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chp 4,5, and 6 biomechanics
Terms in this set (49)
What is stiffness
Stress/strain in a loaded material; stress divided by the relative amount of change in shape
What is compressive strength
Ability to resist compression, or the maximum load that a material can withstand before permanently deforming or breaking
What contributes to stiffness and compressive strength in bone
What contributes to flexibility and tensile strength in bone
What is the effect of aging on collagen in bone
Collagen is progressively lost and bone brittleness increases with aging
Water content of bone
which comprises 25%-30% of bone weight
the amount of bone volume filled with pores or cavities
compact mineralized bone with low porosity; found in the shafts of long bones and is stiffer than the trabecular bone.
less compact bone with high porosity; found in the ends of long bones and the vertebrae
Bone is anisotropic
it has different strength and stiffness depending on the direction of the load
skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs
bones composing the body appendages
epiphyses, or epiphyseal plates
are growth centers where new bone cells are produced
the densities, and to lesser extent, the sizes and shapes of bones are determined by the magnitude and direction of the acting forces
Weight bearing exercise
promotes bone developmen
Diarthroses or synovial
a protective layer of dense white connective tissue covering the articulating bone surfaces
a double-layered membrane that surrounds the joint
What is articular fibrocartilage
Soft-tissue discs or menisci that intervene between articulating bones, as exemplified by the menisci of the knee above
Tendons are articular connective tissues that
connect muscles to bones
What factors increase joint stability?
A strong array of ligaments and muscle tendons crossing the joint.
Absence of muscle fatigue.
What is joint flexibility?
A description of the relative ranges of motion allowed at a joint in different directions
Range of motion (ROM):
the angle through which a joint moves from anatomical position to the extreme limit of segment motion in a particular direction
What factors influence joint flexibility?
Intervening bony or muscle tissue or fat at the end of the ROM.
Tightness/laxity in the muscle and collagenous tissue crossing a joint.
Golgi tendon organs
inhibit tension in muscle and initiate tension development in antagonists.
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
is a group of stretching procedures involving alternating contraction and relaxation of the muscles being stretched
ability to be stretched or to increase in length
ability to return to normal resting length following a stretch
What is a muscle fiber
Single muscle cell surrounded by a membrane called the sarcolemma and containing specialized cytoplasm called sarcoplasm
is the basic structural unit of the muscle fiber.
What is a motor unit
Single motor neuron and all fibers it innervates
Parallel fiber arrangement
fibers are roughly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the muscle.
Pennate fiber arrangement
short fibers attach to one or more tendons within the muscle.
involving no change
acts to cause a movement
acts to slow or stop a movement
acts to stabilize a body part against some other force
acts to eliminate an unwanted action produced by an agonist
condition occurring when a two-joint muscle cannot shorten enough to cause full range of motion at both joints it crosses at the same time
The force-velocity relationship for muscle tissue
When resistance is negligible, muscle contracts with maximal velocity
The length-tension relationship
Tension present in a stretched muscle is the sum of the active tension provided by the muscle fibers and the passive tension provided by the tendons and membranes
What is electromechanical delay
Time between arrival of a neural stimulus and tension development by the muscle
between muscle attachment to bone and joint center
of the muscle's attachment to bone
Sprinting is one example of an activity requiring
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