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BJU US History Chapter 11
Terms in this set (68)
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
He invented the cotton gin and interchangeable parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring
passed in 1790, this document allowed inventors to secure sole rights for new devices and processes
a blacksmith from Vermont who perfected the plow by putting an edge of steel over the ion blade of the plow, invention proved ideal for the new lands of the West
inventor of mechanical reaper
dominated the agriculture and economy of the south
inventor Eli Whitney, cleaned cotton 50 times faster than slaves
inventor of steam boat
also known as Cumberland Road, begun in 1811 in Cumberland, Maryland, eventually stretched to Vandalia, Illinois
roads made from a series of boards laid side to side
roads made from a series of logs laid side to side
privately built roads that users were charged for use of
also known as toll roads
Governor of New York who began building a canal from Albany to Lake Erie
canal from Albany to Lake Erie, paid for itself in tolls in less than 10 years
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
first successful railroad in America, consisted of horse drawn carriage on rails
fastest sailing ship built up to the 1840's
established in 1860 from St. Joseph, Missouri, to San Francisco, short-lived due to telegraph
Samuel F.B. Morse
inventor of telegraph
movement to eliminate slavery
William Lloyd Garrison
launched a newspaper, The Liberator, dedicated to attacking the moral evil of slavery
slave who led a slave revolt in Southampton County, Virginia
former slave who helped the abolitionist cause by writing and speaking of his experiences
spoke at anti-slavery meetings, also led more than 300 slaves to freedom
reformer for public education
William H. McGuffey
known for his elementary readers
reformer/activist for the mentally ill
ban of the sale and consumption of alcohol
Seneca Falls Convention
birth of the modern women's movement, called for equal rights for women, including the right to vote
sought to establish a small, perfect community as a model for reform of society at large
British utopian reformer who bought New Harmony, Indiana, to establish a perfect society based on common ownership of property
America's first great painter, moved to England but taught leading American artists
Hudson River school
first coherent school of art, artists specialized in landscapes
emphasized the emotional, the colorful, the imaginative, placing greater stress on the love of nature and the individual rather than on society
helped develop America's greatest contribution to world literature, the short story
Ralph Waldo Emerson
writer and lecturer who was the primary creator of Trancendentalism
Henry David Thoreau
Trancendentalist author, Walden
cheaper newspaper, made information more affordable
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Benefited from Awakening; favored personal conversion
Founded the Methodist church
He was an influential speaker who went around America and preached Methodism as a circuit rider. He was anti-Deist and was part of the Second Great Awakening.
Methodist ministers who traveled from church to church, usually in rural areas.
president of Yale, didn't like the liberal views of Christianity that he found there, started campus revivals and affected students, grandson of Jonathan Edwards
religious (usually evangelistic) meeting held in a large tent or outdoors and last several days
religious revival in 1801 in Kentucky galvanizing Protestants. As many as 25,000 people may have come to the August meetings.
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM)
America's first foreign missions board in 1810
missionary who served for many years in Burma and became known as the Father of American Missions
the greatest of the revival preachers during the Second Great Awaking who led massive revivals in NYC, devised the "anxious bench" and other innovations
instituted by Finney in the Second Great Awakening, include the anxious bench, worship leaders, altar calls, and protracted meetings
Denies the diety of Christ, the Trinity, many Bible doctrines, denied man's sin nature, and taught that human nature is esentially good. Believed human reason could solve all of man's problems. Arose in the early 1800s and by 1815 had taken root in many churches
literary movement of 1835-1860 that was the American version of Romanticism; believed that mankind had a spark of divinity
followers of William Miller who sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844 and waited for the world to end.
A millennial group who followed a mystic Mother Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Founded by Joseph Smith, who claimed he was visited by God, and in 1830 he published a document called The Book of Mormon. He said it was a translation of a set of gold tablets he had found in the hills of New York, revealed to him by an angel of God.
founder of the Mormon church
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
Mary Baker Eddy
founder of Christian Science
founded by Mary Baker Eddy, based upon "Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures" and national newspaper, "Christian Science Monitor"
Prayer Meeting Revival
1857-1859. some called "The Third Great Awakening", began after Panic of 1857 by Jeremiah Lanphier
Three Types of Growth
technological, spiritual, intellectual
what region produced the most cotton?
what region produced the most wheat?
the Upper South
what region produced the most tobacco?
corn, wheat, and cattle
in the Old Northwest, farmers built an agricultural empire that included the production of what?
religious or humanitarian ideals
what inspired most reformers?
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