(birth date unknown) Also known as Abu Anas al Turki, the founder of al Qaeda in Turkey. Akdas left Turkey to fight in Iraq after the American invasion. He was killed in a U.S. air strike in 2004.
The capital of Turkey since the birth of the Republic of Turkey. Ataturk and the Young Officers moved the capital there from Istanbul in 1923.
(1881\-1938) Also known as Mustafa Kemal, a Turkish military and political leader. Ataturk dissolved the caliphate in 1923 and created the Republic of Turkey with a Western-style constitution.
(1965\-2006) A jihadist leader in Chechnya, Basayev engineered several operations resulting in mass civilian casualties.
A Chechen terrorist attack on the first day of school in September 2004 in North Ossetia. The scene was chaotic and Russians forces were never able to establish a security perimeter. Although details remain unclear, the incident resulted in the murder of nearly 400 people, including more than 100 children.
Chechen female suicide bombers. They are known as Islamic martyrs in the Chechen language.
(1945\-1975) Also known as Mara Cagol, the wife of Renato Curcio and a member of the Red Brigades. She was killed in a shoot-out with Italian police a few weeks after freeing her husband from prison.
A term to describe genocide in a geographical area. Ethnic cleansing occurs when one group decides to rid an area of another group.
An economic consortium of several European states formed in 1992. It was designed to remove trade barriers and to create a unified European economy.
(1892\-1975) Leader of the nationalistic forces during the Spanish Civil War and the fascist dictator of Spain from 1939\-1975.
The description of the international economy from the time of the U.S. stock market crash of 1929 until the beginning of World War II.
ibn al Khattab
(1969\-2002) Also known as Emir Khattab or the Black Wahhabi, an international Saudi jihadist who went to fight in Chechnya. He tried to move the Chechen revolt from a nationalistic platform to the philosophy of religious militancy. He was killed by the Russian secret service in 2002.
Independent Monitoring Commission
A commission created in 2004 to investigate paramilitary actions and alleged governmental abuses during the Irish peace process.
An Islamic missionary society founded in Northwest India (Pakistan today) in the early twentieth century. Its original purpose was to teach Muslims how to behave piously. Critics maintain that it has become dominated by a militant philosophy.
A slang term for areas of London dominated by Muslims. The area was known as a haven for radical jihadists, but police began to crack down on militant activities after jihadist attacks in the United Kingdom.
(1971\-2005) A Catholic supporter of Sinn Fein allegedly murdered by the IRA during a bar fight in Belfast. The murder had nothing to do with McCartney's politics, but it revealed the thuggish nature of the IRA.
(Theatrical Center, Dubrovka, Moscow, 2002) The site of a Chechen attack where approximately 40 terrorists took 850 hostages. Russian forces stormed the theater on the third day of the siege, killing 39 terrorists and at least 129 hostages.
(1948\-) The leader of the PKK. Ocalan was captured in 1999 and sentenced to death, but his sentence was commuted. He ordered the end of a suicide-bombing campaign while in Turkish custody and called for peace between Turkey and the Kurds in 2006.
A Unionist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. Volunteers for the House of Orange have joined Unionist causes in Northern Ireland since William of Orange saved the Protestant cause at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690.
Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI)
The police force created in November 2001 to replace the Royal Ulster Constabulary.
(1952\-) The president of the Russian Federation. He succeeded Boris Yeltsin in 1999.
Red Army Faction (RAF)
A left-wing German terrorist group operating from the mid-1970s to 1998. While under the leadership of Ulricke Meinhof and Andreas Baader, the RAF was known as the Baader-Meinhof Gang.
Red Hand Defenders
A Unionist extremist group in Northern Ireland. The newest group to use the name formed in 1998.
Spanish Civil War
(1936\-1939) A war that pitted pro-communist Republicans against pro-fascist Nationalists. The war ended with a Nationalist victory and a fascist dictatorship under Franco.