Chapter 4: Perceiving and Believing
Terms in this set (58)
Involves understanding how "lenses" influence perception, beliefs, and knowledge
limitation of skill and knowledge:
talent : unteachable and hard to transferable
knowledge : teachable
Making sense of the world
Thinking is how you make sense of the world
Solve problems, analyze issues, make decisions
How do arrive here?
Senses experience the world
The process of becoming aware of your world through sense is "perceiving"
"actively selecting, organizing, and interpreting what is experienced by your senses"
Your active participation in perceiving your world is something you are not usually aware of.
Perceiving process, leads to construction of beliefs
Being active 1
-Senses don't simply record (we focus, ignore, etc)
-Active participant - trying to understand senses
-As you perceive your world, your experience is the result of combining sensations with the way you understand sensations...i.e. MAKE sense of the sensations
Being active 2
- Selecting - sensations to pay attention to
- Organizing - sensations into patterns or design
- Interpreting - determining the meaning of the pattern or design to you
IN BOOK :
1. electing certain sensations to pay attention to
2. Organizing these sensations into a design or pattern
3. Interpreting what this design or pattern means to you
Often unaware of these operations, we perform them quickly, automatically, and often simultaneously
Slow down to understand the process
-Often unaware of these operations, we perform them quickly, automatically, and often simultaneously
-Slow down to understand the process
-By combining sensations with the way your mind selects, organizes, and interprets sensations, you perceive a world of things that is stable and familiar
-----> a world that makes sense to you
Is what you are perceiving actually taking place? (normally we assume so)
Perceptions differ - why?
Perceptions differ because of lenses
To become an active thinker you must become aware your lenses that you are others are wearing
Factors that shape perceptions
Demographics / Background
Training / Education
Interests / Expertise
Values / Goals / Aspirations
Perceptions alone may not be reliable foundation to understand the world
You: often bias, assumptions, distortions, inaccurate perceptions
Perceptions help create beliefs
How do you define?
Defined - interpretations, evaluations, conclusions or predication about the world
Interactive relationship with perceptions, each influence the other
Explanation or analysis of meaning or significance
Judgment of value or quality based on certain standards
Opinion formed or decision reached after consideration of the evidence
Statement about what will happen in the future
Types of beliefs
Not all beliefs are equal
Reporting factual information
Describing the world in ways that can be verified through investigation
Personal - sense experience
ID source of information
Communicate via reporting
Strive for accuracy
Describing the world in ways that are based on factual information but go BEYOND this information to make statements about what is currently not known or uncertain
Inferences fill in the gaps to paint a complete picture.
Inference vs. Fact. Difficult to communicate by only sticking to factual observations. Need both. In practice, state inference and facts separately (likely, possible, appears, etc)
Fact v. inference
- Carelessly made or carefully made
- Previous background or experience or none at all
- May be true or not true
Often wrong. Evaluate certainty (i.e. risk). Can lead to predictions. (think about why - lack of info, misinformation, unanticipated or unknown variables)
Fact - you missed last 2 weeks of school
Inference - you are sick; you are dealing with a family issue; you just hate ANCH 108, you are on vacation, you are lazy
How would you investigate accuracy
Activity 4.9 (Page 170)
Describing the world in ways that express an evaluation based on certain criteria
Facts and inferences help you figure out what is happening, judgments express your evaluation about what is happening
Differences in judgment
Establish criteria or standards as basis for judgment - Credible?
Establish reasons justifying criteria (evidence)
Viewing the World through "Lenses"
A diagram of the process might look like this:
---> person A ---> (2)
---> person B ----> (3)
(2) Perception A
(3) Perception B
To become an effective critical thinker
you have to become aware of the lenses that you—and others—are wearing. These lenses aid you in actively selecting, organizing, and interpreting the sensations in your experience. If you are unaware of the nature of your own lenses, you can often mistake your own perceptions for objective truth without bothering to examine either the facts or others' perceptions on a given issue.
What Factors Shape Perceptions?
Your perceptions of the world are dramatically influenced by your past experiences:
the way you were brought up, the relationships you have had, and your training and education.
It takes critical reflection to become aware of these powerful influences on our perceptions of the world and the beliefs we construct based on them.
Thinking Passage: Experiences Shape Your Perceptions
As you think critically about your perceptions, you learn more from your experiences and about how you make sense of the world. Your perceptions may be strengthened by this understanding, or they may be changed by it
In addition to expressing an interpretation, evaluation, conclusion, or prediction about the world, beliefs also express an endorsement of the accuracy of the beliefs by the speaker or author.
This "endorsement" by the speaker is a necessary dimension of a belief, and we assume it to be the case even if the speaker doesn't directly say, "I believe."
an explanation or analysis of the meaning or significance of something)
a judgment of the value or quality of something, based on certain standards)
a decision made or an opinion formed after consideration of the relevant facts or evidence)
a statement about what will happen in the future
We all passively receive our perceptions of the world similar to a camera or a tape recorder.
At almost every waking moment of your life, your senses are being bombarded by a tremendous number of stimuli: images to see, noises to hear, odors to smell, textures to feel, and flavors to taste.
Your perceptions of the world are not dramatically influenced by your past experiences.
Factual reports represent an interpretation, evaluation, conclusion, or prediction about the nature of the world.
In theory, facts and inferences can be distinguished, but in practice, it is almost impossible to communicate with others by sticking only to factual observations.
Your total collection of beliefs represents your view of the world, your philosophy of life.
The credibility of a judgment depends on the criteria used to make the judgment and the evidence or reasons that support these criteria.
Having an accurate picture of the world depends on your ability to evaluate how certain your beliefs are. Therefore, it is crucial that you distinguish inferences from facts and then endeavor to act only on those bits of information that you know are facts.
Organizing your perceptual experiences into belief structures is a thinking process known as cognition.
Since our perceiving lenses are typically subjective and biased, our beliefs about the world are often subjective and biased as well.
The definition of perceiving is:
b. using your senses to experience and make sense of your world.
What do we call the process by which we describe the world in ways that express an evaluation based on certain criteria?
Because __________ play such an important role in our exchange and accumulation of information about the world, it is important that they be as accurate and complete as possible.
Which of the following statements represents an interpretation?
. "Poetry enables humans to communicate deep, complex emotions and ideas that resist simple expression."
Which of the following is NOT one of the basic types of beliefs you use to make sense of the world?
To clarify and validate your perceptions, you must:
critically examine and evaluate them.
At the most basic level, the concept of perceiving refers to __________ the sensations provided by the senses.
selecting, organizing, and interpreting
In the text, the author uses the example of a pair of lenses to describe how various people can be exposed to the same stimuli or events and yet have different perceptions. The lenses act as:
filters that select and shape what we perceive without our realizing it.
At its more complex level, the concept of perceiving organizes the world through:
larger patterns of meaning.
Thinking critically about your __________ results in the formation of your beliefs and ultimately in the construction of your knowledge about the world.
The process by which we describe the world in ways that are based on factual information yet go beyond this information to make statements about what is not currently known is called:
Which of the following is NOT an activity of the automatic process of perception?
Your __________ in perceiving your world is something you are not usually aware of.
Interpretations, evaluations, conclusions, or predictions about the world that we endorse as true are called:
Facts and inferences are designed to help you figure out what is actually happening, but the purpose of __________ is to express your evaluation about what is happening.