33 terms

Medieval Asia- corbin

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Archipelago
A chain of many islands. Japan is a mountainous archipelago.
Bushido
"the way of the warrior", the strict code by which Japanese samurai were supposed to live.
Civil Service
The administrative service of a government, not including the armed forces, in which appointments are determined by competitive examination. Students were expected to learn the teachings of Confucius, as well as Chinese history and law. By creating a group of well-trained officials well versed in Confucian thought, the system ensured the influence of Confucianism on government for a long time.
Daimyo
"great names", head of noble families in Japan who controlled vast landed estates and relied on samurai for protection. As family rivalries continued, the daimyo relied on the samurai for protection, and political power came into the hands of a loose coalition of noble families.
Dynastic Cycle
The mandate of heaven was closely tied to the pattern of dynastic cycles. Cycle--A series of events that recur regularly and usually lead back to the starting point. From the beginning of Chinese history to AD 1912, China was ruled by a series of dynasties, all of which went through a cycle of change. A new dynasty would establish its power, rule successfully for many years, and then begin to lose power, giving rise to rebellions or invasions. when a new dynasty took over, the cycle began again.
Empress Wu
Name is Wu Zhao, known as empress Wu. The concubine of the second Tang emperor, she then became empress of China and ruled for half a century. Argued if she was not so different from rulers or if she was selfish and cruel as a ruler. Wu was not loyal to her loved ones and family because she wanted to be the empress over her brothers (forced them to commit suicide) But Wu did meet all the standards and duties while keeping China stable throughout the Golden Age.
Ghenghis Khan
A "strong ruler". Temujin gradually unified the Mongols and in 1206 he was elected the Genghis Khan. He unleashed an army on the world (totalling 130,000 people). It was the mongols military tactics which made them so effective that set them apart from their enemies. To rule the new Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan set up a capital city at Karakorum. He died in 1227 and the empire began to change. Following Mongol custom, upon the death of the ruling Khan, his heirs divided the territory. The once united empire of Genghis Khan was split into several separate territories called khanates each under the rule of one of his sons. It may be that the only the death of the Genghis Khan kept the Mongols from attacking Western Europe.
Koryo
After the king of Silla was assassinated, Korea sank into civil war. Finally in the earth tenth century, a new dynasty called Koryo ( the root of the modern word Korea) arose in the north. This kingdom adopted Chinese political institutions in order to unify its territory and remained in power for four hundred years. In the 13th century, the Mongols seized the northern part of Korea. By accepting Mongol authority, the Koryo dynasty managed to remain in power. Mongol rule led to much suffering for the Korean people, especially the thousands of peasants and artisans who were forced to build ships for Kublai Khan's invasion of Japan. After the collapse of the Mongol dynasty in China, the Koryo dynasty broke down.
Kublai Khan
One of Genghis Khan's grandsons completed the conquest of the song and set up a new Chinese dynasty, the Yuan. He ruled China under his death in 1294, established his capital at Khanbalik-the city of the khan-later known by the Chinese name Beijing. Under the leadership of Kublai Khan, the Yuan, or Mongol dynasty continued to expand the empire. Mongol armies advanced into Vietnam and Mongol fleets were launched against Java and Sumatra and twice against the islands of Japan.
Mahayana
A school of Buddhism that developed in northwest India, stressing the view that nirvana can be achieved through devotion to the Buddha;its followers consider the Buddha a divine figure. They believed that Theravada teachings were too strict for ordinary people. To Mahayana Buddhists, the Buddha is not just a wise man, but also a divine figure. Nirvana is not just a release of the wheel of life, but a true heaven. Through devotion to the Buddha, people can achieve salvation in this heaven after death. In the end, neither the Mahayana nor the Theravada sect of Buddhism remained popular in Indian society. By the 600s, Theravada and declined rapidly. Mahayana was absorbed by a revived Hinduism and later by a new arrival, Islam.
Mandate of Heaven
It was believed that Heaven, which was an impersonal law of nature, kept order in the universe through the Zhou king. The king was the link between Heaven and Earth. Thus, the king ruled by a mandate, or authority to command from Heaven. the concept of the heavenly mandate became a basic principle of Chinese Government.
Mongols
Pastoral people who swept out of the Gobi in the early thirteenth century to seize control over much of the known world. Their empire included creating a new Chinese dynasty. At the time of the Mongol invasion, art and literature in China were in the middle of a golden age. Due largely to their military prowess, the Mongols rose to power in Asia with stunning speed. They were pastoral people from Modern day Mongolia who were organized loosely into clans.
Neo-Confucianism
A revised form of Confucianism that evolved as a response to Buddhism and held sway in China from the late Tang Dynasty to the end of the dynastic system in the twentieth century. From the Song Dynasty to the end of the dynastic system in the twentieth century, official support went to a revived Confucianism, which became the heart of the state government. This new doctrine, called the Neo-confucianism, served as a Confucian response to Buddhism and Taoism. It teaches that the world is real, not an illusion, and that fulfillment comes from participation in the world. Neo-confuciansts divide the world into a material world and a spiritual world. Humans lives in the material world but are also linked with the Supreme Ultimate. The goal is to move beyond the material world to reach union with the Supreme Ultimate.
Samurai
"those who serve", Japanese warriors similar to the knights of medieval Europe. With the decline of central power, local aristocrats took justice into their own hands. They turned to military force, and a new class of military servants emerged whose purpose was to protect the security and property of their employers. Called the samurai, these warriors fought on horseback, clad in helmet and armor, and carried a sword and a bow. Like knights in Europe, the samurai were supposed to live by a strict warrior code, known in Japan as Bushido.
Scholar-gentry
In China, a group of people who controlled much of the land and produced most of the candidates for civil service. The Scholar-gentry, as this class was known, replaced the old landed aristocracy as the political and economic elite of Chinese society.
Shinto
"the Sacred Way" or "the way of the Gods," The Japanese state religion, among its doctrines are the divinity of the emperor and the sacredness of the Japanese nation. Early Japanese people, worshipped spirits called kami, whom they believed resided in trees, rivers and mountains. The Japanese also believed that the spirits of their ancestors were present in the air around them. In Japan these beliefs evolved into a religion called Shinto, which is still practiced today. Over time, Shinto became a state doctrine linked to the belief in the divinity of the emperor and the sacredness of the Japanese nation. Shinto however did not satisfy the spiritual needs of all the Japanese people. Some turned to Buddhism.
Shogun
"general" a powerful military leader in Japan. Helped to create a more centralized government. In this new system-called the shogunate-the emperor remained ruler in name only, the the shogun exercised the actual power.
Silk Road
Trade began to revive under the Tang dynasty. The Silk Road was renewed and thrived as caravans carried goods between China and Southwest Asia and South Asia. The Silk Road was more than just a trading route, however. It was also a conduit of ideas. Three religions==Buddhism, Christianity and Islam-spread along the Silk Road. Technical knowledge from China-including the secrets of printing, drilling wells, and making iron, gunpowder, paper and silk-reached the West along the Silk Road. Trade with regions near China, such as Japan and Korea, also increased during the Tan and Song dynasties. The Chinese exported tea, silk and porcelain to the countries beyond the South China Sea. In return, they received exotic woods, precious stones, and various tropical goods. As a result of trade, Changan, with a population of about two million, became the wealthiest city in the world.
Su Song
Created the water-clock tower-prime minister
Sun Simiao
A famous doctor who discussed acupuncture in extensive detail in his well known medical book: Thousand Golden Formulae
Tang Fu
Invented gunpowder arrow and gunpowder ball, and barbed gunpowder packages, and donated inventions to the song emperor.
Theravada
"the teachings of the elders," a school of Buddhism that developed in India; its followers view Buddhism as a way of life. People did not always agree on the meaning of the Buddhas teachings, resulting in a split among Buddhists in India. One group believed that they were following the original teachings of the Buddha. They called themselves the school of Theravada. They insist that an understanding of oneself is the chief way to gain nirvana or release from the "wheel of life". Theravada stressed transforming oneself through moral conduct and meditation. Another view was known as Mahayana (see other slide)
Yi Xing
astronomical administrator
Achievements:
astronomy: clockwork escape mechanism
time: used two wooden mannequins that would strike a ring or a drum to indicate the time
calendar: created the Da Yan calendar (based on sophisticated understanding of the sun's orbit)
His Impact
Advanced aspects of calendars and time with the use of astronomy. created the accurate calendar we use today. Chinese calendar is extremely valued in the culture now. Connected heaven and earth every new era started by a new calendar.
Zen
A sect of Buddhism that became popular with Japanese aristocrats and became part of the samurai's code of behavior; under Zen Buddhism, there are different paths to enlightenment. The two main schools of zen teach that nirvana either comes by instantaneous enlightenment or through a long process of meditation.
What is the concept of the dynastic cycle and mandate of heaven? What does this tell us about Chinese politics and culture?
the mandate of heaven is a cycle of rulers and their succession. If a ruler was chosen by the gods then they would be able to take over and rule successfully. However, if they became selfish their power would be taken away and given to a new ruler. Each time a new ruler appeared, a new dynasty was created. This is called the dynastic cycle. The ruling family would bring peace by lowering taxes, returning land, having a good government, and many other aspects. After time, the next step in the dynastic cycle would take place and everything would start to fall apart. A new ruler would take over and the cycle would start again. this information allows us to believe that China relied on their rulers to be successful and when that success began to fail, they would simply replace him. they wanted a ruler that could give the people what they wanted and when they couldn't provide that any longer, they found someone that could.
"Confucius equated education with public service and virtue. He taught that rulers should be devoted to the welfare of the people and that government officials should earn their positions through education and talent-merit". What was the significance of civil service? What benefit did a prospering civil service have on Chinese society as well as the individual?
The significance of civil service was to let anyone in China have the change to be in the government. It let women get jobs in the government and also people from all classes. It benefited the individual because it gave them a chance to have a voice and work in the government. They benefited the society because it let people from all different parts of the society have part in the government and in controlling their land.
How did the Sui, Tang and Song dynasties bring order to China between periods of chaos and instability? What were important innovations of the Tang and Song Dynasties?
The Sui completed the Grand Canal which linked the two great rivers of China. The link made it easier to ship rice. Forced labor was used to build the grand canal and keep an eye on the empire. The fancy lifestyle and the failed military caused rebellion.

The tang rulers created a more stable economy by giving land to the peasants and breaking the estates to reduce power. Restored civil service. There was a bloody revolt was led by the fact that nobody took responsibility of the actions of war and strife.

The song ruled during prosperity and cultural achievement. they fought with people in the north. Mongols eventually overthrew the Song.
How did the Mongols create the world's largest land empire?
Khan led an army that had good military tactics that were devastatingly effective. Mongols brought eurasian landmass under a single rule which created the largest land empire. Khan set up a capital city so he could rule the new empire. When he died, his sons became responsible for ruling each of the territories that were divided.
What is the Silk Road? Why was it so important?
The Silk Road was a trade route that went from China to Eastern Europe. This ancient route not only circulated goods, but also exchanged the splendid cultures of China, India, Persia, Arabia, Greek and Rome. The Silk Road was important because it helped to generate trade and commerce between a number of different kingdoms and empires. This helped for ideas, culture, inventions, and unique products to spread across much of the settled world.
How did Buddhism, Taoism, Neo-confucianism, and other beliefs affect Chinese culture? What about the cultures of Japan and Korea?
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Who was Empress Wu? What is her story? What can you say about sexism in the Tang Dynasty and did this case establish a precedent of sexism that carries us to modern times?
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How did Japan's geography affect its economy and culture? Its strength as an empire? What is a shogunate? Who are the samurai and why was that system necessary? How is feudalism in Japan compared to feudalism in Europe?
Japan was mountainous. People were divided between a small aristocratic class and a large population of rice farmers, artisans and household servants.
How did Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam influence the development of India?
Theravada group insisted understanding of ones self is the chief way to gain nirvana through meditation and moral conduct. Mahayana group believed the Theravada were too strict and believed that by devotion to Buddha, people can achieve salvation in this heaven. The Muslims tried to convert the Hindus to Islam but it didn't work. The Muslim rulers tried to maintain a strict separation between Muslim class and Hindu population. Muslims accepted Hindu religion.