Exploration, Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment
Terms in this set (23)
Who was the 1st European explorer to establish a sea route to Asia? What country did he sail for?
The 1st European explorer to establish a sea route to Asia was Vasca Da Gama. He sailed for Portugal.
Who was the 1st European explorer to sail to the east coast of South America? What country did he sail for? What impact did it have on Africa?
The 1st European explorer to sail to the East Coast of South America. The impact on Africa was that lots of colonies started in South America so, the colonies started taking slaves out of Africa.
Who was nicknamed, "the Navigator"? What was the main purpose of his early expeditions?
Prince Henry. He wanted to continue the Crusades against the Muslims, find gold, and take part in trade.
Who was the 1st European explorer to sail to what are today the Caribbean Islands, between North and South America? What country did he sail for?
Christopher Columbus sailed to the Caribbean Islands. He sailed for Spain.
Who was the 1st European explorer to lead a voyage that eventually went around the world? What country did he sail for?
The 1st European explorer that sailed around the world was Ferdinand Magellan. He sailed for Spain.
What nickname was given to Spanish explorers to the North and South America? Who were the explorers who led expeditions into the lands of the Aztecs and Incas? What was their goal?
Conquistadors were the nicknames for Spanish explorers to North and South America. Herman Cortes and Francisco Pizzaro led expeditions against the Aztecs and Incas. Their goal were gold, power and conquest.
What country(s) did Cabot, da Verrazano, and Hudson sail for? Where did they explore?
John Cabot sailed for England and he explored Canada.
Giovanni de Verranzo sailed for France and he explored the Atlantic Coast of North America.
Henry Hudson sailed for England and he explored Northeast Canada.
What was the impact of the early Spanish exploration? later Spanish exploration and conquest? What event led to the weakening of the Spanish influence in the Americas?
It led to spanish settlement severe weakening or destruction of Native Americans, wealth for Spain , an the growth of the African slave trade.
The defeat of the Spanish Hermoda.
Why was South America more desirable location than North America?
List and describe the three major impacts of exploration on European commerce and economies.
European exploration led to the growth of capitalism, a market economy, and mercantilism.
Capitalism is an economic system where merchants gained wealth by investing money for a profit.
A market economy allowed for the value of an item to fluctuate according to supply and demand.
Mercantilism was the economic policy where European rulers protected their countries interest by gathering as much wealth as possible by controlling trade and establishing colonies.
What were the two sources of the understanding of nature prior to the Scientific Revolution? What helped make the new discoveries possible during the Scientific Revolution?
The sources of understanding came from the Bible and the work of classical thinkers
The use of rationalism through the process of the scientific method helped make new discoveries possible.
Who came up with the parts of the scientific method? What is the scientific method?
Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes.
The scientific method is a five part method that combines logic, mathematics, and observation to prove or disprove a hypothesis.
What was the heliocentric theory? Who came up with the theory? Who improved upon the theory with precise mathematical laws? Who became the champion of the theory through his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems?
The heliocentric theory is a theory of the sun being the center of the universe
Nicholas Copernicus came up with the heliocentric theory
Johannes Kepler improved his theory
Galileo became the champion of the theory.
Who wrote the book Principia? What ideas and discoveries did it present?
It presented the law of gravity and the three laws of motion through the observation that started from why the apple fell from the tree.
What did the inventions of the barometer, microscope, telescope, and thermometer improve?
They improved the ability to study nature.
How was the Enlightenment similar to the Scientific Revolution? What made it different?
During the 1600's, many educated Europeans began to use observation and logic of the Scientific Revolution and apply it to human life.
Why did Thomas Hobbes believe that people need to be governed by a ruler with absolute power? What led him to the conclusion?
Hobbes felt that human beings, were naturally cruel, selfish, and greedy and felt a government's function was to protect people from their own selfishness and maintain an orderly society
He Observed the struggle and after math of the conflict between the Parliament and Monarchy.
What did John Locke feel was the true basis of government? What impact did it have on governments around the world?
The true basics of government was a social contract among free people to protect people's natural rights such as life, liberty, and prosperity. If a government failed to respect people's rights, it could be overthrown. It was the basis for the American French, and other revolutions around the world.
What did Baron de Montesquieu believe prevented despotism? What impact did it have on the US?
He believed the best way to fight tyranny was to split the government into three branches. The separation of powers would ensure liberty being protected.
What pen name did Francois-Marie Arouet write under? What views did he promote in his books?
Arouet wrote under the pen named Voltaire. He believed in religious tolerance which would allow people to profess religion in their own ways. He also promoted the idea of free speech even when it went against his thought on a topic.
What enlightenment thinker fought for the rights of the accused? What impact did he have on criminology?
Cesare Beccaria felt laws existed to preserve security and order. He argued against harsh punishments such as physical torture and capital punishment. He felt the punishment should be severe enough to outweigh the potential benefits of the crime.
What impact did the Enlightenment have on the American and French revolutions?
For the American's it helped make the Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights.
For the French it helped make the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens.
What was at the heart of Madame Geoffrin, Abigail Adams, Olympe de Gouges, Mary Wollstonecraft, and other women's contributions to the Enlightenment?
They wanted women to have the same rights as men.