Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
a British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, Braddock was mortally wounded.
Daunting general who took the French and Indian War into Quebec. 500 soldiers climbed cliff to enter city and surprise Montcalm. Died in battle.
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Also known as the "League of Peace and Power", the "Five Nations"; the "Six Nations"; or the "People of the Longhouse" this is a group that originally consisted of five nations: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga, and the Seneca. A sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined after the original five nations were formed. When Europeans first arrived in North America, they were based in what is now the northeastern United States primarily in what is referred to today as upstate New York. Widely regarded as the most powerful of all Indian tribes during French and British colonization.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; radical member of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townshend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated version of events around colonies
writs of assistance
It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
An indirect customs duty payable at American port imposed on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea (1767)
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling.
"no taxation without representation"
claimed taxes were unjust, insisted only they or their elected reps had the right to pass taxes, parliament had no right ot tax them since they didnt elect reps, and they were willing to pay taxes only if their colonial legislatures passed them.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
The Gaspée Affair was a significant event in the American Revolution. HMS Gaspée, a British revenue schooner that had been vigorously enforcing unpopular trade regulations, ran aground in shallow water, on June 9, 1772 near what is now known as Gaspee Point in the city of Warwick, Rhode Island while chasing the packet boat Hannah. In an act of defiance that gained considerable notoriety, the ship was attacked, boarded, stripped of valuables and torched by American patriots led by Abraham Whipple. This attack can be considered the first shot of the American Revolution.
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
designed to facilitate the incorporation of French Canadians into British America; Colonists feared a precedent had been established in the nonrepresentative government in Quebec; they resented the expansion of Quebec's territory, which they had been denied access by the Proclamation of 1763; they were offended by the Crown's recognition of Catholicism, since most Americans were Protestants
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
Lexington and Concord
April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)
"Give me liberty of give me death!"
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Act of 2nd Continental Congress declaring colonies free form England. Proposed on June 7, 1776 by Richard Henry Lee
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
American revolutionary troops captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in May 1775, With the capture of this fort, the Americans gained plenty of "ammo.", Ethen allen and Benedict Arnold joined forces to capture the fort, Green Mountain Boys
general appointed by Washington to control Southern campaign - was conciliatory towards loyalists and neutrals
Treaty of Alliance 1778
An alliance between the US and France after the American Revolution. It was annulled after the death of the King during the French Revolution.
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
a soldier of the American Revolution who was hanged as a spy by the British
"I only regret that I had but one life to lose for my country."
Paper bills issued by the Continental Congress to finance the revolution; supposed to be exchanged for silver but the overprinting of bills made them basically worthless.
Commanding general of the British forces that were defeated at Yorktown in 1781, ending the American Revolution.
John Paul Jones
The commander of one of America's ships; daring, hard-fighting young Scotsman; helped to destroy British merchant ships in 1777; brought war into the water of the British seas.
"I have not yet begun to fight."
George Rogers Clark
Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America
Battles of Trenton and Princeton
Washington crossed Delaware, surprised Hessians at Trenton, went on to win at Princeton...gave new hope to Americans after defeats in New York, Vindicated Washington as general-in-chief after his defeats in New York; Improved American morale and patriotism
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
Baron Friedrich von Steuben
This Prussian Baron is credited with training and making the Continental Army into a legitimate fighting force at Valley Forge. Some say he was the third most important leader of the Revolutionary War.
an illegal market in which goods or currencies are bought and sold in violation of rationing or controls
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
South Carolina militia leader nicknamed the "Swamp Fox" for his hit-and-run attacks on the British during the American Revolution.
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won!, in 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops
Lieutenant Governor (and later Governor) of Massachusetts. Advocated limiting the English liberties for American colonists. British sympathist prior to the American Revolution.
, believed the tea tax was unjust, but disagreed that the colonists had a right to rebel. He angered Bostons radicals when he ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Treaty of Paris 1783
1783 Februrary 3; American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays; they were instructed to follow the lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US End of Loyalist persecution; colonies still had to repay its debt to England