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Morality Unit 1
Terms in this set (46)
The systematic study of human acts in relationship to what has been revealed by God. In Catholic Moral Theology good and evil are determined by faith, scripture, tradition- Church teachings, and reason.
A set system of morals and ethical principals or a standard or ideal which determines the quality of human conduct
A practical science which investigates the laws of right conduct. Good and evil are based on reason and to some degree human traditions.
CS Lewis Stance on Morality
Morality is not "something that prevents you from having a good time" it is "directions for running the human machine."
Morality is concerned with three things:
1. Fair play and harmony between individuals (rules between people)
2. Harmony inside each individual (individual character)
3. General purpose of human life (philosophy)
Ways in which the human machine goes wrong:
1. People do each other harm - macro level, interpersonal
2. Different parts of an individual character fail to work together - micro level, personal
3. Different goals and purposes create conflict
Factors that affect morality:
Act, method, intent, motive, knowledge, freedom, passion, fear, external conditions, and effects
an action that is rationally and freely chosen by the will; an intentional kind of behavior or thought
the choice of the will to do something
What you want/will to happen (intentionally, deliberate, purposeful)
ultimate intent and goal, the final point; what want as a final outcome
The reason for choosing to act in a certain way, essential for determining the morality of my act
Did the acting person fully know what he or she was doing? What was there ability to know? Did they understand what they were doing? Was the action performed by a two-year-old or a thirty-year-old? What was there mental perspective? Was there thoughtful consideration/ deliberation or was impulsive act?
the belief that all acts are equal morally or of equal worth; Church rejects this idea
Our spiritual principle, it is immortal, and it is what makes us most like God. Our soul is created by God, and he unites it with our physical body at the moment of conception. The soul is the seat of human consciousness and freedom.
The divine gift that gives us the ability to see and understand the order of things that God places within creation and to know and understand God through the created order. The capacity for understanding and knowledge; the ability to think abstractly or profoundly.
It is the power we have as rational human beings to initiate and control our actions . It is basically a rational desire with several functions, namely the ability to intend, choose, desire, hope, consent, hate, love, and enjoy. The will enables us to desire and then choose. Choosing to do what is true and good fulfills us as humans.
the power of making free choices unconstrained by external agencies
The condition in which an individual has the ability to act according to her own will (free will).
we can see the big picture beyond our own narrow interests, and are able to respond to the needs of real situations and real people
The original state of human beings in their relationship with God, sharing in the divine life in full communion with him.
1. the sin of the first human beings, who disobeyed God's command by choosing to follow their own will and so lost their original holiness and became subject to death
2. the fallen state of human nature that affects every person born into the world
an inclination/desire to sin and weakened human nature. The loss of original holiness makes things that should be natural to us harder and more challenging. It damages our relationship with God and our relationship with others
it is true for people of all cultures, times, etc., even if they do not know it or recognize it to be true. Objective truths describe the world as it really is, and the truth of those statements does not depend on who is speaking
To say that something is "subjectively true" means that it is true for the person(s) making the judgment, even though it may not be true for others
the view that knowledge is merely subjective and that there is no external or objective truth
the belief that there's no absolute truth, only the truths that a particular individual or culture happen to believe. If you believe in relativism, then you think different people can have different views about what's moral and immoral
The order in creation that reflects God's will and purpose; it is eternal because it is always true and never changes. All other types of law have their basis in Eternal Law and are only true if they reflect the truth of Eternal Law. Natural law, Old Testament law, New Testament law, Church law precepts spring from God's eternal law.
God's instruction that is written on the human heart and accessed by human reason . Natural Law is the belief that certain rights or values are inherent by virtue of human nature, are embedded in our conscience and can be universally understood through human reason.
St. Thomas Aquinas' Precepts of Natural Law
That good is to be done and pursued, and evil is to be avoided, Preserve life and ward off its obstacles, Reproduce and raise (educate) your offspring, Pursue knowledge and live together in society
a Roman philosopher," Natural Law comes from God to man through man's ability to reason"
Pope Leo XIII
"The natural law is engraved in the soul of every man, because human reason tells him to do good and avoid evil."
St. Thomas Aquinas
natural law is "nothing else than the rational creature's participation in the eternal law"
The pattern of specific salvific events in human history that reveal God's presence and saving actions
Divine Law is revealed in the Old Testament, summarized in the Ten Commandments. Also called the Law of Moses. The Old Law (summed up in the Ten Commandments) is the first stage of revealed law and is the foundation for man's vocation
Divine Law revealed in the New Testament through the life and teaching of Jesus Christ and through the witness and teaching of the Apostles. The New Law perfects the Old Law and brings it to fulfillment. Also called the Law of Love. According to Christians, Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of God's saving plan for human beings and the starting point of Catholic morality.
The work of salvation accomplished by Jesus Christ mainly through his life, Passion, death, Resurrection, and Ascension.
the process of becoming closer to God and growing in holiness, taking on the righteousness of Jesus Christ with the gift of sanctifying grace.
Jesus reveals that:
all love comes from God, love on our part is a response and a participation in God's love, we must love others as we love ourselves and love of others and love of God are inseparable
Latin for "blessings"; a set of eight blessings contained in the Sermon on the Mount; the heart of Jesus' preaching; shed light on the actions and attitudes characteristic of Christian life
Quality of being complete, in balance, undivided, unbroken, moral soundness
Revealed in His actions; person of integrity; His actions matched his words, His words matched His actions, He practiced what he preached. Jesus often criticized the Pharisees for their lack integrity and in some cases for their hypocrisy (occurs when one knowingly and willingly says one thing and does another
Precepts of the Church
basic laws of the Church that direct us to actively participate in the Church's sacramental life and in her mission; governs the relationships between different Church members and governs the mission of the Church.
covers such things sacraments, public worship, Catholic education, the rights and responsibilities of bishops, priests, deacons, consecrated religious, and the laity
The bishops united with the Pope; have the responsibility of passing on and teaching Christ's revealed truth, including moral truth. They have the responsibility for teaching to all believers and all people of goodwill. They apply Christ's moral teaching to modern situations.
Catholic Church's Mission
to share with all people the moral law revealed by God. The Catholic Church has a responsibility to influence public opinion to create laws and build social structures that support and defend the moral truths revealed by God. The Church's moral teaching is crucial for the common good. The Church does not seek to take over the responsibilities of the state or to make Church law the law of the land.
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