Anatomy test 1

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Terms in this set (40)
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)stimulates the release of LHFollicle-stimulating hormonemade by the anterior pituitary and is one of two gonadotropins. In males it stimulates the testes to produce chemicals that bind and conecntrate testosterone, in women it triggers the production of estrogen.Growth hormone (GH)made by the anterior pituitary and it regulates and controls growth. It targets skeletal and cardiac muscle, adipose, liver, cartilage, and bone. It promotes fat breakdown, gluconeogenesis, and inhibits glucose uptake by muscle fibers. It increases fatty acid and glucose levels in the blood.Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)produced by the liver due to GH, it affects nearly every cell type in the body. it triggers rapid protein synthesis and cell division that leads to longitudinal bone growth, glucose uptake, and muscle development in kidsgrowth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)stimulates the release of HG, it increases during exercise, fasting, and stress. This is inhibited by somatostatinAntidiuretic hormone (ADH)made by the hypothalamus and it incrasees the concentration of blood, its inhibited by a decrease in solute concentraion of the blood. It targets kidneys and the brain and it increases water reabsoprtion from the kidney tubules and increases blood volume.Thyroid folliclescomprise the thyroid gland and they produce thyroid hormonecolloidwhere the precursor of thyroid hormone is stored, also has a lot of iodine.Parafollicular cellsproduce calcitoninchief cellsproduce parathyroid hormone and are located in the parathyroid glandtriiodothyronine (T3)has 3 iodine atomsThyroxine (T4)has 4 iodine atomsParathyroid hormone (PTH)helps maintain blood calcium ion concentration. It is secreted due to hypocalcemia. Increases calcium ion release from bones by stimulating osteoclasts, also stimulates calcium absorption in other places such as the small intestine and kidneys.Calcitriolactive form of vitamin D that increases the amount of calcium ions absorbed by the small intestinesCalcitoninproduced by the thyroid (parafollicular cells) and it decreases blood calcium ion concentration. Primarily targets osteoclasts in bone and inhibits them.Aldosteronemaintains the concentration of extracellular sodium and potassium. Regulates extracellular fluid volume (creates a concentration gradient that favors osmosis of water from tubules to the extracellular fluid). Maintains blood pressure, acid-base hemostasis.Glucocorticoidsproduced by the zona fasciculata and reticularis of the adrenal cortex and they mediate the body's response to stress through regulating blood glucose levelsMineralcorticoidsregulate the concentration of minerals in the body, the main mineralcorticoid is aldosterone. They are produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortexcortisolthe most potent glucocorticoid. It targets the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and it stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver, releases amino acids from muscle tissue, and releases fatty acids from adipose tissue.Gluconeogenesisnew glucose is formed in the liverglycogenolysisglycogen is turned into glucosesomatostatina hormone produced by the hypothalamus that inhibits the release of growth hormoneThymusmaturation site of T lymphocytes and it secretes thymosin and thymopoietinB lymphocyteproduce antibodiesT lymphocyteactively participate in the immune responseThymosin andThymopoietinpromote T lymphocyte maturationLeptina protein produced by adipocytes that is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier to interact with neurons in the hypothalamus that controls fedding and induces fullnessAtrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)targets smooth muscle cells lining blood vessels, and the tubules of the kidneys, it causes vasodilation and increases sodium ionsErythropoietinsecreted by the kidneys in response to low Oxygen, it stimulates erythropocyte production in red bone marrow.cortisol