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יהדות 5-16

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שלא לאבד דברים שנקרא שמו עליהם
Not destroying something that represents Hashem
How many names of Hashem are not allowed to be erased?
7
What in Hashem's name (in addition to the 7 names) are you not allowed to erase?
1. Only the letter written after the names of Hashem (like the ך of א-ל-היך) are not allowed to be erased.
2. you are allowed to erase the letters before Hashem's name (like the ל in לי-ה-ו-ה)
3. Some opinions say the name א-ה-י-ה also can not be erased.
4. Even 2 letters which make up Hashem's name may not be erase: א-ל or י-ה some even add א-ד
ִאֶמוֹנַת נְביאים
Believing prophets
How do we know that a person is a true Navi
1. He knows the Secrets of the Torah, can control his yetzer Hara, Is not involved with regular activities, and has perfect Middot.
2. He performs a miracle.
3. he predicts the future more than once and all his positive predictions come true.
4. A Person who we already know as a true נביא says this man is a true נביא.
‏לשמוע מן הנביא המדבר בשמו
Listen to a Navi who speaks in the name of Hashem
How many מצות do we have about believing a נביא?
1 מצות עשה
מצות לא תעשה1
In total we have 2!
‏שלא לנסות לנביא אמת יותר מדי
Not testing a Navi
להדמות לדרכי השם יתברך
To copy the good and fair ways of Hashem
Which Middot of Hashem do we try to copy?
Merciful, generous, slow to anger, extra kindness רחום, חנון, ארך אפים, רב חסד
מצות הדבקה עם חכמי התורה
Connect to תלמידי חכמים
How can you connect to תלמידי חכמים?
1. Serving them
2. Eating and drinking with them
3. Doing business with them
4. Learning Torah with them
מצות אהבת ישראל
Love every Jew (the same way you love yourself)
Which מצות can you do show אהבת ישראל?
1. הכנסת אורחים welcoming guest
2. הכנסת כלה. Making a Chatan and Kallah happy
3. ביקור חולים. Visiting the sick
4. הוצאת המת. Preparing and burying someone who dies
5. ניחום אבלים comforting mourners.
אהבת הגר
To love a ger
Examples of how to do מצות אהבת הגר
1. Not reminding a גר of his or her sins of the past (and not reminding the children of a גר of their parents past sins).
2. Not making fun of them
3. Not speaking badly about non Jews in front of a גר because it might make the גר feel bad.
שלא לשנוא אחים
Do not hate another Jew (in your heart)
תוכחה
Rebuking (when someone is not behaving properly)
How to rebuke so people will listen?
1. Do'nt rebuke someone for doing something wrong if you do the same wrong thing yourself!
2. In a soft calm voice, in private so the person won't be embarrassed.
3. Make sure the person knows that you are only pointing it out to help them and not to be mean.
4. Be very sensitive!
5. Dont just tell them that they did "something" wrong, be specific so that they can fix it.
6. If the person gets angry or ignores you, stop rebuking!
What if the person will be embarrassed?
Never embarrass another person! Chazal tell us to never embarrass another person!
How to rebuke your teacher?
In an extremely respectful way, and only tell the teacher once. You can start with "didn't you teach us...?!"
שלא לענות יתום ואלמנה
Do not cause any suffering to an orphan or widow
What is included in the Mitzvah of being kind to a יתום ואלמנה?
1. Treat them with sensitivity and kindness:
-speak gently to them
-never tease them
- not make them do hard work
-not hit them!
-make sure they have everything they need!
2. A rich orphan:
Even if the orphan has everything he needs, you still have to be very kind and sensitive to the orphan.
3. Once the widow gets married or the orphan grows up (and can take care of themselves) this Mitzvah doesn't apply to them.
שלא לרגל
Not spreading לשון הרע
The 3 ways to be עובר the עבירה of לשון הרע
רכילות, לשון הרע, מוציא שם רע
רְכִילוּת
When you repeat to your friend something someone else said about your friend (even if it is true, and even if it's not really bad).
לשון הרע
1. When you say anything bad about another person Even if the person will never find out about it.
2. When you say something about someone on purpose to be mean or hurt them. (It doesn't matter if you're saying something good or bad, if your purpose was to be mean or to hurt even a good piece of information is לשון הרע. for example, IAliza says to Rachel: " Shoshanah got a 99% on her Chumash test, can you believe that someone like her was able to get such a good grade?" This was a good piece of information but it was meant to hurt her
מוֹצִיא שֵם רַע
When you say something not true about someone
אַבַק לשון הרע
The "dust" of לשון הרע
(Not exactly lashon Hara but still forbidden)
Examples:
1. When you say that you know something bad about another person but you don't say what it is.
2. Saying something nice to get someone else to say something mean
3. Making a joke about someone (even if you are not trying to hurt them
שלא לנקום
Do not take revenge
נקמה
Revenge
שלא לנטור
Do not hold a grudge
נטירה
staying angry at a person for doing something not nice to you.
You decide to be nice to that person but you tell the person: " I am being nice to you, even though you were not nice to me!".
תלמוד תורה
who has to learn Torah?
Every man: whether richer or poor, simple or wise.
To whom are we obligated to teach Torah
1. A father must teach his son Torah.
2. After teaching his son he has to teach his grandson.
3. If a man can't teach his son Torah, he must pay someone else to teach them.
4. A man has a מצוה to teach anyone he possibly can!
How should you learn Torah?
1. The learning should be split into 3 parts: Tanach, Mishna, Gemara
2. והגית בו יומם ולילה: all the time.
כבוד חכמים
Show respect to Torah scholars.
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