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Chapter 3 The Biosphere
Terms in this set (87)
The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings.
All the parts of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
About the Biosphere
The Biosphere is a CLOSED SYSTEM, nothing leaves or enters it except energy from the sun.
-Extends about 8 km above Earth's surface to 11 km below the ocean's surface
Other biospheres DO exist
Name the 6 Levels of Organization Ecologists Study
Biosphere, Biome, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism (species)
All portions of the planet
Group of Ecosystems with the same climate & similar dominant communities
Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place together with their nonliving, physical environment
Groups of different populations that live together in a defined area
A group of the same species that live in the same area
Organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.
3 Methods scientists use to study Ecology
Observing, Experimenting, Modeling
asking questions that can be answered by watching
testing hypotheses in artificial settings and in natural ecosystems
used to study phenomena that span large time periods or areas, computer simulations, makes predictions
What is mean by a web of interdependence?
Each level of the biosphere is linked (dependent upon and effected) to the other which creates a web of interdependence.
Organism that can capture energy from sunlight (or chemicals) and use it to produce their own food (sugars) from inorganic compounds
Another name for a Producer
Name some Producers (Autotroph)
Plants, Some Algae, Certain Bacteria
Process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches. (food)
Process by which some organisms such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Where do bacteria live that produce carbohydrates from chemical energy?
in deep ocean volcanic vents, hot springs and tidal marshes along the coast
Organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply (can not harness energy directly from the physical environment
Another name for consumer
The name for 5 types of Consumers (based on what they eat)
Herbivores (plants), Carnivores (meat), Omnivores (plants & meat), Detritivores (plant & animal remains & dead matter), Decomposers (break down organic matter)
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem. It links all the food chains in an ecosystem together.
What each step in a food chain or food web is called.
Who makes up the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Tropic Levels?
Produces make up the first trophic level,
Consumers make up the 2nd, 3rd, or higher tropic levels)
Each consumer depends on the tropic level below it for energy
What percent of Energy is transfered to organisms in each Trophic Level of the Energy Pyramid?
A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
(there are 3 types)
shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level (only 10% of the energy in a level is transfered to the next level)
Show the total amount of living tissue within a trophic level. Shows the amount of potential food available for each tropic level in an ecosystem. Follows the "rule of 10"
Pyramid of Numbers
Shows the number of individual organisms at each tropic level
What is the main source of energy for life on Earth?
Sunlight. Without a constant input of energy, living systems cannot function.
Some organisms use something else for a source of energy. Explain
Some Bacteria use energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds to produce carbohydrates through a process called Chemosynthesis.
Describe the one-way path of energy through an ecosystem
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).
xplain why autotrophs are producers.
Autotrophs are producers became they make their own food
If a biomass pyramid contains 400 Kilograms of wheat at its base, how many kg of human tissue would exist at the 4th tropic level?
Cycles that show how elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.
Name 4 Biogeochemical Cycles
Water Cycle, Carbon Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, & Phosphorus Cycle
What is the difference from how matter (nutrients) flow and the flow of energy?
Energy is a one-way flow from Producers to Consumers and Matter (nutrients) flow in a cycle between ecosystems that never ends.
The continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
Where does the water cycle get its energy?
What do all living things require to survive?
water changing from liquid to an atmospheric gas (from lakes, streams & oceans)
water evaporating from the leaves of plants
(liquid to gas)
Surface water absorbing into the subsurface
Water returning to earth (from clouds) in form of rain, snow, hail, or sleet.
water the runs off the surface of land and collects in streams & rivers
water changing from gas to liquid (forming clouds)
transition of water directly from a solid to a gas without passing through the liquid phase. (snow into water vapor)
Name 6 ways water is stored.
Ground Water, Underground Water, Saltwater (oceans), Freshwater (lakes & streams), Atmosphere, Ice & Snow (solid)
Does the water cycle ever stop?
No unlike the one-way flow of energy, water is recycled within and between ecosystems and never stops.
What is the main component of living tissue?
Carbon (chemical element)
How does carbon relate to Photosynthesis, Respiration & Decomposition?
Photosynthesis, Respiration & Decomposition all return Carbon to the atmosphere (all Biological process)
How does carbon relate to Erosion & Volcanic Activity?
Erosion and Volcanic Activity both release carbon into the ocean. (a Geochemical Process)
Does the carbon cycle ever stop?
No. The same carbon atoms are used repeatedly on Earth. They cycle between the Earth and the Atmosphere. The carbon cycle repeats over and over and over.
How do plants gather carbon?
Plants pull carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and with help of the sun produce food (glucose) through the process of photosynthesis.
Carbon becomes part of the plant.
How do animals gather carbon?
Animals get Carbon when they eat plant.
(then animals release carbon dioxide through respiration and producers take in carbon dioxide through photosynthesis)
How does carbon return to the atmosphere?
When plants & animals die most of their bodies are decomposed and carbon returns to the atmosphere.
It is also released as carbon dioxide by volcanic eruptions, photosynthesis, respiration, and burning fossil fuels (factories etc).
What leads to carbon deposits underground?
Some Carbon from dead plants and animals does not decompose fully and the carbon ends up in deposits underground (fossil fuels: oil, coal etc)
Where does earth store the most carbon?
Ocean. Animals die & carbon substances are deposited at the bottom of the ocean.
Where does carbon go that is in rocks?
Carbon in rocks and underground deposits is released very slowly into the atmosphere (takes many years)
The changing of atmospheric Nitrogen (N2) to Ammonia (NH4) that is then usable by plants.
Name 2 places nitrogen fixation takes place.
In the soil & plan roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
In the atmosphere by lightening.
Are any animals or plants able to use atmospheric Nitrogen (N2)?
Can any organism use atmospheric nitrogen?
Yes. Certain types of Bacteria use N2 directly. They live in the soil and on the roots of plants called legumes.
They convert nitrogen gas into ammonia (nitrogen fixation)
The biological oxidation of Ammonia (NH4) with oxygen to form Nitrite (NO2-) followed by the oxidation of these Nitrites into Nitrates (NO3-)
NH2---> NO2- ----> NO3-
Why do all organisms require nitrogen?
to make proteins
What is the most abundant element on earth?
80% of atmosphere made of nitrogen
(General term for the way nitrogen is absorbed)
The process by which plants and animals incorporate NO3- (Nitrates)
Plants absorb Nitrates and animals eat the plants to get Nitrogen.
Process of releasing ammonia from dead plants & animal wastes. Done in soil by decomposers (fungi & bacteria).
Changing Nitrate (NO3-) into atmospheric N2.
Done by denitrifying bacteria where little or no oxygen is present
Formula of Nitrogen Cycle
N2-->(Nitrogen fixation)-->NH4--> (Nitrification) --> NO2- (nitrite) -->NO3- (nitrate) --> PLANTS USE -->ANIMALS EAT PLANTS -->dead plants & animal waste enters soil --> (Denitrification) --> N2
What is the Nitrogen Cycle?
Process of nitrogen being fixed, used by plants & animals and returned to the atmosphere.
What is the Water Cycle?
The continuous movement of water on, above & below the earth's surface.
What is the most abundant element in our atmosphere?
What are 3 important things that phosphorous is found in?
DNA, RNA, ATP
What makes the phosphorus cycle unlike the water, carbon or nitrogen cycle?
It does not occur in the atmosphere just on land and in water.
How do phosphates enter water and soil?
They are removed from rock by precipitation (weathering) and distributed to water and soil.
How do plants take up phosphates?
Plants take up phosphates from the soil.
How do animals obtain phosphates?
Animals get phosphates by eating plants.
How do phosphates return to the soil?
Phosphates return to the soil through excretion from animals in urine and feces or by the decomposing of dead plants and animals.
What is the Phosphorus Cycle?
The continuous movement of phosphorous over land and water.
What is the Carbon Cycle?
The continuous process by which carbon compounds move through the environment mostly by CO2 in living tissue by photosynthesis and its return to the atmosphere by respiration and the decay of dead organisms and the burning of fossil fuels.
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