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Terms in this set (94)
The application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the workplace
The Scientific Method is the most useful method for determining truth
if you make bad decision about people and strategy
you will fail
If people are different, and those differences matter, can we measure them?
Resumes, Interviews, Reference Letters
Cognitive ability tests, personality tests, job skills tests, assessment centers
IO psych history
James McKeen Cattell
Changing nature of work
Focus on Human Resources
Increasing diversity and globalization
Increasing relevance for workplace policy
what do IO psychologist do
universities, government, industry, consulting
-Usually requires a PhD
-Research and Teaching
-Publish or Perish
Military Training & Recruiting
tasks of io psychologists
Formulate & implement training programs
Conduct research studies on the work environment
Present results of research studies for clients
Provide expert testimony in lawsuits
Study consumer reactions to new products, designs, etc.
What Are the Career Prospects for I/O Psychology
O*NET Predicts Rapid Growth
Starting salary for MA in I/O was $65,000
For PhD $81,000
Private sector $100,000
person organization fit
How will this person impact team chemistry?
Will the person add or detract from team performance?
People have goals
Many of these goals are the same
People try to satisfy goals, motives, needs, etc.
What goals are shared?
biology and evolution
(crossed out maslows heirarchy of needs)
1) basic survival
2) self esteem needs
coalition formation (groups need to get along)
people want to get ahead
Values, Normal Personality, and Derailers
Normal Personality (Bright Side)
How do you (typically) behave?
How do other people see you?
How do you act when you are at your best?
Big 5 personality traits
Detailers (Dark Side)
How do you behave when you are under stress?
What strengths do you tend to overuse?
What will get in the way of your success?
values (core beliefs)
What do you want out of life?
What drives you?
What do you think is most important?
3 insights from personality
1-People are different
2-People are consistent
3-Differences can be measured
insight 2 (people are consistent) Evidence for Stability
what about people and change?
Can people change?
Do people change?
deaths, win lottery, job status, marital status
Who is most affected by life events is affected by...personality
Practice and Feedback
Is hard work
Often requires coaching
Can change behavior by about 30%
Systematic study of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job and the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform it.
Starting point for any personnel function
methods of job analysis
Use Existing Data
Assessment of the relative value or worth of a job to an organization to determine appropriate compensation, or wages.
A statement of the human characteristics required to perform the job such as physical and personal traits, work experience, and education
E.g. minimal qualifications
A detailed accounting of the tasks, procedures, and responsibilities required of the worker
the machines, tools, and equipment used to perform the job
and the job output (i.e., end product)
Job analysis techniques
Job Element Method (JEM)
job analysis techniques
Critical Incidents Technique (CIT)
Analysis of records that have led to successful or unsuccessful performance
Helps identify KSAOs
Small Package Truck Driver (e.g., UPS, FedEx)
Careful with packages
Arrives on time for pickup and delivery
Friendly with recipients
job analysis technique
(Position Analysis Questionnaire) (PAQ)
Relationships with other persons
Other job characteristics
job analysis (Functional Job Analysis) (FJA)
What kind of information does the job require the person to deal with?
How much and what kind of contact with people does the job require?
How much and what kind of interaction with what kinds of objects
E.g. tools, machines
O net database
FJA used to create Dictionary of Occupational Titles
Realistic (type of job)
building, operating, maintaining equipment, and other practical tasks requiring mechanical dexterity
information technology, law enforcement, military, professional athletics
Investigative (type of job)
research and designing systems, problem identification, and problem solving
all scientific research jobs
Artistic (types of jobs)
designing and creating products, entertaining people
art, music, literature, philosophy, architecture, and landscaping
Social (types of jobs)
helping or teaching others, operating emergency response systems
teaching, medicine, social work, human resources, librarian
Enterprising (types of jobs)
persuading, manipulating, or coopting other people
sales, politics, entrepreneurship
Conventional (types of jobs)
monitoring systems, counting things, organizing things, and regulating policies or people
insurance, accounting, tax law, finance, and most office work
roles and careers
Fulfill motives via Roles & Careers
Success depends on...
Ability to get along
Ability to get ahead
finding a meaningful career
People have different values
Job-value match ≈ meaning
Why care about values?
Core of you; philosophy of life
Values predict liking
we like people that share our values
KINDS OF VALUES
A desire for attention, approval, praise, and getting credit
A desire for success, accomplishment, status, competition, and control.
A desire for fun, pleasure, and enjoyment
A concern about the welfare of others, especially the less fortunate; a desire to help in some way and to contribute to a better society.
A desire for and enjoyment of social interaction.
A dedication to ritual, history, and old-fashioned virtues.
A desire for certainty, predictability, and order in one's life.
A desire for increased income, profits, and business opportunities.
An interest in art, literature, music, the humanities, and a lifestyle guided by question of culture, good taste, and attractive surroundings.
A desire for knowledge, an enthusiasm for new and advanced technologies, and a curiosity about how things work
The right career for me?
1/3 Americans in their "dream job"
That means most people aren't
A job that lets me live my dreams
Michael S Crow
Hire the Right People...
strategic human resources
What are organizations goals and strategic objectives?
What are the staffing needs?
What human resources are already available?
What additional positions do we need?
i.e., where are the gaps?
HR is perhaps the most important department
Costs of a bad hire?
$1 Million or more
Assessment (assessing and selecting employees)
The Goal of Assessment
Predict Future Job Performance
Measure psychological entities
Maybe predict behavior
Methods of assessment
Evaluation of Written Materials
References & Letters of Recommendation
Physical & Psychological Tests
Applications & Resumes
Letters of Recommendation
Employment & Educational History, Character Evaluation, Performance Evaluation, & Willingness to Rehire
Physical and Psychological Tests
Some jobs require physical abilities
E.g., mechanical dexterity
Cognitive Ability Tests
What most people think ofwhen they think of interviews
Predetermined set of questions given to each candidate
Typically reserved for managerial hires
Cognitive ability & personality tests
Leaderless group discussion
Very expensive to run
Legalities of assessment and selection
Civil Rights Act (1964)
Title VII: Protects against employment discrimination based on race, ethnicity, background, gender, and religious preference.
All US companies with > 15 employees are subject to Title VII.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection and Placement (1974, 1978)
Women, Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos
Later extended to Older and Disabled workers
Must keep personnel records for these groups and the majority group
Unfair personnel treatment
Intentional or unintentional
If 4/5ths is violated...
Employer must show that hiring procedures are valid
Griggs v. Duke Power Company (1971)
Implication - Validate Selection Procedures!
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967)
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
What if disability impairs ability to complete assessment procedure?
Medical Family Leave Act (1993)
Up to 12 weeks unpaid leave
Voluntary development of organizational policies to ensure jobs are available to all qualified individuals
Hire or promote protected group member over majority group member if equally qualified
Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications (BFOQ)
e.g., Models, restroom attendants
The goal of assessment is prediction
Predictive validity is the degree of accuracy in prediction
The Correlation Coefficient - r
Quantifies the degree to which two things are related
Ranges from -1.00 to +1.00
Validities of various screening methods
.00 coin toss
.11 traditional interview
.18 typical structured interview
.12 cognitive ability measures
.40-.50 Job interview+ assessments
.40-.60 job interview+assessments+simulations
Repeatability or Replicability of Scores
If people take the test twice, how highly will the scores correlate?
Different, but equal, versions of the same test
Worst (but easiest) method for estimating reliability
Reliabilities of various assessments
.87 blood pressure
varies cancer screenings
.88 SAT reading
.91 SAT Math
.91 ACT math
.96 ACT composite
.80 - .90 well developed psychological test
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY SUMMARY
Why is validity important?
If something cannot predict something else, it is not valid
Why is reliability important?
Something cannot correlate with something else greater than it correlates with itself
criticisms of assessment
Can you really measure these things?
If something is real, it can be measured, at least in principle
Validity and Reliability data support this notion
Cognitive Ability Tests - Yes
Personality Tests - No
"Fake Good" = Different Scores
No evidence that (a) people try to fake or (b) people actually can fake
No right or wrong answers
"Correct" answers vary based on job type
Profiles matter more than single scales
Internal validity scales to identify faking
Personality is ego-syntonic
What would it mean to fake anyway?
person job fit
Values = What you want
Useful for predicting what you will like
Personality = What you do
Useful for predicting what you will do in the future
models of personality ( big 5 )
The Big 5
Correlation between items
Measuring psychological entities
criticisms of big 5
Social Ascendance (Dominance)
Degree to which a person is calm and even tempered or conversely, moody and volatile
Degree to which a person seems leaderlike, seeks status, and values achievement
Degree to which a person appears talkative and socially self-confident
Degree to which a person is socially skilled, tactful, and perceptive
Degree to which a person exhibits self-control and conscientiousness
Degree to which a person seems curious, adventurous, and imaginative
Degree to which a person enjoys academic activities and values education as an end in itself.
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