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SFL 333 Test 1
Terms in this set (63)
Physical changes that accompany sexual maturation:
3 major changes: rapid growth, gonads (development of primary sex characteristics), secondary sex characteristics...Genes, hormones, and circumstances determine when puberty happens.
More muscle in boys, more body fat in girls.
The very first time a young woman has her period. Timing of puberty is typically studied by the average age of menarche.
Female sex hormones (Both sexes produce both hormones, though)
Male sex hormones (Both sexes produce both hormones, though)
Involves interaction of:
Hypothalamus-controls function of pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland-responsible for regulating hormones
Gonads--glands that secrete sex hormones
Negative Feedback: Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland--pituitary gland increases sex hormones from gonads (ovaries & testes).
The Hormonal Feedback Loop
If the level of sex hormones rises too high, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland reduce the production of sex hormones.
If the level of sex hormones falls too low, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland increase their production of the sex hormones.
Once optimal level of hormones is reached--production is stopped and then ACTS LIKE A THERMOSTAT (only produces when hormones go below or above a certain, set level)
Adolescent Growth Spurt
Begins earlier and ends earlier for girls--begins later and ends later for boys
Secondary sex characteristics
Bodily changes that accompany puberty but are not directly related to reproduction. Breasts, pubic hair...secondary are manifest outwardly, primary take place inside body.
Sequence of Sexual Maturation
Boys: spermarche usually happens one year after accelerated penis growth. Boys are able to father children before they look like adults--opposite is true for girls.
Girls: less regular sequence than boys. Menarche comes after secondary sex development. Period takes up to 2 years to regulate.
Patterns of onset of puberty over time and generations. Downward secular trend of menarche--puberty begins earlier in cultures where good nutrition is readily available--age for menarche has decreased in these areas.
Delayed Phase preference
The typical pattern of sleep for teens--later sleep and wake times
Causes teens to get tired later at night and wake up later in the morning. Melatonin secretes later.
Hormone produced when experiencing stress
Protein produced by fat cells that may play a role in onset of puberty
Physical form or shape of brain
Patterns of brain activity
2 important changes in the prefrontal cortex:
-patterns of activation within pfc generally become more focused
-Activity in the pfc becomes increasingly coordinated with activity in other parts of the brain
"If-Then" thinking. Rarely seen before adolescence.
Drawing conclusions from evidence--used by people of all ages
Thinking about thinking. Increased introspection (thinking about self), self-consciousness (what others are thinking of us), intellectualization (thinking about thoughts).
The belief that all eyes are on them. This belief gives rise to two related beliefs seen in the teen years: the "imaginary audience" and the "personal fable."
When teens literally imagine an audience and consider this audience in decisions such as what they will wear and how they will act--they choose to act based on their imagined reactions from this imaginary audience.
Believing others are as preoccupied with them as they are with themselves.
You must have something unique about you that no one else shares (Hipster syndrome). Part of personal fable is optimistic bias: because you think you're unique, you think bad things will happen to other people but not you.
Individuals have two major ways, organization and adaptation to handle information. Sub processes of adaptation: assimilation & accommodation.
4th stage of cognitive development according to Piaget. Spans from early adolescence through adulthood.
Piaget Developmental View
Kids think differently at different ages. Says environment acts on child through rewards and punishment. (Behaviorism) External force can't shape child. His theory is known as the cognitive-developmental approach. Maturation is driving force behind actions.
Stages:Sensorimotor (age 0-2) - development involves learning how to coordinate sensory activities with motor actions.
-preoperational (age 2-7) - capable of representing the world symbolically (e.g.language)
-concrete operations (7-11) -Become more adept at using mental operations
-formal operations (11-15+) allow adolescents to think about more complex tasks & problems involving multi-variables
Call things that look the same the same thing..any furry thing with four legs is a dog.
Understanding that even though two things are similar, they are identified differently. Though a cat and dog are both furry and have four legs..one is a cat and one is a dog.
stabilization by bringing into a balance
Information Process View/Perspective
Attempts to explain cognitive development in terms of the growth of specific components of thinking. (i. e. memory) This view derives from study of artificial intelligence.
(short-term memory: 15-20 secs) Where memories are held for a short time while problems are being solved
Ability to recall something from long ago (unlimited capacity and duration)
Nervous systems basic units. Nerve cells.
Chemicals that carry electrical impulses between neurons
Gap between neurons where connections between axons and dendrites occur. When electrical charge travels through a neuron it stimulates the release of neurotransmitters.
The process that your synapses go through when the brain is determining which ones are used frequently and which ones are not used at all. "If you don't use it you lose it"
Axons become covered with a layer of fat. Increases speed and efficiency of information processing.
Portion of brain that is responsible for decision making, planning, and self control. Matures later in life. Changes here allow for better information processing. Becomes more focused during puberty. Located in front of brain.
Matures at puberty--changes to this system make people more emotional, more responsive to stress, and risk seeking. Located behind ear.
Zone of Proximal Development
The gap between your potential and where you actually are. (comes from Vygotsky's social constructivism)
Tutoring process that helps a student do something they couldn't do alone. (comes from Vygotsky's social constructivism)
Social Perspective taking
The ability to view events from the perspective of others
When teens sever emotional ties to parents and/or authority figures
The process of sharpening one's sense of being autonomous and independent. Establishing relationships out of family. This provides emotional energy/support
It is the beginning, not the end, of a long process that gradually leads adolescents to adopt more realistic views of their parents. Being able to see their parents as individuals-beyond their roles as parents. No longer see parents as all powerful.
Self-reliance. Free to act without excessive dependence on others.
Intelligence tests that attempt to eliminate cultural or ethnic bias. Oriented toward performance tasks rather than verbal skills. (They are culturally fair).
Neurotransmitter that regulates the experience of reward--related to happiness
The hormone that causes stress
Emotional Independence in relationships especially with parents
Who I might become; this concept includes two sub-concepts, ideal self and feared self. So, possible selves is not equal to multiple selves in most cases unless an adolescent is inaccurate in self-understanding.
Actual Self-Who I am
Ideal Self-Who I want to be
Feared Self-Who I'm afraid to become
What I am like with different people. It describes your actual self in different context, depending on who you are with.
Our personalities 'morph' to fit the situation we are in--very common for teenagers. Self concept depends on who you interact with.
False Self Behavior-Acting in a way that one knows is inauthentic or fake
Overall sense of worth & well-being. Baseline: stable, enduring sense of worth and well being. Barometric: fluctuating sense of self worth as one responds to different things.
Enjoyment of novel and intense experiences
Conceptions become more mature. Understanding of behavior is more advanced. More complex ideas. Ability to figure out what other people think becomes more accurate.
The "Storm and Stress" view of adolescence was postulated by _________
G. Stanley Hall
The first sign of puberty in girls is generally...
Budding of the breasts
The first sign of puberty in boys is generally
Growth of testes & scrotum
One type of structural change in the brain has to do with changes in the levels of grey and white matter in the brain. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Grey (gray) matter decreases while white matter increases
The outlier of the brain. Between ages of 12 and 20,the average brain loses 7‐10% of grey (gray) matter through synaptic pruning.
White matter is tissue found in the brain. It contains nerve fibers (axons). Many of these are surrounded by a type of fat called myelin. Increasing of myelination plays an important role in the speed of nerve signaling.
Neurons are cells that carry information by transmitting electrical charges across the body. When the electrical charge travels through a neuron, it stimulates __________?
The release of neurotransmitters
In contrast to the psychoanalytic perspective,many researchers today assert that a late adolescent who is gradually and progressively sharpening his/her sense of self as autonomous, competent, and separate from one's parents is developing a sense of:
Which of the following statements about self‐conception is most likely to be made by a child rather than by an adolescent?
"I am a girl; I have two brothers; I like to read."
• The global evaluative dimension of self is known as
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