Botany

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Botany
Study of plants
(Anatomy, physiology, taxonomy, cell biology, etc.)
Plant Anatomy
-Focus on internal structure of plants
-anatomy of leaves, stems, etc.
Plant Anatomy
used in determining relationships among plants
Plant Physiology
Focus on plant functions
Use cloned genes
Temperature, light, growth, why plants flower, how plant regulatory substances are produced
Plant Taxonomy
Focus on identifying, naming, and classifying plants
Plant Systematics
focus on developing systems/methods of grouping organisms
Linnaeus
father of taxonomy
taxonomy
(oldest branch of plant study)
Plant Geography
studies how and why plants are distributed where they are, interaction of plants with one another and their environment
Plant Morphology
study of plant form and structure
Plant genetics
studies plant heredity
Plant breeding & genetic engineering
introduction of genes from one plant to another
Cell biology
studies cell structure and functions
Economic Botany
[ethnobotany) practical uses of plants & plant products
Species
group of organisms that can interbreed and hybridize within themselves, but cannot with other groups BUT if it happens the offspring will be infertile
Microscopy
the use of the microscope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
1st person to construct a microscope, single lens, saw bacteria and microorganisms
Microscopy
technology of making very small things visible to the human eye
Optical microscope
light microscope
monocular
one eyepiece
binocular
two eyepieces
blue filter
removes long wavelengths & improves resolution
compound microscope
has more than one lens
diaphragm
controls the amount of light
coarse adjustment
changes distance between the specimen and objective lens
fine adjustment
changes distance very slowly, brings the specimen to sharp focus
total magnification
multiplying the magnifying power of the objective lens by the magnifying power
electron microscope
makes it possible to view microorganisms less than 0.2 μm
freeze-fracturing
Transmission EM technique
to show internal structures
cell is frozen & fractured with a knife
scanning EM
gives three-dimensional views of the exterior cells
Transmission EM
shows internal structures
Scanning EM
shows external structures
plant growth
increase in cells
prokaryote
unicellular
eukaryote
multicellular
plant cell
has a cell wall
animal cell
has a cell membrane
mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell
creates energy
cellular respiration
oxygen is used to break down nutrients and produce ATP
attributes of living organisms
growth
reproduction
respond to stimuli
metabolize
move
complex organization
adapt to environment
metabolism
collective product of all biochemical reactions taking place within an organism
plant movement
cytoplasmic streaming
stationary leaf movement
mitosis
cell duplicates chromosomes in its cell nucleus
generate two identical daughter nuclei
cytokinesis
follows mitosis
divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles, and cell membrane into two daughter cells
meiosis
one diploid eukaryotic cell divides twice to generate four haploid cells
gametes
result of meiosis in animals
whorled
groups of three or more leaves
node
area of stem where leaves are attached
internode
stem region between nodes
petiole
leaf stalk
bud
angle between petiole and stem
axil
angle
axillary bud located here
diploid
haploid+haploid=
Monocots
1 cotyledon
3 floral parts
Parallel veins
1 pore
Dicot
Vascular bundles in ring
Monocot
Vascular bundles dispersed
Dicots
2 cotyledons
4-5 floral parts
Netlike veins
3 pores
Angiosperms
Flowering plants
Seed-bearing vascular plants
Angiosperms
Monocots and dicots are divided into
Annuals
complete life cycle in one growing season
Biennials
live for two seasons, flowers form in second season
Perennials
grow and produce seeds year after year
Shoot
produce sugars by photosynthesis & carries out reproduction
Root
anchors the plant, penetrates the soil and absorbs water and minerals, and store food
Root
radicle negatively phototrophic , positively hydrotrophic
Shoot
plumule negatively geotrophic, positively phototrophic
Nonflowering organs
Roots
Stems
Leaves
Flowering organs
Roots
Stems
Leaves
Flowers
Classified by
Structure
Origin
Function
Meristems
active regions of growth
Apical meristems
allow shoots to grow upward toward light & roots to push deeper
Protoderm
produce epidermis
Ground meristem
produce ground tissue
Procambium
produce primary vascular tissues
Monocot
Grasses, corn, rice, wheat, millet
Secondary growth
causes plants to be ropey
Woody dicot plants
Pears
Oranges
Apples
Transport
Job of the vascular system
Xylem
Conducts water from roots to all other plant parts
Phloem
Translocating dissolved sugars and other food molecules throughout the plant
Lateral meristems
Cylinders of dividing cells in stems & roots
Cause them to become thicker, increase girth
Vascular cambium
Extends throughout the length of roots & stems
Vascular cambium
Function : support and conduction
Cork cambium
Lies outside of vascular cambium in woody plants
Located inside outer bark
Secondary tissues
Produced by cork & vascular cambiums
Secondary tissues
Produced after the primary tissues have matured
Intercalary meristems
Found in nodes
Function : increase the length of stem
Simple tissues
Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma tissues
Aerenchyma
They have large air spaces between them
Chlorenchyma
They have numerous chloroplasts
Aerenchyma
underwater plants need them for floatation
Parenchyma
Thin wall
Primary tissues
Collenchyma
living cytoplasm
beneath epidermis
Parenchyma
for storage
Collenchyma
Provide support
Sclerenchyma
Most cells are dead
Sclerids & fibers
Impregnated with lignin
ropes and strings
Sclerids
Gritty (stone cells)
Cause hardness of nut shells
Fibers
Have lumen in center
Ropes & strings
Pubescent
with hair
Glabrous
no hairs
Complex tissues
Consist of two or more types of cells
Complex tissues
Xylem and phloem
Parenchyma cells
What type of cells make up the epidermis?
Epidermal appendages
Stomata and hairs
xylem
conducts water and dissolved minerals
to transport water
why do xylem cells have to be hollow?
guard cells
border the stomata
seive tube
transport sugar in the phloem
epidermis
double layer protects the internal cells from desiccation
cuticle thickness
determines how fast water is lost through the cell walls by evaporation
periderm
replaces epidermis
lenticels
opening in bark, lets gases in and out
desert
in what condition, does the epidermis grow a second layer?
meristematic
dividing
alternate
leaves are attached in a spiral
ground meristem
produces the pith and the cortex
procambium
produces primary xylem and primary phloem
mitosis
apical meristems undergo mitosis
primary tissues
epidermis, primary xylem, primary phloem, pith, and cortex
vascular cambium
narrow band of meristematic cells between the primary xylem and phloem
phellogen
cork cambium
cork cambium
develops in the cortex
cork cells
cork tissues make up :
cork tissues
bark is made of :
cork cambium
protect the internal plant cells from water loss
stele
xylem+phloem+pith
cotyledons
seed leaves (store food)
dicot
peanut
sunflower seeds
dicot
net like vein pattern
dicot
vascular bundles arranged in a ring
monocot
vascular bundles are scattered
herbaceous
characteristic of a nonwoody herb or plant part
monocot
parallel venation pattern
spring woods
vessels are large so they can absorb water and minerals to replenish themselves after hibernation
number of tracheids and size of vessels
difference between summer wood & spring wood
tracheids
hard coverings
softwoods
have no fibers
pines
hardwood
wood of woody dicot trees that has lots of fibers
sapwood
Light-colored, water-conducting secondary xylem in a tree
heartwood
Darker wood in the center of the tree, contains resins