problem. Based on the Basic Concepts of Constructivism.
simulation (1)
A tool which focuses on imitating the operation of a real-world process or system. A way of modeling a problem situation or event that would be too difficult or impractical to actually perform
standards (1)
Agreed-upon values used to measure the quality of student performance, instructional methods, curriculum, etc. Accepted level of achievement.
6 E Learning Cycle Model (1)
Instructional planning model: Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration, Evaluation, E-Search. Also learner/teacher relationship.
6 + 1 Lesson Model (1)
Instructional planning model: Focus, Objective, Direct Instruction, Guided Practice, Independent Practice & Assessment, Closure, Required Equipment & Materials. Research based lesson plan.
Piaget (1)
Growth occurs in stages - sensory motor (0-2), preoperational/experiential (2-7), concrete operational (7-11) formal operational (11+) formal and abstract operations.
Depth of Knowledge (DOK) (1)
Model of cognitive expectation. 1 = Recall and Reproduction, 2 = Skills and Concepts, 3 = Strategic Thinking, 4 = Extended Thinking. RIGOR.
Response to Intervention Model (1)
A three-tiered screening system that allows teachers to determine whether students are learning, using interventions as necessary
action research (5)
A reflective process of researching instructional methods based on student scores and the teacher's observations.
code of ethics (6)
The set of standards that apply to ethical decision-making within the field of education in the state of Florida.
comparative descriptive research (5)
Research that describes two or more groups of participants. Used to describe variables and to examine differences in variables in two or more groups that occur naturally in a setting.
correlation research (5)
Research that is used to describe the statistical association between two or more variables. The researcher observes or measures two or more naturally occurring variables to find the relationship between them. In this research, the researcher does not directly manipulate the variables.
experimental research (5)
Research in which an independent variable is manipulated and its effect on one or more dependent variables is measured. In a true experimental design, the researcher randomly assigns the participants who are being studied (also called the subjects) to two or more comparison groups. Sometimes the comparison groups are referred to as treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group receive some type of treatment, such as a special reading program.
individual needs assessment (5)
The process by which the educator identifies individual professional learning goals with primary emphasis on student learning needs by reviewing certification needs, classroom-level disaggregated student achievement, and behavioral data related to content area skills, school initiatives, the School Improvement Plan, and school and team goals. Educator Level Professional Development Standard.
principles of professional conduct (6)
The set of standards which outline the appropriate conduct, parameters, and repercussions for educators in the state of Florida.
professional learning communities (5)
A group of educators who act as reflective practitioners, analyzing student data in order to improve instruction methods. A group of educators that meets regularly, share expertise, and work collaboratively to improve teaching skills and the academic performance of students.
qualitative research (5)
Research that is based on unmeasurable qualities, such as teacher observation and examination of case studies.
quantitative research (5)
Research that is based on measurable data, such as how methods of instruction influence student test scores.
reflective practitioner (5)
An educator who reflects on instructional practices and self-evaluates the effectiveness of the instruction that is being provided. A teacher who is CONSTANTLY THINKING critically about teaching and the consequences of actions or inactions, all with the goal of being more effective with students.
School Advisory Council (SAC) (5)
An organization composed of the principal and a group of elected students, teachers, parents, and appointed community members, who develop the annual school improvement plan.
school needs assessment (5)
At least annually the school identifies professional learning needs through a classroom-by-classroom analysis of disaggregated student achievement data by content and skill areas, subgroups needing special assistance, and other school data.
simple descriptive research (5)
A method used when data are collected to describe persons, organizations, settings, or phenomena. For example, a researcher administers a survey to a random sample of teachers, in the state in order to describe the characteristics of the state's population of teachers.
site license (6)
The documentation that outlines the privacy rights of publishers; must be utilized to determine if software or materials can be distributed or printed.
Florida Abuse Hotline (6)
The communication tool utilized by educators to report suspected abuse.
Office of Professional Practice Services (6)
Department which provides follow-up and accountability for educators based on the Code of Ethics and Principles of Professional Conduct.
self-report (6)
Term which focuses on the responsibility of an educator to alert public authorities of an arrest. A teacher must self-report within 48 hours of an arrest. Failure to report an arrest to the Florida Department of Education gives the state grounds for dismissal and certificate revocation regardless of the outcome of the arrest. Not needed for a minor traffic incident, such as a red-light violation.
acquisition-learning model (7)
States that there are two independent ways in which we develop our linguistic skills: acquisition and learning. Acquisition of language is a subconscious process and the learner is unaware of the process taking place. Once the new knowledge has been acquired, the learner is actually unaware of possessing such knowledge. This is analogous to the way in which children learn their native language. Secondly, they can learn it by intentionally studying vocabulary and grammar. These two methods work in tandem, and both are necessary for second-language acquisition.
affective filter hypothesis (7)
Emotional factors contribute greatly to a student's ability to learn a second language. According to this hypothesis, certain emotions, such as anxiety, self-doubt, and mere boredom interfere with the process of acquiring a second language. The hypothesis further states that the blockage can be reduced by sparking interest, providing low anxiety environments and bolstering the learner's self-esteem.
basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) (7)
The vocabulary a student uses to carry on social conversations in low-stress environments such as the lunch room and the playground. The language ability needed for casual conversation. This usually applies to the interpersonal conversation skills of ELL students (i.e, playground language). It is everyday, straightforward communication skills that are helped by contextual supports such as gestures.
cognates (7)
Words from different languages that have the same meaning and similar pronunciation and spelling.
cognitive academic language proficiency (CALPS) (7)
Refers to formal academic learning. This includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material. This level of language learning is essential for students to succeed in school. Students need time and support to become proficient in academic areas. This usually takes from five to seven years. Recent research has shown that if a child has no prior schooling or has no support in native language development, it may take seven to ten years for ELLs to catch up to their peers.
dual immersion programs (7)
A learning environment in which students who are learning English are placed together with students who are fluent in English, and English language learners receive specialized English language instruction. All students in this language program receive core/basic subject area instruction in English and another language.
Florida Consent Decree (7)
The document that addresses the civil rights of English language learners in the state of Florida, including their right to equal access to all education programs. It provides a structure that ensures the delivery of the comprehensible instruction to which English language learners are entitled.
home language survey (7)
The initial questionnaire that is given to all incoming Florida students. It asks questions about the primary language spoken in the home. If any question is answered "yes" the student is evaluated for English proficiency.
input hypothesis (7)
The belief that in order to challenge a student, the teacher needs to provide material that is slightly above the student's ability level an any language.
Jim Cummins (7)
Professor, University of Toronto/ is one of the world's leading authorities on bilingual education and second language acquisition. The acronyms "BICS" and "CALP" were first introduced by him in 1979-1980. He felt that students will gain fluency in Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) long before they demonstrate mastery of Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALPS). He felt that it took between five and seven years for students to master CALP. He believed that it was critical that students develop cognitive language in order to be successful in the classroom.
language acquisition model (7)
Four stages include: pre-production, early production, speech emergent, and intermediate fluency.
Lev Vygotsky (7)
An educational theorist known for his sociocultural theory that stresses the importance of social interaction on learning. 1896-1934; Russian developmental psychologist who emphasized the role of the social environment on cognitive development and proposed the idea of zones of proximal development
limited English proficiency (LEP) (7)
A term used to describe students who are not native English speakers and struggle with speaking, listening, reading, or writing in English.
mainstream/inclusion (7)
An ESOL program where the students who are learning English are grouped with students who are fluent in English. Instruction is only in English and students are supported in basic core/subject areas through the use of ESOL strategies.
monitor hypothesis (7)
A hypothesis developed by Krashen that states if a student can learn the grammatical rules of a new language, he or she will be able to monitor written and spoken language in the future.
multicultural education (7)
An educational approach that focuses on five key areas: content integration, knowledge construction, equity pedagogy, prejudice reduction, and empowerment of school culture. An educational strategy that values diversity, promotes social justice, and provides equality to all students regardless of their race, ethnicity, gender, language, sexual orientation, religion, or ability.
native language (7)
Any language that is spoken regularly in the home.
natural order hypothesis (7)
States that second-language acquisition will follow a predictable pattern, and that certain grammatical structures will be acquired before others. Krashen contends that for this reason, educators should follow a specific order of grammatical instruction.
No Child Left Behind Act (7)
Legislation that supports the need for standards-based education reform. This is achieved by setting high standards and establishing measurable goals to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Federal law enacted in January 2002 that introduced new accountability measures for elementary and secondary schools in all states that wish to receive federal aid. States that non-native English speakers may not be tested in their native language. It also gave the individual school districts the right and responsibility of establishing programs that will teach these students English.
realia (7)
Concrete objects that are used to give meaning to a lesson. Use of these objects from the real world help deepen student understanding.
scaffolding (7)
The practice of providing sufficient assistance to a student in order to facilitate learning. Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level.
sheltered English approach (7)
A program for English-language learners where the classes include only Limited English Proficiency students (LEP). Students may have the same home language or many different home languages. Instruction is entirely in English, and students receive special instruction in English while being supported in basic core/subject areas through the use of ESOL strategies.
sociocognitive approach (7)
A language acquisition theory that states that the different aspects of linguistic, cognitive, and social knowledge are interactive elements of total human development.
stages of second language acquisition (7)
The stages in which a second language is acquired. The four stages are pre-production, early production, speech emergent, and intermediate fluency.
stakeholders (7)
Parents teachers, administrators, and community members who are invested in the academic success of the student.
Steven Krashen (7)
An educational activist who is famous for his contributions to the fields of second-language acquisition, bilingual education, and reading.
He introduced the theory of second language acquisition with five components: 1) Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis 2) Monitor Hypothesis 3) Natural Order Hypothesis 4) The Input Hypothesis 5) The Affective Filter Hypothesis
submersion (7)
The practice of submerging an English-language learner in a mainstream classroom with no teacher support. It is a sink-or-swim approach to second-language acquisition that is no longer practiced in the state of Florida.
total physical response (TPR) (7)
A technique that pairs repetitive physical movement with vocabulary. A language-teaching method developed by James Asher. It is based on the coordination of language and physical movement. With this, instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond with whole-body actions
transfer (7)
The idea that students from the same cultural background may share common knowledge with each other. This knowledge would be unknown to students from other cultures.
whole language approach (7)
A method of language instruction that is integrated and in which listening, speaking, reading, and writing are used along with other instructional strategies to build proficiency. It is student centered, context embedded, and literature or academic content-based.
Language acquisition Stage 1 Pre-production (7)
"Silent period" focusing on listening to English being spoken and will only respond non-verbally when questioned. Students have a vocabulary of approximately 500 words.
Language acquisition Stage 2 Early Production (7)
Still focused on receptive vocabulary, but will begin to utter short, one-to two-word answers to questions. Students have a vocabulary of approximately 1000 words. They may also use chunks of memorized phrases,
Language acquisition Stage 3 Speech Emergent (7)
The student has a vocabulary of up to 3,000 words, and he or she will ask simple questions and speak in simple sentences.
Language acquisition Stage 4 Intermediate Fluency (7)
The student has a vocabulary of approximately 6,000 words and will speak in more complex sentences when speaking and writing. Have mastered basic interpersonal communication skills. Capable of using higher-order thinking skills when using the new language.
Language acquisition Stage 5 Advanced Fluency (7)
Students at this stage are fluent in written and oral communication. Will have trouble with idioms. Students reach this level and master cognitive academic language in five to seven years.
accommodation (2)
A change in the way a student learns new material. Teachers use accommodated teaching methods when directed to do so by a student's individual educational program (IEP).
assistive technology (2)
Any assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices that are used to provided accommodations for students with disabilities.
Bandura, Albert (2)
A social learning theorist that believed learning occurs without direct consequences to one's actions. He proposed that learners observe modeled behavior and the consequences of the behavior, and then project the consequences on themselves.
bullying (2)
Using superior strength or social stature to intimidate or influence the decisions of another person.
classroom management (2)
Planning and implementing methods to ensure that the learning environment of the classroom provides and effective venue for learning.
classroom presence (2)
Your motions, gestures, and location in a classroom that have an effect on teaching.
cyberbullying (2)
Bullying that occurs online, primarily on social media sites.
database (2)
A collection of information that is organized and stored on a computer to provide and easy method for accessing data.
discrimination (2)
The unfair treatment of another individual based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or age.
extinction (2)
The practice of ignoring an undesired behavior in the hopes that it disappears on its own. For instance, a child that makes noises to gain the teacher's attention may cease if the teacher ignores the behavior.
extrinsic motivation (2)
Motivation through the use of external rewards. Behaviorists contend that this motivation can be effectively used to manage student behavior.
high-traffic areas (2)
Paths that students often travel in the classroom, such as where they line up to leave the room and the path they take to frequently used supplies.
intellectual property (2)
A work that is personally created by an individual and can be copyrighted.
intrinsic motivation (2)
Motivation that comes from an internal source such as self-motivation, and the satisfaction that is created when personal goals are achieved.
Meichenbaum (2)
A social learning theorist that established the model of self-regulated learning. This theory focuses on importance of practicing modeled behavior by forecasting the rewarding consequences of positive behaviors and the negative consequences of undesirable behaviors.
modification (2)
A change in the curriculum's learning requirements due to a student's inability to master the required state standards.
negative reinforcement (2)
A method of influencing behavior through removing an adverse stimulant in order to strengthen a behavior. For example, a parent may stop complaining about a messy room if the child begins to clean his or her room. The lack of nagging is the removal of the stimulant as a result of the room remaining clean.
Pavlov, Ivan (2)
A Nobel Prize-winning Russian psychologist known for his work in classical conditioning: the relationship between behavior and direct rewards. His work greatly influenced behaviorism.
positive reinforcement (2)
Anything that is added in order to cause an increase in a behavior. This can be a tangible reward or verbal praise. Scolding be an example of this if receiving attention enforces an undesired behavior.
Premack principle (2)
Pairs undesirable behaviors with desirable acts, and is employed frequently to induce students to engage in the former. An example is telling students they can go outside to play kickball, a desired outcome, after cleaning the art station, and undesirable task.
punishers (2)
Punishment decreases the likelihood a behavior is repeated, provided it is not reinforcing in some way, such as giving a violator status with peers.
Skinner, B. F. (2)
An American psychologist and behaviorist known for his theory of operant conditioning, which states that a behavior is controlled by the consequences that follows it.
Thorndike, E. L. (2)
A behavioral theorist who focused on the law of effect and believed that behaviors which result in favorable consequences are likely to be repeated and that behaviors which result in unfavorable consequences are not likely to be repeated.
transitions (2)
The times of switching from one classroom activity to another.
wait time (2)
The time between when a teacher asks a question then calls on a student to answer.
knowledge of how to apply human development and learning theories that support intellectual, personal, and social development of all students
human development and learning
take into account the typical patterns of physical, social, and cognitive development of students in order to optimize student learning and to promote social growth
developmentally appropriate practice
pleasurable, spontaneous, self-motivated, and freely chosen activity
play
commonly occurs from birth to age 2 and involves movement and sensory exploration of the environment (for example, a toddler banging on a toy piano)
functional play (Piaget)
usually begins around age 2 and involves using materials or objects to represent things (using a block to represent a telephone) or engaging in imaginary roles (playing store)
symbolic play (Piaget)
commonly begins near school-age and involves the ability to agree upon and abide by rules (playing simon says)
games with rules play (Piaget)
a child watches another child play, but does not join in
onlooker play
a child plays alone
solitary play
children play side-by-side, engage in similar activities, might mimic each other, but do not play together and interact very little
parallel play
children play similar activities side-by-side with interaction such as talking or sharing, but with little joint focus
associative play
children play as a group of two or more complex social interaction (ex: conversations, turn taking, choosing sides) and with a common focus
cooperative play
physical development of children proceeds from head to toe
cephalocaudal progression
growth and motor ability develop from the central axis of the body outward
proximodistal progression
involves fitting new information into existing mental structures
assimilation (Piaget)
existing mental structures
schema (Piaget)
requires modifying current schema or creating new schema in order to take the new data or information into account
accommodation (Piaget)
cognitive conflict
disequilibrium (Piaget)
developed from physical interaction with objects
physical knowledge (Piaget)
developed from recognizing logical relationships between objects and ideas
logical-mathematical knowledge (Piaget)
developed through custom and social convention
social knowledge (Piaget)
According to Piaget, thinking, also called __, is an active and interactive process that develops in stages
cognition
(birth to age 2) learning is through the senses and motor development and through trial and error
sensorimotor (Piaget)
they learn that objects continue to exist even when the objects are no longer visible and is part of sensorimotor stage
object permanence (Piaget)
(age 2 to 6) highly imaginative stage, enjoys pretend play
preoperational stage (Piaget)
sees the world from their own point of view and is what part of Piaget's cognitive development stage
egocentric, preoperational (Piaget)
focus on one aspect of a situation and is what part of Piaget's cognitive development stage
centration, preoperational (Piaget)
the ability to mentally represent objects, events, and actions and is what part of Piaget's cognitive development stage
symbolic thought, preoperational (Piaget)
the ability to mentally reverse an operation and is what part of Piaget's cognitive development stage
reversability, preoperational (Piaget)
the ability to recognize that number, length, quantity, area, mass, weight, and volume of objects has not necessarily changed even thought they appear to have changed and is what part of Piaget's cognitive development stage
conservation, preoperational
(age 7 to 11) stage in which children develop the ability to take another's point of view
concrete operations stage (Piaget)
can arrange objects in sequential order and is what part of Piaget's cognitive development stage
seriation, concrete operations stage (Piaget)
can think of the whole and its parts simultaneously and is what part of Piaget's cognitive development stage
class inclusion, concrete operations stage
(age 11 - adulthood) stage in which students begin to think more easily about abstract concepts
formal operations (Piaget)
Piaget's stages of moral development: children see rules as unbreakable and unchangeable
heteronomous morality
Piaget's stages of moral development: children develop autonomy and are willing to challenge rules
autonomous morality
the ability to learn and solve problems on one's own without assistance
self regulation (Vygotsky)
the self-talk learners use to monitor and guide themselves as they work through a problem or complete a learning task
private speech (Vygotsky)
the distance between a student's independent level of problem-solving ability and the student's potential level of problem-solving ability that can achieved with assistance from an adult or more capable peer
zone of proximal development (Vygotsky)
the support and assistance provided for learning and problem solving (verbal cues or prompts, visual highlighting, diagrams, checklists, reminders, modeling, and examples)
scaffolding (Vygotsky)
a learning theory based on using immediate consequences to weaken or strengthen a learner's observable response
behaviorism
pleasant or unpleasant effect that follows a behavior and influences whether it will occur again
consequence
a pleasant consequence that follows a behavior
reinforcement
reinforcement in the form of things given to the student (stickers, extra privileges)
positive reinforcement
reinforcement in the form of being removed from a situation, perceived as unpleasant
negative reinforcement
the process of weakening and eventually eliminating the occurrence of a behavior usually through the removal or withholding of reinforcement
extinction
the frequency with which reinforcement is given influences the response rate of a behavior and its resistance to extinction
schedule of reinforcement
uses positive reinforcement upon successful completion of incremental steps along the way toward a desired learning goal
shaping
involves giving an undesirable consequence (for example, extra work) in order to deter undesirable behavior
positive punishment
involves taking away a desirable reward (for example, free time) in order to deter undesirable behavior
negative punishment
learner-centered approach that establishes learning environments that provide experiences from which the learner can construct meaning based on what the learner already knows
constructivism
the willingness or desire of a student to exhibit a behavior such as productively engaging in a learning experience
motivation
the desire to learn originates within the student and stems from the student's intellectual curiosity
intrinsic motivation
using external reinforcement in the form of rewards to get students in engage in learning
extrinsic motivation
the tendency to strive for success and to choose goal-oriented, success or failure activities
achievement motivation
theorist: learning as a process of constructing meaning by building on prior understandings
Bruner
One of Bruner's three modes through which children can learn based on their level of cognitive development: interacting w/objects in their environment
Enactive
One of Bruner's three modes through which children can learn based on their level of cognitive development:use of images or graphic illustrations to convey concepts
Iconic Mode
One of Bruner's three modes through which children can learn based on their level of cognitive development:using symbols and words to represent concepts
symbolic mode
require teachers in FL to provide needed modifications to students with disabilities
Individuals with Disabilities Act
changes in what a student is expected to learn and may include changes in content, requirements, & expected level of mastery.
Modifications
changes that are made in how the student access informations and demonstrates performance.
Accommodations
According to Piaget, this stage is also when children learn to distinguish themselves from the external world; they also discover the beginning of independence through cause and effect, and learn imitative behavior
sensorimotor (Piaget)
true-false: High school teachers should assume that their students have achieved formal operational thinking
false
true-false: before age 7, children have difficulty taking the perspective of others
true
True-false: Students functions pretty must at the same level, once that level is reached, in all situations
false
(Piaget) The ___ stage is predominant, although frequently an adolescent functions at the ___ stage for some topics (such as mathematical problem solving) and the ___ stage for other topics (such as civil rights)
concrete operations, concrete operational, formal
Which theorist based his work on the premise that learning cannot be understood without consideration of its cultural and social context
Vygotsky
Which theorist proposed that learning involves three basic processes of assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration
Piaget
True-False: Teachers should avoid using punishment in their classroom. Explain why it is true or false
true, because it puts in jeopardy the safe, supportive learning environment
taking away a desirable reward is an example of ___ punishment
negative
true-false: detention is an example of negative reinforcement. Explain why it is true or false
false, b/c it is a positive punishment. it involves giving an undesirable consequence in order to deter undesirable behavior
What are the 4 general ways accommodations may be made?
presentation, response, setting, timing and scheduling
In order for accommodation be made for students who are taking the FCAT, what must be done?
the accommodation must be written on the IEP or 504 and used regularly in the classroom instruction and assessment
a 4-year old child is shown a tall, thin jar and a short, wide jar, both of which hold exactly one pint. When questioned about the two jars, the child say the taller container holds more liquid. Based on this, the teacher can conclude that the child ____ (is developmentally delayed, lacks the ability to conserve, or should be referred to ESE)
lacks the ability to conserve
is a learner-centered approach to teaching that emphasizes teaching for understanding, predicated on the concept that students construct knowledge by making connections between present learning experiences and the existing knowledge
constructivism
(Kohlberg) In stage one, rules are obeys to avoid punishment
punishment-obedience
(Kohlberg) In stage two, a child does what is right to satisfy his needs and behaves to get rewards
instrumental-relativist
(Kohlberg) In stage three, good behavior is doing what others expect and whatever is approved by them.
good boy-nice girl
(Kohlberg) In stage four, good behavior is doing one's duty, respecting authority, and obeying the laws of society
law-order orientation
Norm-Referenced Tests
compare students based on a normative sample of students who have already completed the test. Students are then ranked to see where they land on the bell-curve.
Which tests limit the number of students who can score well?
Norm-referenced tests, because each students who completes the exam is ranked with the % scores in relation to the sample.
It is favorable to provide feedback to tests when?
After a delay of a day or two
Praise has been shown to be most effective when?
It is authentic and low-key and is used frequently
Choral chant?
When students repeat basic facts, spellings, and laws
What are some examples of controlled interruptions?
missing supplies, late to class. They are minor disruptions that can be minimized with procedures that are already in place.
Non-directive statements show?
a student that a teacher is listening, but not making a judgment or pointing the conversation in a specific direction
According to Piaget, children under the age of 8?
Do not have the ability of understanding the language or to grasp complexities. Teachers should use simple language when working with these children.
Marshall Rosenberg categorizes learners as?
rigid-inhibited, undisciplined, acceptance-anxious, and creative.
In inductive thinking students...
derive concepts and definitions based on the information provided to them, (given to them) which can be fostered through personal-discovery activities
Bloom classified educational objectives into a systems that was divided into three parts
cognitive (memory and reasoning), affective (emotions), and psychomotor (physical abilities)
Long term memory is said to be?
unlimited and permanent.
Spelling errors do not allow for?
divergent or creative thinking
Applying spelling rules or guidelines to improve spelling would be an example of what?
deductive reasoning
Sequential language acquisition occurs when?
A student learns a second language after mastering the first
The educator has legal obligations to protect a student from
an abusive home environment, but is not required to report the abuse through the state of Florida code of ethics.
An example of cognitive learning theory in practice would be?
using a manipulative to teacher math for students under the age of 11.
According to the operant model in behavior theory, negative reinforcement is...
removing a stimulus which causes a behavior to increase. All reinforcement increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.
Students diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder would not exhibit a delay in...
physical growth
Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency Test
the aspects of language proficiency strongly related to literacy and academic achievement
The Natural Approach (ESOL)
students acquire a new vocabulary through experiences and associations with words because the words are used in meaningful ways and contexts.
Willig and Lee Four Stages of Development (ESOL)
pre-production, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
assists the students in the transition from a language arts program in which the content is made comprehensible through the use of ESOL strategies
Scaffolding (ESOL)
students should be provided with steps of learning that allow for consolidation and success.
CLOZE Testing
students draw on several language skill areas. These are reading tests that provide an indication of overall language ability and consist of passages from which words are omitted at regular intervals
A transition statement is used for...
informing a student of what the expected tasks are as the class moves from one subject to another
A ridirect occurs when...
a teacher asks one student to react to the response of another student
High-Ordered Activity....
tests the students ability to apply information, evaluate information, and create new information
Transitions allow students to...
be aware of future events, topics, and expectations. It helps them with the pace of the classroom and the teaching
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
it has been shown that students can internalize what a teacher expects of them and will perform at that level, whether its positive or negative.
Kallison Jr found that retention was increased when a teacher...
provided an outline detailing what would be discussed during a lesson and a summary of the lesson at the end
In inductive teaching...
the students are provided with examples and non-examples are are expected to derive the definition from this information.
in Deductive teaching, the teacher provides
various examples
A discovery learning lesson is...
one where the class is organized to learn through their own active involvement in the lesson
the egrule method
moves from specific example to general rules or definitions
Who wrote the book, "Orbis Pictus"?
Comenius. He believed in using the senses to assist the intellect
Oral language proficiency is easily acquired through...
daily living experiences
According to James Cummins, reading and listening are...
receptive skills which always exceed the productive skills of speaking and writing
The goal of the maintenance bilingual education model is to...
maintain that native language of the second-language learned.
According to Krashen and Terrell, the topic centered language approach...
develops basic communication skills with the way individuals naturally acquire language
Instructional lesson modification includes...
providing an overview and identifying key concepts
When a teacher asks the class if they agree or disagree with a student's response, the teacher is using
redirect
Criterion-Referenced Assessment
Each student is measured against uniform objectives or criteria.
Performance-based Assessment
Allows students to use higher-level thinking skills to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate ideas and data
Information Processing Theories
Focuses on the process, how the learner arrives at a response or answer. Believes intelligent thinking can be taught.
Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
Three features of learning: a) the mechanics or components of intelligence. b) the learner's experiences, c) the learner's context.
Metacognition
A term used to describe what, how, and why people know what they know when they know it.
What are the six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy?
The six levels of Taxonomy are:
1) knowledge, 2) comprehension, 3) application, 4) analysis, 5) synthesis, 6) evaluation.
Jean Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development
Four stages to describe intellectual development:
sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
preoperational stage (2-7 years)
concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
formal operational stage (adolescents and adults)
The first compulsory education law was passed in
Massachusetts
The child labor law was passed requiring all children under 14 can be employed without attending public or private schools for at least 6 months prior by who?
Massachusetts
Who established the 1st compulsory education law requiring all children between 8 and 14 must attend school for at least 12 weeks per year?
Massachusetts
The first vocational schools were established by who?
Middle Atlantic Colonies
Private schools with no public funding began where?
Virginia
The first parochial schools were established where?
Pennsylvania
The law that did NOT established schools but required that parents make sure their kids could read and understand the laws and religions of their community was what?
First compulsory law (Massachusetts)
Who found and proposed that there are 5 steps in the teaching process?
Herbart
The learning theory based on the assumption that people can learn from observing other people's behavior and consequences to those behaviors.
social learning theory
The type of assessment that allows students to be creative in their solutions to problems, questions, and requires higher level thinking
performance based assessment
a clear and precise definition of a learning goal that should be performed as well as an accurate means to measure that goal as students strive to achieve it
operational definition
internal variables represent
nature
the environment around us represents
nurture
the type of lesson that involves higher level thinking by both teacher and students and a result in higher student motivation, interest, and retention
inductive lessons
putting information together in a new way, developing a new way of solving problems
Blooms taxonomy - synthesis
how learners are a like and how they are different
intERdividual knowledge
meta cognition was created by who?
Flavell
What the learner knows or understands about themselves
intRAdividual knowledge
Self-examination and self-evaluation are both examples of what?
meta cognitive thinking
a technique to help students identify and retain significant information
emphasis
What type of curriculum is a teacher using when students are confronted with a scenario and asked to generate hypotheses and solutions?
problem-based
An instructional strategy in which students work in small, peer-assisted groups is
cooperative learning
When a teacher reads aloud to students, which of the following strategies is the teacher using?
modeled reading
An elementary mathematics teacher uses the phrase "My dear Aunt Sally" to teach the order of operations. This phrase is an example of a
mnemonic device
According to Bloom's taxonomy, what is the lowest level of question in the cognitive domain that the teacher could use?
knowledge
To ensure that ALL students are aware of the assignments required for a semester-long chemistry class, the teacher should
create a course outline and distribute a hard copy to each student.
A student is capable of completing assignments but often lacks the motivation to do so. Which strategy would address the problem directly?
creating an academic contract between the student and teacher
Which of the following is an example of a teacher employing a nonverbal communication strategy?
using enthusiastic hand and eye gestures to introduce a unit on Florida history
To ensure that a new student feels welcome, the teacher should
assign a responsible peer buddy to assist the new student.
Which of the following situations is the best example of a teacher promoting a climate of openness, respect, and inquiry in the classroom?
promoting student cultures that are studied, shared, and celebrated
A beginning teacher notices that students are having difficulty mastering the properties of light on a science test. The best next step for the teacher to take would be
seeking input from a peer teacher.
In a community-centered approach to teaching, a teacher plans classroom activities that require students to
assist others in solving problems.
A teacher has students use their background information to make predictions about a story. This lesson would most likely be representative of a(an)
learner-centered environment.
During the introduction of a new mathematics lesson, several students appear uninterested in the lesson. To determine if the behavior is content related, the
teacher should
ask students concept questions
A math teacher is in the initial stages of planning a unit. The teacher realizes homework will play an important role in student success. The teacher examines the following research table that displays the effectiveness of various approaches to assessing homework assignments. What approach to assigning homework will have the greatest positive impact on student performance?

Use of Homework (Average Effect Size - Percentile Gain)
Graded with Feedback: .85 - 30
Graded: .75 - 27
Reviewed in class: .27 - 12
Checked for Completion: .23 - 10
assigning select problems and grading them with specific feedback
Students are given a demanding task and then asked to respond to that task orally, in writing, or by constructing a product. This type of evaluation is a(an)
performance assessment.
Which of the following assessments would be best for comparing a student's knowledge with that of other students in the same grade level?
norm-referenced
A 4th-grade team analyzes student test scores from the beginning and the end of the school year to determine whether to continue using the current core reading
curriculum. Which of the following is the best type of assessment to use for this purpose?
summative
A student appears to be struggling with a reading subskill after initial instruction. The teacher wants to find out what component of reading is hindering
comprehension. Which of the following assessments would best aid the teacher?
diagnostic
Which of the following would help a teacher identify reasons why a student is misbehaving in class?
anecdotal records
After attending a reading workshop, a teacher realizes that the current reading strategies are not improving student academic achievement. The most appropriate
next step is to
request assistance from a reading coach.
A teacher wants to analyze areas of need in the curriculum. Which of the following would reflect the necessary data?
a teacher's grade book
A teacher would like to encourage parents and guardians to be involved in their students' education. Which of the following strategies is the best way for the
teacher to encourage diverse parents and guardians to come to the classroom for a cultural activity?
Having students write a personal invitation inviting parents and guardians to
attend a cultural activity during school.
When a student with a large bruise on their face is questioned by the teacher, the student says that they fell at home while playing. Having previously noticed
bruises on the student, the teacher suspects that the child is being abused. The teacher is required by law to contact the
abuse hotline
When parents request copies of software to use at home with their children, a teacher should consult
site license guidelines.
Permitting students access to e-mails with attachments can be a potential danger to a school's network, because of
viruses.
A class has students from various cultural backgrounds. The teacher notices that students of like cultures are exhibiting similar skills and knowledge that differ from
students of other cultures. This could be due to the impact of cultural knowledge on
transfer.
Which of the following teaching strategies would best show sensitivity to English language learners' language challenges?
encouraging safe times to use academic English in class.
A teacher is preparing students for a statewide assessment. The teacher asks the students to underline the bold type in the questions on the practice test. This test taking strategy is known as
recognizing the key words.
A teacher instructs students to read a selection and then retell the information from the selection. The students are using the study skill of
summarizing.
These are used to determine whether students may need specialized assistance or services, or whether they are ready to begin a course, grade level, or academic program.
screening assessment
standardized assessments
designed, administered, and scored in a standard, or consistent, manner. They often use a multiple-choice format, though some include open-ended, short-answer questions.
Placement assessments
used to "place" students into a course, course level, or academic program. For example, an assessment may be used to determine whether a student is ready for Algebra I or a higher-level algebra course, such as an honors-level course.
summative assessments
used to evaluate student learning at the conclusion of a specific instructional period—typically at the end of a unit, course, semester, program, or school year.
formative assessments
commonly said to be for learning because educators use the results to modify and improve teaching techniques during an instructional period, while summative assessments are said to be of learning because they evaluate academic achievement at the conclusion of an instructional period. They are in-process evaluations of student learning that are typically administered multiple times during a unit, course, or academic program.
high-stakes assessments
typically standardized tests used for the purposes of accountability—i.e., any attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers.
cognitive assessment
an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16 inclusive that can be completed without reading or writing. The test can take up to 2 hours to administer and generates a Full Scale IQ (formerly known as an intelligence quotient or IQ score) which represents a child's general intellectual ability. It also provides five primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed Index) that represent a child's abilities in more discrete cognitive domains.
qualitative assessment
Collects data that does not lend itself to quantitative methods but rather to interpretive criteria
quantitative assessment
Collects data that can be analyzed using quantitative methods - an assessment for accountability.
tests that are designed to compare and rank test takers in relation to one another. These tests report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student, which is determined by comparing scores against the performance results of a statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam.
norm-referenced
content-referenced
tests that insure that curricula accurately reflect the students' present level of functioning and appropriate goals. Relevant needs should be determined, taking into account such factors as future recreational opportunities, available facilities, and sources of information.
List from lowest to highest Bloom's taxonomy of inquiry
knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
knowledge in Bloom's taxonomy
recall of information, discovery, observation, listing, locating and naming
comprehension in Bloom's taxonomy
understanding, translating, summarizing, demonstrating and discussing
application in Bloom's taxonomy
using and applying knowledge, using problem-solving methods, manipulating, designing and experimenting.
analysis in Bloom's taxonomy
identifying and analyzing patterns, organization of ideas and recognizing trends
synthesis in Bloom's taxonomy
using old concepts to create new ideas, design and invention, composing, imagining and inferring, modifying, predicting and combining
evaluation in Bloom's taxonomy
assessing theories, comparison of ideas, evaluating outcomes, solving, judging, recommending and rating.
Interactive reading
A reading model that recognizes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously throughout the reading process.
Guided reading
an instructional approach that involves a teacher. working with a small group of students who demonstrate similar reading behaviors and can all read similar levels of texts.
Shared reading
an interactive reading experience that occurs when students join in or share the reading of a book or other text while guided and supported by a teacher. The teacher explicitly models the skills of proficient readers, including reading with fluency and expression.
planning
being prepared each day with lesson plans and everything needed to implement these plans
preplanning
going through each lesson mentally, from the student's point of view and anticipating explanations, information, and directions they will need in order to carry out the lesson successfully
withitness
being aware of what is happening in the classroom at all times
overlapping
being able to do more than one thing at a time, such as moving to stand beside a student who is off-task, answering a question from another student, and monitoring cooperative learning groups, all simultaneously
group altering
being able to keep students' attention on the learning task
momentum
being able to keep instruction moving at a brisk pace
smoothness
being able to effect smooth transitions between activities
exploiting the ripple effect
skillfully using the phenomenon that occurs, for example, when a teacher reminds an off-task student to get back to work and all the other off-task students also return to their assigned task
action zone
the front of the class (received the most attention)
maslow's hierarchy of needs
1. physiological; 2. safety; 3. belongingness and love; 4. esteem; 5. self-actualization (motivation to learn is dampened when 1-4 are not met)
planning
the process teachers use to develop instructional plans
preplan
the process of going through a lesson mentally from the student's point of view and anticipate explanations, information, directions, additional instruction, and so on
sunshine state standards (sss)
standards that identify what public school students should know and be able to do
grade level expectations
the basis for the FCAT; helpful resource to teachers of basic subjects
instructional objective
a clearly written statement of what students are expected to know and be able to do as a result of an instructional learning experience
action
what the student will do
conditions
the circumstances in which the action will take place
level of mastery
the level of proficiency expected for the action
task analysis
the process of identifying the prerequisite skills and prior knowledge that students must have in order to achieve the instructional objective with a high degree of success
cognitive domain
the category for learning that involves thinking capabilities, from recalling simple facts to judging the quality of an argument
affective domain
the category for learning that involves feeling, values, and dispositions
psychomotor domain
the category for learning that involves manual, athletic, and other physical skills
direct instruction
a teacher-centered instructional strategy based on the behaviorist point of view that the teacher is the expert in the classroom who should systematically and explicitly pass along information to the student
lecture method
the teacher uses one-way communication to attempt to convey knowledge to the learner orally; recommended time 10-15 min; least effective teaching strategy
constructivist instruction
learner-centered instructional strategy based on the constructivist believe that learning is an active process, that it has social aspects, and that it is context specific
discovery learning
designed to encourage students to be active learners while exploring new concepts, developing new skills, and figuring things out for themselves
inquiry learning
a process in which students engage when they have identified a problem to be solved
project-based learning
students investigate real-world problems and then share their findings
cooperative learning
an instructional strategy in which students are placed in small groups where they work together on a collective task that has been clearly defined and explained
reciprocal teaching
designed to increase students' reading comprehension by summarizing, generating questioning, clarifying, and predicting
simulations
learning activity designed to reflect reality
role playing
students act out characters based on real-world models
games
learning activities that have rules and involve students in competitive situations, having winners and losers
individualized instruction
characterized by a shift in responsibility for learning from the teacher to the student (independent study or peer tutoring)
work stations
carefully designs areas for exploration of topics or for practice and extension of concepts previously learned
learning centers
an essential feature of the early childhood environment (listening, math, dramatic play, house-keeping centers)
peer tutoring
a trained student teaches same-age classmates or a younger student
interdisciplinary instruction
combining several disciplines into one or more lessons
thematic instruction
one of more lessons around a central theme or topic
jigsawing
group members become experts on an assigned topic that they teach to others, after reorganizing into different groups, so that eventually all members of the class know all the content
corners
group members meet in a designated corner of the room to discuss an assigned topic and then teach it to the rest of the class
think pair and share
students work individually on an assigned problem solving task and then they pair with a partner to discuss and revise and then they share their results with the entire class
debate
students work in teams to research a topic and formulate persuasive arguments supporting their viewpoints on an issue
Amphetamines
A student has recently become irritable, argumentative, nervous and restless in class. These changes in behavior may indicate abuse of which substance?
How can I measure student's individual perception of Shakespeare's work
An English teacher who wants her students to appreciate Shakespeare wants to convert this objective into a form of behavioral objective. What is the first question she needs to ask them?
Explain to the mother that the law of privacy protects confidentiality of student's records
A mother insists that her child is gifted and should be placed in a gifted program. When the placement is denied, the mother asked the teacher for the IQ scores of the other children in the gifted class so that she can compare her child score with others. What procedure should the teacher follow?
Regalia
A teacher asks each student to bring an object representative of his or her cultural background as part of a show and tell exercise. The teacher is using?
Involve student in the summary or the review
A teacher usually conducts a review of the previous day's lesson before beginning a new lesson. However, students are often unable to respond correctly to the question. What is the most effective teaching strategy to employ at the end of a lesson?
Florida Department of Education
An instate teacher whose certificate was suspended for 3 years and who se certificate expired during that time will have her certificate reinstated by applying the?
Language diffusion
An E.S.O.L student applies the use of his or her first language in acquisition of English. This is an example of?
Knowledge of the general curriculum
What knowledge does the general education teacher bring to the I.E.P team?
Think systematically about abstracts and hypothetical concepts
According to Piaget's theories most middle school students have the capacity to?
Review and recap the completed topic
What should a teacher do to ensure smooth transition in completing a unit began by another teacher?
A periodic review enhance long term memory
What principle is illustrated by conducting a 20 minutes review session each Monday during a class?
A silent period varies from 2 week to 2 years or more
Which of the following statements is true concerning the "silent period"?
Increase eye contact with students
The teacher rearranges the seating pattern in the class so that seats form a horseshoe. What purpose will such an arrangement serve?
Obtain alternate form of this text for the students
Some of the students are unale to read the textbook, how should the teacher handle the situation?
Self actualization
According to Maslow's hierarchy, which need is the highest level?
To gain students commitment to the rules
During the 6th class meeting, a teacher seeks the cooperation of the class in establishing certain ground rules about classroom behavior. What is the purpose of his activity?
Student will think clearly and rationally
Which would be long-term goal rather than a course or lesson objective?
Understand and successfully meet the various linguistic and cultural need for the none English speaking students
The purpose underlying the enactment of the concern decree (META) was to?
Physical fitness
Choose the search engine key word most appropriate to begin an internet search for student preparing a presentation on physical fitness?
Providing extra assignment to those students who sometimes use their native language in the ESOL class
All of the following instructional practices are effective in promoting an E.S.O.L student's self-esteem EXCEPT?
Use a variety of medium and materials appropriate to student needs
A teacher finds that the students quickly become bored and uninterested in the textbooks. What teacher action is needed in this situation?
Critical question technique
During a class discussions, a teacher wants to emphasize significant concepts and information. Which strategy will best achieve this goal?
Ask student to discuss the way to combat pollution in their area
Which teacher action will most likely help develop students' divergent thinking abilites?
Request that a list of procedures be developed by student groups
Which strategy is useful for helping student accept and follow classroom rules and standards for behaving?
How different responses with the same event could change the outcome of the American revolutionary war
To best help 10th grade students studying American Revolution develop analytical skills; the teacher should ask students to discuss?
Constructivist
Teacher who promote freedom and responsibility in their classroom and believe that the business of running a serlf-definition will be described as?
Now class let put all books away and get ready for music
Which of the following is am example of transition statement?
Refer the student to the principal
A teacher discovers that a student has brought a pint of whisky to class. What is the best teacher response to this discovery?
Results in none specifiable professional purpose
If a teacher wants to know the students performace on another teacher's class, the latter can refuse to let him know if?
Denied because it was fraudulent application
In applying for Florida teacher's certificate, Mrs. Black denied she has evern been conviced of a crime. In fact, she has been convicted of shop lifiting as a 21 year old. Her application would be?
File deletion
A teacher whose students use the network classroom with no Internet should be most concerned about?
A list of due dates of each assignment for the grading period
Which technique will most effectively establish a 9th grade teacher's expectation for assignment?
Ask students to compare and evaluate situations
In teaching math and science, a teacher wants students to analyze information and to adjust or to express a value. What should the teacher do to stimulate high level thinking skills of students?
A careful observer seeing things from different perspective, and looks for meanings of things
A divergent thinker is best described as one who is?
Review examples of types of questions, which are on the list
Which will be the best procedure for preparing a class of high achieving students to take a standardized aptitude test?
Vary the length and depth of the assignment
Which procedure will be most useful in making the acadmic assignment meet the needs of the ESE students?
Database software network
A teacher is teaching a unit requiring students to obtain considerable amount of current information on a topic from electronic source. What is the best type of computer network for the purpose?
Call the Florida abuse hotline and advice the principal of the action
A teacher notices that a student has many bruises on the right side of the face and the leg. When questioned, the child cannot remember "what caused the bruises" the teacher suspects' child abuse. What must the teacher do next?
Work through one example from the handout with the students
After a presentation of information about an assignment, a teacher realizes that the students did not understand how to complete the handout. Which teacher procedure will be the best solution to this problem?
Reflecting
Maintaining anecdotal records of effective instructional strategies offers teachers practice in the skill of?
Providing content support for ESOL students
The goal of specially designed academic instruction in English is?
Simulations
Which type of software would be best for demonstrating different chemical reaction for a science class?
Check for traffic patter in the room
What should be the first step in selecting a new arrangement for a classroom where students often bump into other when they are going to the pencil sharpener, trashcan, or the water fountain?
A norm-referenced achievement test
A social study teacher would like to know if her student knowledge of social study is similar to that of other students through the United States. What type of standardized test would best give the teacher this information?
They are quite, anxious and fearful at school
Which of the following have been found to be a characteristic of physical abused young children?
Objectives of the unit
What criteria is most important for a teaacher to consider in selecting material for an instructional unit?
The teacher restates the student's message
Which teacher action is a part of the communication technique for active listening?
Study how masks are used in cultures though out the world
The best way to enrich students understanding of cultural differences is to ask students to?
Stages of cognitive development
When faced with the need to adapt materials for students to master the objective, what is the important variable to consider?
Reflection
After a lesson that was not as satisfactory as it was hoped, a teacher notes where it could have been improved to meet his students learning needs. The teacher is engaged in?
Group academic program on self-esteem
A teacher wishing to help students who are having difficulty relating to others students who are racially or cultural different. The teaching should emphasize which of the following?
Divides the class into groups and provides remedial activities for those who do not pass the pre-test
Before beginning a new instructional unit, a teacher administers a pre-test and find that half the students do not have the necessary pre-requiste skills for the new unit. How should the teacher proceed?
Post assignment on the board so student can begin work when they enter class
According the current research, what is an effective use of time at the beginning of the period?
Making the learning meaningful to the students
Which of the following will most likely maximize student learning?
Tracking
What practice does the most to perpetuate educational inequality?
Adjudge delinquent in meeting a court ordered child support obligation
The Education Practice Commission may permanently revoke the educators' certificate once an educator is?
Student assessment
What resource will provide Ms. Jones with data for grouping all students before the first week of reading instruction?
Students pressure to succeed
All of the following are components of an effective school EXCEPT?
Have a competition to see which student had the most creative way of meeting the lesson objective
For a 6th grade social studies class for both native speakers of English and ESOL students who are about to study mythlogy, the teachers' best approach is to?
Requirement from the school district
A teacher who plans content rich lesson targeting all students learning styles in various activites and group work should also consider?
The objective should conforms to states performance standards
In planning for a unit of instruction, a teacher has determind the needs, interest and abilities of her students. In identifying the objectives for the unit what criterion should be apply next?
Establish a sequencing plan and follow it
A student rehearses an oral report he has prepared for competition and asks the teacher for feedback. The report lacks organization. What will be the most effective teacher response?
Instruct student in the necessary procedure; provide repeated practice
The day after a replacement teacher began work, a fire drill was held. The students seemed confused and ill prepared for emergencies. What should the new teacher do?
Conduct a class discussion of the rules
A teacher wants to be sure that all students know the rules of the classroom. Which is the most effective way of ensuring this?
Read the directions carefully then read all the options before making your answer
Which is the best instruction for a teacher to give students who are getting ready to take a test?
Brown vs. Board of education
Which of the following established that equal assess does not guarantee equal opportunity?
Hearing officer finding of fact is determined
The complaint and all information obtained during an investigation of an educator by the Florida Department of Education are confidential until?
State and district goals
Which of the following should be used as a preliminary guideline in planning the content of the course?
Assigning peer tutor to work with the student
Following instructions by a teacher a student continues to have difficulty in learning the material. What strategy should the teacher used?
Essay
For a thrity-minute examination, which type of test will achieve both high reliability and greatest coverage of content and skill?
Ask questions that require students to show explain or describe
A teacher notices that students seem disinterested in class topic. The teacher wants to liven up the discussion portion of the lesson to increase student's participation, what is the best procedure for the teacher to follow?
Involve the student's advisory counsel in rule making
The most effective way to gain school wide accepted rule to improve behavior in the hall is to?
Discussing the same strengths and weaknesses and provide an opportunities for revision
Which teacher action will request students to complete a report on the same topic but one project has gams that cause concern?
Ensuring the continuity of cultural homogeneity
All of the following is purpose of today public school EXECT?
Adapt material based on the objectives of the course to be used by the special student
In selecting materials for a course, the teacher has particular concerns for the needs of a student with a developmental disability who will be unable to use material selected for other students. Which procedure is most appropriate for the teacher to follow in this situation?
Assign the student task to help other students
What is the best way to help students who are shy and insist on being near the teacher whenever possible?
Report the case with the school police
Mr. Taylor, a high school teacher is attending a movie at the local drive-in theater and saw a couple in the next car locked in an inimate embrace. When they finally separate, Mr. Taylor was shocked to see the man was collegue and the girl was a 10t grade student in their school. What is his ethical obligation?
Diagnostics
A teacher wants to find out if student has mastered the instructional objectives at the end of the unit. What type of test should the teacher use?
Join an online discussion group conversation about assignment
The most effective strategy for engaging an ongoing dialogue with educators about the assignment of ESOL and ESE students is to?
What is unusual about the picture on the bulletin board?
A teacher is setting the stage for a learning process. Choose the best introductory remark.
Provide interesting subject related material and activities for student who finish early
A teacher finds a number of her beginning students come to class and quickly go to work. They complete their work; then they begin to whisper, play or seat until the end of class doing nothing useful. Which end of period strategy is likely to keep student on task all period?
Do a close activity on the passage
To assess a reading comprehension of a passage, an alternative to a multiple-choise test would be to have the student.
Showing students how to make graphic organizer from each chapter
Which strategy is best for a 10th grade teacher to use to improve students comprehension and reading achievement scores?
Turn established eye contact
A teacher writing a sentence on the board was disturbed by mild talking in the class, "No more talking" the teacher said pausing. The talk stops momentarily, but soon the noise level increases again. What non-verbal behavior might best be used to quiet the class?
Sharing knowledge will help to enrich learning by all student and the teacher
Several Native American students transferred from the native schools to a near by public school. The teacher arranges for the students to demonstrate games the students play in the reservation. What strategy is illustrated here?
Demonstrate the proper use of equipment or material and monitor their use by student
A 10th grade teacher is planning a unit of instruction requiring the students to use equipment and materials that could cause injury if not used properly. What would be the best solution to this problem?
Refuse the offer but allow the student to use the program during class
A student brings a computer disk that contains right educational games that a
teacher needs for her mathematics class to school. The student offers to make a copy of the program for the teacher. What should be the teachers' response to this offer?
Preparation, evaluation, and Meta cognitive strategies
Select the learning that best promotes second language acquisition?
Reading log
Which mechanism is most appropriate for collecting evidence about which book students have read as they progressed through elementary school?
Provide opportunity for the student to experience success
A student is repeating the same grade level and fail to complete assignment, design ways to participate in class activities and withdraws from interaction with other students. What will be the most appropriate teacher action in this situation?
Remember our clue that we used yesterday that came from the Latin word that sounds equal
The teacher asks, "What is an equilateral triangle?" The student answer, "A triangle which has two equal legs" What will be an effective response from the teacher?
Ordering lunch in the school cafeteria, greeting the principal, and playing a game with classmates
Students who have acquired basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) will be able to use English in?
Request that students write a progress analysis of an experiment
Which activity can a science teacher best use to strengthen 11th grade students skills in another subject area for developing science knowledge?
Allow individual student time to explore the computer
The most efficient use of computer laboratory time for an elementary class orientation when each student has access to a computer is to?
Promoting instructional reading and writing on content areas
Which strategy would most effectively encouraged multi-disciplinary studies?
Amount of student time on task
Which of the following class characteristic well be assessed only by direct observation?
An incentive program
Every spring Willett High School honors the highest achieving students at an academic award banquet, where they are presented scholarship vouchers for college. This event is an example of
Probing
The following scenario is an example of which communication strategy? "Students, it was important for our president to meet the leader of China to promote good communication between the leaders of two of the most powerful countries in the world." Teacher: "How would such a meeting promote open communication?"
Participation in school improvement meeting
Which professional development opportunities will be best for a new teacher?
Identify examples of the concept
A teacher wishes to evaluate a student's ability to apply concepts that have been presented in class. What should test item require student to do?
Allowing these students to use their native language when necessary
Which procedure best addresses the need of a classroom containing none English speaking student?
Return test paper to student and go over each question
Which is the best procedure for providing feedback after a classroom test?
Call the office to inform the designated administrator
As she leaves the classroom, Rosaline whispers to the teacher "I think Beth has a knife in her purse". The teacher should first?
Create learning center based on the foreign culture followed by class discussion
Two children from foreign culture have joined a 4th grade class in middle of the semester, and the other students are making fun of them. What should the teacher do to change the situation?
A talks with the counselor today or tomorrow the latest
A 9th grade student responds to overtures of other students with hostility and has extreme mood swings. Which of the following should the teacher interpret as the students need?
Guide discovery
A teacher of a class of gifted highly motivated students aged 10-12 is planning a class lesson. The teacher wants students to develop their own concepts and principles for the lesson. Which instructional strategy is most appropriate for this situation?
Promote linguistic-risk talking
Teachers who want to encourage ESOL students to interact in the classroom should?
Reinforce correct usage: make some corrections and serves as a positive model
Several students from culturally different background are experiencing challenges with the use of Standard English. How should the teacher respond to these challenges?
whole numbers
the whole numbers and zero
natural numbers
the counting numbers. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...
irrational numbers
real numbers that cannot be written as the ratio of two integers
exponent form
a shorthand way of writing repeated multiplication.
write 46, 368, 000 in scientific notation
4.6368 x 10^7
write 0.00397 in scientific notation
3.97 x 10^-3
properties
rules that apply for addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division of real numbers
types of properties
commutative, associative, identity, inverse, distributive
commutative
You can change the order of the terms or factors:
for addition: a + b= b + a
for multiplication: ab=ba
associative
you can regroup the terms as you like
for addition: a + (b + c)= (a +b) + c
for multiplication: a(bc)= (ab)c
Identity
addition: a + 0= a
multiplication: a x 1= a
Inverse
finding a number such that when added to the number it results in zero; or when multiplied by the number, it results in 1.
addition: a+a=0
multiplication: a x (1/a)=1
Distributive
a (b + c)= ab + ac
polygon
a simple, closed, two-dimensional figure composed of line segments
Quadrilateral
a polygon with four sides.
the sum of the measures of the angles is 360 degrees.
trapezoid
a polygon with exactly one pair of parallel sides
isosceles trapezoid
a quadrilateral in which the nonparallel sides are congruent
parallelogram
a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.
the diagonals bisect each others, each diagonal divides the parallelogram into two congruent triangles, both pairs of opposite sides are congruent, both pairs of opposite angles are congruent, and two adjacent angles are supplementary.
rectangle
a parallelogram with a right angle
rhombus
a parallelogram with all sides equal in length
a square
a rectangle with all sides equal in length.
True or False: All squares are rhombuses
True
True or False: All parallelograms are rectangles
False-some are rectangles
True or False: All rectangles are parallelograms
True
True or False: Some rhombuses are squares
True
True or False: Some rectangles are trapezoids
False: trapezoids have only one pair of parallel sides
True or False: All quadrilaterals are parallelograms
False: Some quadrilaterals are parallelograms
True or False: Some squares are rectangles
False: All squares are rectangles
True or False: Some parallelograms are rhombuses
True
Triangle
A polygon with three sides
Acute triangle
has exactly 3 acute angles. an acute angle is less than 90 degrees.
Obtuse Triangle
a triangle with one obtuse angle. An obtuse angle measures between 90 degrees and 180 degrees.
isosceles triangle
two sides are the same length
scalene triangle
a triangle in which no sides are the same length
cylinder
a space figure that has two parallel, congruent circular bases
sphere
a space figure having all its points the same distance as the center,
cone
a space figure having a circular base and a single vertex
pyramid
a space figure with a square base and four triangle shaped sides
tetrahedron
a four-sided space triangle; each face is a triangle
prism
a space figure with two congruent, parallel bases that are polygons.
perimeter of a rectangle
2 (Length + Width)
area of a rectangle
Length X Width
12 inches equals (in)
1 foot (ft)
3 feet equals (ft)
1 yard (yd)
1760 yards equals (yd)
1 mile (mi)
km equals
1000 meters (m)
hectometer (hm)
100 meters (m)
decameter (dam)
10 meters (m)
decimeter (dm)
1/10 meter (m)
centimeter (cm)
1/100 meter (m)
millimeter (mm)
1/1000 meter (m)
1 in equals
2.54 cm
1 ft equals
30 cm
1 yd equals
0.9 m
1 mi equals
1.6 km
28 grams (g) equals
1 oz
16 oz equals
1 lb
2000 lb equals
1 ton (t) (short ton)
1.1 ton equals
1 ton (t)
kg equals
1000 g
1 milligram equals
1/1000 g
1 oz equals
28 g
1 lb equals
.45 kg
454 g
8 fluid oz equals
1 c
2 c equals
1 pt
2 pts equals
1 quart
4 qts equals
1 gal
1 kiloliter (kl) equals
1000 liters (l)
milliliter (ml) equals
1/1000 ml
1 tsp equals
5 ml
1 fluid oz equals
15 ml
1 cup equals
.24 l
1 pint equals
.47 l
1 gal equals
3.8 l
1 sq ft =
144 sq in