28 terms

Holt Environmental Science Chapter 16 Minerals and Mining- Hug HS

a natural, usually inorganic solid that has a characteristic chemical composition, an orderly internal structure, and a characteristic set of physical properties
ore mineral
a mineral that contains one or more elements of economic value, such as cinnabar which is copper ore.
subsurface mining
a mining method in which ore is extracted from beneath the ground surface
surface mining
a mining method in which soil and rocks are removed to reach underlying coal and minerals
placer deposit
a deposit that contains a valuable mineral that has been concentrated by mechanical action
the melting or fusing of ore in order to separate impurities from pure metal
the sinking of regions of the ground surface with little or no horizontal movement
the process of returning land to its original condition or an acceptable replacement after mining is completed
to remove earth from the bottom of a body of water
two or more minerals are combined to form this
nonmetallic minerals, prized for beauty, rarity, or durability
open-pit mining
a method that is often used to mine large quantities of near-surface ore
rock or soil that is overlying a mineral deposit
when the water in seas or lakes evaporate deposits of salts called this are left behind
clean water act
passed by congress in 1948 that regulates discharge of pollutants into US waters
safe drinking water act
first passed in 1974 by congress to ensure clean water for americans
endangered species act
an act that the US congress passed in 1973 to protect any plant or animal species in danger of extinction
environmental protection agency
agency of the federal government created to protect humans and the environment by enforcing laws passed by congress
gangue minerals
minerals that have no commercial value
hydrothermal solutions
hot, subsurface waters that contain dissolved minerals
gold veins
new minerals form out of these solutions and then fill fractures to form ore deposits called this
room-and-pillar mining
a common method of subsurface mining that is used to extract coal and salt
longwall mining
an efficient way to remove coal from a subsurface seam
sand, gravel, and crushed rock
acid mine drainage
the contaminated water that results from coal mines that contain sulfur
a pure substance that cant be broken down any further
an element that is shiny and conducts heat and electricity well
quarry pit
excavations or pits where rocks used for building are mined

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