Haley AP Gov Unit 1 Review (feel free to add anything if I forgot something)

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Terms in this set (...)

democracy
government by the people, both directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections
direct democracy
government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly
representative democracy
government in which the people elect those who govern and pass laws; also called a republic
constitutional democracy
a government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections
constitutionalism
the set of arrangements, including checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, rule of law, due process, and a bill of rights, that requires out leaders to listen, think, bargain, and explain before they act or make laws. we then hold them politically and legally accountable for hoe the exercise their powers
statism
the idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals who make up the nation
popular consent
the idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs
majority rule
governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority
majority
the candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election
plurality
candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half
theocracy
government by religious leaders, who claim divine guidance
articles of confederation
the first governing document of the confederated states drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781, and replaced by the present constitution in 1789
annapolis convention
a convention held in septemer 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to congress and the states for what became the constitutional convention
constitutional convention
the convention in philadelphia, may 25 to september 17, 1787, that debated and agreed upon the constitution of the united states
shays' rebellion
rebellion of farmers in western massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. it highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the constitutional convention went out
bicameralism
the principle of a two-house legislature
virginia plan
initial proposal at the constitutional convention made by virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature in which each state would be represented equally
new jersey plan
proposal at the constitutional convention made by william paterson for a central government with a single-house legislature dominated by big states
connecticut compromise
compromise agreement by states at the constitutional convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators
three-fifths compromise
compromise between northern and southern states at the constitutional convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the house of representatives
federalists
supporters of ratification of the constitution and a strong central government
anti-federalists
opponents of ratification of the constitution and a strong central government
natural law
god's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
separation of powers
constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive branch applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary branch interpreting the law
checks and balances
constitutional grant of powers that enabled each of the three branches of government to check some acts of the others and therefore ensure that no branch can dominate
devolution revolution
the effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning may functions to the states
federalism
constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central government and sub-divisional governments, called states in the US. the national and the sub-divisional governments both exercise direct authority over individuals
dual federalism (layer cake)
views the constitution as giving a limited list of powers - primarily foreign policy and national defense - to the national government, leaving the rest to the sovereign states. each level of government is dominant within its own sphere. the supreme court serves as the umpire between the national government and the states in disputes over which level of government has responsibility for a particular activity
cooperative federalism (marble cake)
stresses federalism as a system of intergovernmental relations in delivering governmental goods and services to the people and calls for cooperation among various levels of government
confederation
constitutional arrangement in which sovereign nations or states, by compact, create a central government but carefully limit its power and do not give it direct authority over individuals
express powers
powers the constitution specifically grants to one of the branches of the national government
implied powers
powers inferred from the express powers that allow congress to carry out its function
necessary and proper clause
clause of the constitution setting forth the implied powers of congress. it states that congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the constitution vests in the national government
inherent powers
the powers of the national government in all foreign affairs that the supreme court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants out rather grow out of the very existence of the national government
commerce clause
the clause in the constitution that gives congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nation
federal mandate
a requirement the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds
concurrent powers
powers the the constitution gives to both the national and state governments, such as the power to levy taxes
full faith and credit clause
clause in the constitution requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid
extradiction
legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the official of one states to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed
interstate compact
an agreement among two or more states. congress must approve most such agreements
national supremacy
constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government will prevail
preemption
the right of a federal law or a regulation to preclude enforcement of a state of local law or regulation
john locke
believes that people are naturally good and have natural rights and that the role of the government should be limited (social contract)
thomas hobbes
believes that people are naturally evil and selfish, that the role of government should be broad, and that people should trade rights for protection
baron de montequieu
believes that power should be divided to prevent tyranny (the origin of checks and balances)
the magna carta
an agreement to limit the british king's power and said that leaders are not above the law
the iroquois confederacy
warring tribes put aside their differences to form an alliance, was the inspiration for the articles of confederation
the republic of rome
served as an inspiration for bicameral legislature and judicial system
the declaration of independence
it severed ties with the british, listed grievances with the king, and established america's philosophy. it did not organize a government, declare war, or guarantee rights. it was heavily influenced by john locke
the articles of confederation
US's first attempt at government. created a weak and inflexible central government. some problems include: no president, no judiciary, 9/13 states needed to pass laws, central government could not tax, articles were nearly impossible to change, and central government could not regulate trade
ex post facto clause
laws cannot take effect after the fact, you ma not be punished if your action was legal at the time
privileges and immunities clause
states are prohibited from discriminating against residents from other states
how to amend the constitution
1) 2/3 of the house of representatives must approve
2) 2/3 of the senate must approve
3) 3/4 of the state legislatures must approve
1st amendment
freedom of religion, assembly, press, petition, and speech
2nd amendment
right to bear arms
3rd amendment
quartering laws
4th amendment
illegal search and seizures
5th amendment
rights of self incrimination, habeas corpus, double jeopardy, due process, imminent domain
6th amendment
right to a speedy public trial by jury of peers and right to a lawyer
7th amendment
right to a trial by jury for crimes over $20
8th amendment
ban on cruel and unusual punishment
9th amendment
individual rights are not limited to those in the bill of rights
10th amendment
powers not mentioned in the constitution are reserved for states or people
11th amendment
foreigners cannot sue states, only a state resident can sue that state
12th amendment
president and vp cannot be from the same state, also refines the electoral college
13th amendment
no slavery
14th amendment
natural born citizenship, equal protection, selective incorporation
15th amendment
african american suffrage
16th amendment
income tax
17th amendment
direct election of senators
18th amendment
no alcohol permitted
19th amendment
women's suffrage
20th amendment
inauguration set for jan 20th. congress must meet every year
21st amendment
18th amendment repealed; alcohol permitted
22nd amendment
presidential terms limited
23rd amendment
washington dc gets as many electoral votes as the smallest state
24th amendment
no poll taxes
25th amendment
presidential succession (vp, speaker, pro temp...)
26th amendment
suffrage for 18 year olds
27th amendment
congressional pay raises cannot take effect until after next election
mcculloch v. maryland
supreme court case that denied states the power to tax the federal government. reinforced supremacy clause
gibbons v. ogden
supreme court case that confirmed the federal government's right to regulate interstate trade disputes. reinforced supremacy clause and commerce clause
marbury v. madison
established the principle of judicial review; the right to declare laws unconstitutional
nullification crisis
during jackson's presidency, south carolina threatened to nullify a federal law. south carolina was unable to do so. reinforced supremacy clause
fiscal federalism
national government spending, taxation, and grants provided to the state and local governments
categorical grants
given for a specific project (building a bridge). competitive among states and localities. decrease states' power
block grants
broad focus (improving infrastructure). allocated based on a formula. increase states' power
unfunded mandates
demands made by the central government (national elections). states and localities must cover cost. decrease states' power
articles of the constitution: preamble
states the purpose of the constitution
articles of the constitution: article i
legislative branch
articles of the constitution: article ii
executive branch
articles of the constitution: article iii
judicial branch
articles of the constitution: article iv
relations among the states and with the national government
articles of the constitution: article v
amending the constitution
articles of the constitution: article vi
national debts, supremacy of national law, and oaths of office
articles of the constitution: article vii
ratifying the constitution
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