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Renaissance History Exam 1
Terms in this set (27)
A group of people who belong to a certain group based on their trade. Ex. Painters belong with the doctors and apothecaries because they made paint from the blood.
What was the cause of the difficult times for political, economic, and social situations during the 14th Century Europe.
-extreme population growth due to wealth and prosperity leading to not enough food production.
-Bad Harvest lead to famine in Europe.
-the Hundred Years' War conflict between France and England.
-the Black Death
Significance of Florence and the beginning of the Renaissance.
-birthplace of the Renaissance
-wealth promoted patronage
-artists were able to contract freely.
-relocation of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the conquest of Constantinople.
Relative size = relative importants
Charging interest on loan money.
Painted in various forms of grey, Monotone paintings in shades of grey.
-Ability to create mass
-ability to condense complex Biblical moments
-uses emotion and focuses on human condition.
Florentine vs. Sienese Painting
-human emotion and accessibility
-elegantly posed figures
The Book of Hours
-owned by royalty
-it was prized possessions
-had prayers of the 8 chronicle hours of the day
Holy object, container for a relic.
Decorated style vs new style (perpendicular style)
-decorated columns, 4 part vault
-rectilinear patterns and angular shapes.
Life of the Virgin
-Mary and angel Gabriel
-vessel is the womb
-the lily is a symbol of purity
Middle: adoration of the Magi
-the 3 wise men bringing gold to the Child
-star of Bethlehem
Top: Coronation of the Virgin
-the crowning of the Virgin
- star and crescent symbolic of the king.
Devotional images used by worshippers primarily during evening prayers, known as vespers.
Rebirth, or renewal
First to apply the term Renaissance to this period
International Gothic Style (Realism of Particulars)
-characterized by extreme and excessive detail
-recognizable by the progressive reduction in size of receding objects
-bright colors and use of gold
The use of clouds, mists, fog to depict space.
Iconography associated with Annunciation, Visitation, Presentation in the Temple, and Flight into Egypt
-god putting the baby in her stomach
-Mary and her cousin Elizabeth are pregnant
-Mary with Christ and St. John
-babies jump in the womb because of excitement
Presentation in the Temple
-baby Jesus is presented and circumcised
Flight into Egypt
-leaving because the King ordered that all baby boys under the age of 3 to be killed.
-miniature architectural style
-gothic style, a lot of detail
-pedestal falling down = Christianity is beginning
List of symbolism for Unicorn is found at the Fountain
-unicorn: purity, only captured by a virgin, representation of Christ
-lion: courage, royalty
-stag: resurrection sheds and regrow antlers
-strawberries: sexual love
-beach tree: nobility
-pomegranate and oranges: fertility
Floral or animal patterns woven on wool.
The Flemish School
-oil was preferred
-Flemish panel Paintings were meant to be viewed as windows onto a particular scene
-evidence of "Realism of Particulars"
Three panels work of art or Altarpiece
Glazed decorative earthenware vessel
Double portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife 2 different theories
-dog is a symbol of loyalty
-shoes= his shows he works outside while hers look like she is in the home
-she is showing her feat
-mirror= faithful people, Christ and the resurrection
She might be dead
-chandelier candle= lit above him but not above her
-she might have been pregnant
-mirror = all seeing eye of god
Reminder that death is inevitable
How would the invention of the printing press change the intellectual and spiritual lives of the Europeans
-the increase of literacy because there was more paper available and more people could own books. More people could learn how to read and not just the rich people.
-more people could have bibles and not just hear it from word of mouth. They were able to read it themselves instead of having to go to church everyday. It allowed more people to join in because they could read the book.
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Which of the following most likely influenced Rafael to paint School of Athens? (A) The influence of the universities (B) Humanist revival of Greek and Roman texts (C) Admiration for Greek and Roman political institutions (D) The invention of the printing press
The ideas expressed by Castiglione in the passages most directly support which of the following ideas regarding women during the Italian Renaissance? (A) Most Renaissance humanists believed that it was not proper for educated women to serve in the same roles as educated men. (B) Most Renaissance humanists believed that men and women should have similar roles in society. (C) Most Renaissance humanists believed that men and women should have equal access to classical education. (D) Most Renaissance humanists believed that women should have an increased role in the arts.
Which of the following actions during the period of the First French Republic best reflects the policies of the Jacobins? (A) The nationalization of the Catholic Church (B) The pursuit of a policy of de-Christianization (C) The abolition of hereditary privileges (D) Full citizenship for women of the republic
Opposition to attitudes such as those expressed in the speech above led to which of the following? (A) Political reforms that included compulsory public education (B) The expansion of the idea that human nature was not perfectible (C) The growth of mass-based political parties (D) The growth of the Zionist movement