77 terms


SSC Sociology - Prof. Smith
material culture
non-material culture (symbolic)
Patters of behavior; a groups way of thinking and doing
social imagination
to develop you must understand how culture affects peoples lives
culture within us
learned and shared ways of believing and doing
the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors
culture relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
Robert Edgerton
suggested we develop a scale on "quality of life", an anthropologist who reported how differently human groups react to similar behaviors
symbolic culture
Components of Symbolic Culture
symbols, gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
that language creates ways of thinking & perceiving
rules of behavior
reactions people receive when breaking norm
positive sanctions
approval for following norm
negative sanctions
disapproval for breaking norm
moral holidays/moral holiday places
times/ places where norms are temporarily suspended
norms that are not strictly enforced
Fixed morally binding customs within a group
declare as sacred and forbidden
groups whose members share beliefs and common experiences that set them apart from other members of a culture.
a culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture
pluralistic society
a society made up of many different groups
Robin Williams
sociologists who outlined a set of 15 values that are central to the American way of life.
Williams 15 values list
achievement and success, individualism, hard work, efficiency, science & technology, material comfort, freedom, democracy, equality, group superiority, education, religiosity, romantic love
value clusters
values grouped together
value contradictions
values that conflict with another or are mutually exclusive (race, women's rights, etc)
emerging values
leisure,self-fullfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, concern for the environment
culture wars
clashes within the society as to what the norms should be
ideal vs. real
values norms and goals that a group deems ideal vs. what people really say and do
cultural universals
traits that are part of every known culture
George Murdock
Anthropologist who compiled a list of over 60 cultural universals but found they WAY they are done is not universal
Edward Wilson
was an expert on ants. Wrote the book about the cornerstone of interdisciplinary approach to animal and human behavior.; human behavior result of natural selection
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Peter Conrad
Found that the Xq28 gene is not found in all homosexuals and not all that have the gene are not homosexuals
new technology
emerging technology that impacts social life
William Ogburn
Coined the term cultural lag;
cultural lag
not all parts of culture change at the same pace; material then nonmaterial
cultural diffusion
the process by which cultural characteristics or cultural patterns spread from one group of people to another and from one culture to another
cultural leveling
a process in which cultures become similar to one another
social environment
the entire human environment, including direct contact with others
heredity vs. environment
limits of certian physical and mental abilities are established by heredity and attitudes are result of environment; Nature vs Nurture
key to human development
key to what people become but without language there is no culture
Skeels & Dye
found absence of social interation causes low IQ - high inteligence depends on early close relationships with humans. must be done before age 13
husband and wife whose research found that physical contact not feeding creates bonding. also found that periods of isolation (especially lengthy) can affect stage of learning that may not be able to be compensated for.
the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live
self concept
the mental picture people have of themselves; their opinion about themselves
Charles Horton Cooley
used the term "looking-glass self" to explain that we see ourselves as we imagine others see us
Looking glass 3 elements
imagine how we appear to others, how we interpret others reactions, we develop a self concept
George Herbert Mead
personalities are shaped by how we think people see us; "self" emerges from interaction with people; play is an important role; generalized other; I & ME
take the role of others
putting yourself in others shoes; think or anticipate how they will react
John Flavel
experiment of blindfolded and not blindfolded children and game rules being explained. Older children compensated for the blindfolded children and younger children did not.
significant other
those who influence our lives signoficanlty (parents, siblings, etc)
generalized other
Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves
3 stages in learning to take on the roles of others
imitation, play and team games
I & ME
I = self as subject & ME=self as object
Jean Piaget
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
Sigmund Freud
Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do)., founder of psychoanalysis
central principle of sociology
that factors such as social class and people's roles in groups underlie their behavior - conflicts with Freud's assertion that the social group in which we are born decides our norms and values that restrain our biological drives
Lawrence Kohlberg
His theory states there are 3 levels of moral reasoning and each level can be divided into 2 stages. 1. pre-conventional, 2. conventional, and 3. post-conventional. His theory focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior; studied only boys
Carol Gilligan
Presented feminist critique of Kolhberg's moral development theory; believed women's moral sense guided by relationships;
global emotions
Universal understanding what certain facial expressions mean
Paul Ekman
an anthropologist studied emotions in several countries. He concluded that everyone experiences six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear happiness, sadness, and surprise. Ekman stated that emotions are built into our biology, "a product of our genes."
Expressing Emotions
Body, voice and gestures
feelings we have when we se someone suffer
gender socialization
the ways in which society sets children onto different courses in life because they are male or female
Goldberg & Lewis
study of mothers that reward daughters for being passive and dependant and sons for being independant and active
agents of socialization
people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
manifest function
intended and recognized consequence of some element of society
latent function
unintended and unrecognized consequence of some element of society
corridor curriculum
what students teach each other outside of the classroom
anticipatory socialization
The process by which an individual learns to assume a role in the future
the process of adopting new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
total institution
a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff
degredation ceremony
Garfinkl to describe an attemp to make the self by stripping away the individuals current identity and putting a new one in its place
Philippe Aries
analyzed documents and paintings from medieval Europe and concluded that before 1600 European societies had little or no concept of childhood as we know it.
transitional adulthood
a term that refers to a period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood