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Psych Test 3
Terms in this set (50)
Type of psychologist that studies physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the human life span.
Put the growing human in the proper order: FETUS, TODDLER, NEWBORN, EMBRYO, ZYGOTE.
Zygote, embryo, fetus, newborn, toddler
agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
With repeated play sessions with the cheap purple and yellow stuffed Trojan toy, 12 week-old Baby Drew began to respond with less visual attention to the toy. His decreasing responsiveness best illustrates what psychology principle?
These are the biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Sean does not remember his first birthday party, taking his first steps, or the time he wrote on the wall with a Sharpie when he was two years old. Sean's lack of memories before ages 3-4 is due to what memory phenomenon?
As infants, our SEQUENCE of motor development as individuals does not differ - but the age-related TIMING may differ. Explain this.
As an infant's muscles and nervous system mature, skills emerge. The order motor skills emerge is fairly universal. Babies roll over before they sit unsupported, and they usually crawl on all fours before they walk. However, how long it takes an infant to start exhibiting a skill can vary. For example: 25% walk by age 11 months, 50% walk within a week after their first birthday, and 90% walk by age 15 months.
All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating.
This psychologist believed that the mind of a child develops through a series of stages.
Put the stages of Human Cognitive Development (according to Jean Piaget) in order.
Sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operations stage, formal operations stage
When someone incorporates newly acquired information into previously held beliefs or theories; when someone modifies their belief structures or theories in light of new information. Know the difference between these two learning schemas!
Assimilate and accommodate
This is a young child's difficulty in perceiving things from another person's point of view, according to Piaget.
Give a real-life example of a child's inability to grasp the principle of CONSERVATION.
Pouring too much milk or filling their plate too full
In contrast with Piaget's emphasis on the growth of a child's mind through interaction with his physical environment, what was Lev Vygotsky's theory on child development?
They increasingly think in words and use words to solve problems. They do this, he said, by internalizing their culture's language and relying on inner speech. Emphasized how the child's mind grows through interaction with the social environment.
What was the purpose of Mary Ainsworth's 'strange situation' laboratory setting?
To determine the nature of attachment behaviors and styles of attachment among infants
In pleasant but unfamiliar settings, infants with what type of maternal attachment are most likely to use their mothers as bases from which they explore their new surroundings?
Define: STRANGER ANXIETY.
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
The phase in which a child's exposure to certain experiences is needed for proper development.
How does responsive parenting impact parent-child attachment?
Developing secure maternal attachment
Define: AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING-
impose rules and expect obedience "don't interrupt" "keep your room clean"
This is the stage of human development that spans from the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood.
Compare and contrast PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS and SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS.
Primary sex characteristics are the reproductive organs and genitals that distinguish sexes. Secondary sex characteristics are differentiating characteristics that don't directly relate to reproduction, like tone of voice.
What is the relationship between PUBERTY and MENARCHE?
Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing. Menarche is the first menstrual period. You have to have menarche for puberty to fully start
This involves an affirmation of self-defined ethical principles. [Kohlberg's Levels of Moral Thinking]
Post conventional Morality
Seventeen year-old Hillary questions her parents' conservative Christian values. At the same time, she does not fully accept her friends' more liberal and relaxed values. Hillary's confusion about her direction in life and core values suggests that she struggles with what?
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
Compare the information-processing speeds of 20- and 70-year-olds on complex tasks, such as video games and perceptual puzzles.
65-year-old retina receives 1/3 as much light as a 20 year old and the 65 year old reaction time is much slower than the 20 year old
Upon reflection of his life, 75 year-old retired social studies teacher "Willy" feels that his life has not been of any value or significance. Considering this case according to Erikson's 'Stages of Psychosocial Development', what sense has Willy failed to achieve?
process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the human nervous system.
This is the process by which sensory input is organized and interpreted.
The minimum amount of stimulation someone requires in order to detect a stimulus fifty percent of the time.
The 'just noticeable difference' is the minimal difference between two stimuli required for detection what percent of the time?
50%. Weber's law. The way to test 'just noticeable difference' is Weber's law
What three steps are basic to all sensory systems so that they may be "perceived" by the brain?
Receiving, transforming, and delivering
Give an example of WEBER'S LAW
Adding books to a backpack to make it heavier again
Haley borrows her uncle's 2017 Mercedes SL65 convertible. She certainly drives responsibly, but listens to the stereo at the highest level as she cruises down I-77. As she pulls up to a red light, the music is still blaring at the highest level. Haley looks to her left happily singing along. Oh, no! A South Carolina Highway Patrol officer indicates for her to pull over, and warns her that she was breaking the noise ordinance because of her loud music. Because the radio was on <BLAST> for 15 minutes before she slowed to a stop, Haley failed to realize how loudly the music was blasting. This situation best illustrates WHAT phenomenon?
This is a mental predisposition that influences what we perceive. Perceptual
How do neural impulses make their way to the visual cortex
Neural impulses from the retina are first relayed to the thalamus
Define: THE YOUNG-HELMHOLTZ THEORY.
Theory that states the cones in the retina are sensitive to the primary colors of red, blue, green. When stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color
This is the perception of an object as being distinct from its surroundings
Define the terms CONTINUITY and CLOSURE. How are these principles related?
Continuity- perceiving smooth patterns in place of discontinuous ones. Closure- filling in gaps to create a whole, complete object. Related because both show how one wants o see a "Pretty picture"
This is the perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object.
Describe The Visual Cliff Experiment
To test depth perception, infants are placed apart from their mother's, being separated by a glass "cliff" to see if they will go or fear falling
This is our sense of hearing
Once a sound is perceived, the neural impulse travels from the auditory nerve to the thalamus to WHAT cortex in WHICH lobe in the human brain?
Auditory cortex in the temporal lobe
Why is a there a time lag between left and right auditory impulses?
For survival and direction
What are the four basic sensations of touch?
Pressure, warmth, cold, pain
What theory suggests that pain is experienced when small nerve fibers activate and open a neural gate in the spinal cord?
This sense is a chemical sense.
Taste and smell
This is the human sense of the position and movement of individual body parts
The human sense of balance is maintained by sensory receptors located in these
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