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Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
a. only heterotrophs require chemical compounds from the environment.
b. cellular respiration is unique to heterotrophs.
c. only heterotrophs have mitochondria.
d. only autotrophs can live on nutrients that are entirely inorganic.

Plants produce organic molecules by photosynthesis. Consumers must acquire organic material by consuming it rather than by making it.

Why are plants called producers? Why are animals called consumers?

In breathing, your lungs exchange CO2 and O2 between your body and the atmosphere. In cellular respiration, your cells consume the O2 in extracting energy from food and and release CO2 as a waste product.

How is your breathing related to your cellular respiration?

the electron transport train

Of the three stages of cellular respiration, which produces the most ATP molecules per glucose?

Glucose, NAD+

In glycolysis, ________ is oxidized and ________ is reduced.


The final electron acceptor of electron transport chains in mitochondria is ________.

The majority of the energy provided by cellular respiration is generated during the electron transport chain. Shutting down that pathway will deprive cells of energy very quickly.

The poison cyanide acts by blocking a key step in the electron transport chain. Knowing this, explain why cyanide kills so quickly.


Cells can harvest the most chemical energy from which of the following?
a. an NADH molecule
b. a glucose molecule
c. six CO2 molecules
d. two pyruvic acid molecules


_____ is a metabolic pathway common to both fermentation and cellular respiration.


Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center want to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles are functioning anaerobically. They can do this by checking for a buildup of:
a. ADP
b. lactic acid
c. carbon dioxide
d. oxygen

Because fermentation supplies only 2 ATP per glucose molecule compared with about 32 from cellular respiration, the yeast will have to consume 19 times as much glucose to produce the same amount of ATP.

A glucose-fed yeast cell is moved from an aerobic environment to an anaerobic one. For the cell to continue to generate ATP at the same rate, approximately how much glucose must it consume in the anaerobic environment compared with the aerobic environment?

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