87 terms

Research Test One

Chapter 1-5
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

How do we learn things?
Agreement Reality; Experiential Reality
Agreement Reality
Things we agree on as humans such as a car is a car and a tree is a tree. These things have been established and we don't question them
Experiential Reality
We have to learn from experience such as a stove is hot but a child still touches it
Epistemology
Science of Knowing
Methodology
Science of finding out
Tradition
Accepted knowledge about the workings of the world. Things that everyone knows learned truths; differs from cultures and groups
Errors in Inquiry
Innaccurate Observation; Overgeneralization; Selective Observation; Ilogical Reasoning
Inaccurate Observation
Mistaken remembrance
Overgeneralization
Assuming all people of a particluar group act a certain way based on one person
Selective Observation
Only seeing what we want to see
Illogical Reasoning
Gambler's fallacy; I have a loosing streak but my luck will change
Views of the World
Pre-Modern View; Modern View; Post-Modern View
Pre-Modern View
Tree was evil but also good
Modern View
Our own perceptions as a way to look at things
Post-Modern View
Depends on each person's point of view
Pillars of scientific inquiry
Logic and observation
Three major aspects of science
Theory, Research Methods, Statistics
Social Regularities
patterns of regularity in social life; Traffic Laws, Labor Laws, Voter Registration
Aggregates
Group of what is being studied
Variables
Logical sets of attributes (gender, race, political affiliation)
Attributes
Characteristics or quality of something (female, old, age)
Theory
Established norms, expectations, and mores or explanations
Independent Variable
Acts on the dependable variable and affects it
Dependent Variable
The one that varies
Idiographic Explanation
All POSSIBLE explanations to explain condition or event
Nomothetic Explanation
All FEW causal factors that impact a class of condition or events
Inductive Reasoning
Moves from specific observation to a principle
Deductive Reasoning
Moves from the general to specific
Quantitative Data
Statistics and numbers
Qualitative Data
Explanations/Exploratory/Descriptive
Pure and Applied Research
Gaining "Knowledge for knowledge's sake"; Having what they learn make a difference
Three basic functions of Theory
Prevent being duped by flukes; Make sense of overall patterns in a way that suggest other possibilities; Shape and direct research efforts
Paradigms
A model of framework for observations and understanding which shapes both what we see and how we understand it; We can operate from more than one paradigm at a time
Macrotheory
Looks at the big picture (governments, religion, family)
Microtheory
Looks at the small (individuals and small groups)
Positivism
A positive approach to scientific research in contrast to the negative elements of the Enlightenment Period
Social Darwinism
Survival of the Fittest
Conflict Paradigm
Change occurs through conflicts
Symbolic Interactions
"Looking-glass self"
Ethnomethodology
Methodology of the people
Structural Functionalism
Parts make the whole
Feminist Paradigm
Gender differences and how they relate to society; Draws Attention to Oppression of women! Women's Ways of Knowing- Silence, Received Knowledge, Subjective Knowledge, Procedural Knowledge, Constructed Knowledge
Elements of Social Theory
Theory, Observations, Facts, Laws
Operationalization
The process, steps, involved in measuring a variable
Ethics
Conforming to the standards of a given profession or group
Ethical issues in Social Research
Voluntary Participation; No harm to the participant; Anonymity and Confidentiality; Deception
Analysis and Reporting
Ethics dictate that a researcher be honest with results
Institutional Review Boards
Required by federal Law, if federal funds are used; Guarantee that subjects rights and interests are protected; Ensure that risks faced by human participants in research is minimal
Two Ethical Controversies
Tearoom and Milgram
Politics and Social Research
Political views impact the use of social research
Social Research and Race
Controversial Issues
Three Purposes of Research
Exploration, Description, Explanation
Exploration
Familiarizing yourself with topic; often done thru focus groups
Description
Identify various variables; Obseervations, interviews, census; Qualitative and Quantitative Date
Explanation
What, where, when, how
Nomothetic Explantion
Seeks on a few factors to account for a event or phenomenon; Three main criteria for nomothetic causal relationships-Variable must be correlated, Cause takes place before the effect, Variables are nonspurious (third variable)
Necessary and Sufficient Causes
Necessary cause is a condition that must be present for the effect to follow (female to give birth); Sufficient cause is guarantees the effect but a sufficent cause is not the only possible cause (failin a course may cause you not to graduate from college but there are also other causes)
Units of Analysis
What or whom is being studied; Individuals, Groups, Organizations
Social Artifacts
Researchers going back and using things of the past to draw conclusions on people from then; Articles, TV shows
Faulty Reasoning
Ecological Fallacy; Reductionism
Ecological Fallacy
Drawing conclusions about individuals based solely on the observation of groups
Reductionism
Seeing and explaining complex phenomena in terms of a single, narrow concept or set of concepts. Reduce to a simple explanation what in reality is complex
Time Dimension
Cross-Sectional Studies; Longitudinal Studies-Trend, Cohort, Panel
Cross-Sectional Studies
Observations of a samples of population made at one point in time
Longitudinal Studies
Observations over a period of time
Trend Study
Changes in a population over time
Cohort Study
Specific cohorts or subpopulations over time
Panel Study
Set of people each time
Measurement
Careful, deliberate observations of the real world for the purpose of describing objects and events in terms of the attributes composing a variable
Conception
Mental images of terms
Conceptualization
The process of agreeing about what a term means
Concept
Constructs derived from mutual agreement from a mental image; "a family of concepts"
Classes of things that researchers measure
Direct observables, indirect observables, constructs
Direct Observable
Things we can easily and readily see for ourselves
Indirect Observable
Class notes or minutes of a meeting that you indirectly observed although you didn't attend
Constructs
Theoretical creations that cannot be observed directly or indirectly; IQ score
Levels of measurement
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio
Nominal Measure
Variables whose attributes have only the characteristics of mutual exhaustiveness and mutual exclusiveness; Gender, religious affiliation, politcal party, birthplace, college major, hair color
Ordinal Measure
Attributes we can logically rank order; Social class, conservatism, alienation
Interval Measure
Actual distance separating those attributes
Ratio Measure
Based on a true zero point
Reliability
Does technique applied repeatedly to the same object yield the same results each time; test-retest, Split-Half
Validity
The extent to which an empirical measure adequately reflects the real meaning of the concept under consideration
Face Validity
Indicator makes it seem a reasonable measure of some variable
Criterion Related Validity
The degree to which a measure relates to some external criterion
Construct Validity
The degree to which a measure related to other variables as expected within a system of theoretical relationships
Content Validity
How much a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept