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the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment
organisms that feed on the detritus and decomposing organic material of living organisms
the maximum number of organisms of a species, or the maximum population size which an environment is able to support
Position in the food chain, determined by the number of energy-transfer steps to that level; a functional classification of taxa within a community that is based on feeding relationships
a group of organisms with similar characteristics, which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms; may be auto or heterotrophic and live in salt and fresh water
eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms; cell wall contains cellulose and cells contain chlorophyll
an integrated group of cells that share structure and are adapted to perform a similar function
a combination of two or more tissues which function as an integrated unit, performing one or more specific functions
movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration down a concentration gradient
passive movement of water molecules from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration across a semi permeable membrane
molecules containing carbon that are found in living systems (Not CO2); often have covalent bonds
a globular protein that accelerates a specific reaction; catalysts that can be used over and over
the region of an enzyme surface that binds to the substrate during the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme
a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic consisting of a length of DNA occupying a specific position on a chromosome called a locus
a specific form of a gene, usually differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same locus as other alleles of the gene
an allele which as the same effect on the pheno type whether it is in a homozygous or heterozygous state
alleles which have a partial effect in the heterozygous state but a more pronounced effect in the homozygous state
testing individuals in a population for the presence of a gene (or a certain allele of a gene)
a group of organisms of identical genotype or a group of cells descended from a single parent cell
the controlled release of energy in the form of ATP from organic compounds in cells
immunity due to acquisition of antibodies from another source (can be injected by needle or passed through placenta or breast milk)
the localized reversal and then restoration of electrical potential between the inside and outside of a neuron as the impulse passes along it
behavior that normally occurs in all members of a species despite natural variation in environmental influences
modification of behavior in an animal as a result of the detection of correlations between external events
an attachment to an object encountered during a short period after birth, usually a parent
a linear and simple feeding relation, where one organism has one type of food and is eaten by one type of organism
more complex than a food chain and it includes a larger variety of organisms, Each of which feed on a variety of other organisms and they are in turn fed on by more organisms
energy flow (in a food chain)
energy losses between trophic levels include material not consumed or material not assimilated and heat loss through cell respiration
population size factors
if (natality + immigration) > (mortality + emigration) then a population is increasing
extrinsic population-regulating mechanisms
originate outside the population (food supply, natural enemies, disease, weather)
intrinsic population-regulating mechanisms
seen in the physiology or behavior (less offspring in crowded populations, mass migration)
unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles; circular DNA
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