44 terms

AP Europe Unit 6

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Robert Peel and George Canning
Two Conservative (tory) British Prime Ministers who advocated free trade as the most important political issue in England. They repealed the Test Act and banned capital punishment for all but 100 offenses. Also Peel created the first professional police force, the bobbies, who deter violent crime using night sticks. Also continued the corn laws which is awful for the poor as it maintained artificially high price for grain
1832 Reform Bill
This allows some members of the upper middle class to vote by lowering the property right requirement to vote. Also restructures Parliament seats and gets rid of some "rotten boroughs." The king threatened to raise more peers to the House of Lords because they would not pass the bill.
Chartism
A Political reform movement, that favored universal man sufferage and secret ballots
1842 Mine Act
No pregnant women or child can work in the mine
Ten hours Act
restricts the working hours of women and children in British factories to effectively 10 hours per day.
1833 Factory Act
Children under 9 could not work in textile mills.
Irish Potato Famine
Because of the corn laws, the Irish can only afford to farm potatoes which causes Ireland's population to double so that 1/3 of the population is dependent on the potato by 1841. However, a potato blight soon comes that can wipe out an entire crop in 48 hours. This leads to the starvation of around one million people. The Irish government begs the British government to repeal the corn laws so the people can afford to eat. Millions of Irish immigrate to the US however they are faced with oppression and violence
Thomas Malthus
His Essay on Population states that there are too many people and not enough food so population will soon outstrip food supply. He proposes that the poor are the biggest problem so it is acceptable for disease and poverty to run rampant in the poor in order to manage the population. He says that the poor do not understand sex which is why they have more kids than the aristos (false). Aristos hate Malthus but the working class loves his idea because they believe they had to work for their money and they use his ideas as a justification for their poor treatment of the poor.
David Ricardo
A wealthy individual who proposes The Law of the Iron Wage which says that it is good for a business to pay its employees as little as possible (Market wage instead of Natural Wage) because it decreases the population of the poor
John Stuart Mill
Proposes woman's right to vote and paying women an equal wage. Also proposes inheritance tax in order to equal the playing field.
Louis Blanc
Frenchman who is considered the father of socialism. He advocates for governmental control of public commodities (such as mines, water, transportation, and police). If it is for the public it should be run by the government
Karl Marx and Engel
Join together to write the "Communist Manifesto" This says that capitalism cannot sustain itself. Also says that there will be a workers revolution in Europe due to their bad conditions. Also says that religion is worse than capitalism as it is oppressive and enforces bad relationships
Congress of Vienna
Following Napoleon's exile, this meeting of European rulers in Austria established a system by which the balance of power would be maintained, liberal revolutions would be repressed, as would imperial expansion, and the creation of new countries in Europe.
Principle of Legitimacy
This is a goal of the Congress of Vienna
Monarchs from the royal families who had rules before Napoleon would be restored to their positions of power in order to keep peace and stability in Europe. Because of this, most nations in France go back to their pre-napolean leaders such as the Bourbon Family
Principle of Compensation
This is a goal of the Congress of Vienna
Those who won the Napoleonic Wars should receive a reward in land
Because of this Many of he winning countries win land for example Russia wins Finland
Nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country. The goal of the Congress of Vienna is to surpress this because it destroys nations due to the huge number of subsets of people in European countries
Liberalism
Loves the free market with little tax revenue. In favor of a constitutional government in order to protect their wealth. They believe in laissez faire economics and Malthusian theory
Conservatism
those who went to the Congress of Vienna were politically inclined this way. The believed in a traditional monarchy with a national church and an economy controlled by the nobility. They hate nationalism and liberalism.
Concert of Europe
This term is used to refer to the Congress of Vienna because it created peace for 100 years and had no punishment on the French which helped decrease tension
Romanticism
Focus on the unseen supernatural and human emotion. Embracing folklore and a separation from sciences. It is the cultural foundation for Nationalism
Grimm Brothers
collected and published local German fairy tales, work is example of Romantic German nationalism. Considered ultimate nationalistic writings because they remove all non-german fairy tales
Beethoven
French, purely Romantic composer, transformed the art of music. Used music to convey his feelings of what was going on in the world around him, such as the many French revolutions of that time
Delacroix
Lady Liberty Leading Her People, focus on the common man, very dramatic and emotional
Volksgeist
Developed by Herder. The idea that each nation contains a similar cultural spirit
Hegel
German Intellectual. Suggests that opinions can blend together to create an idealistic view on politics. Nationalism depends on people coming together to synthesize ideology
German Confederation
Consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia, the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
bourgeoisie
usually owned land or factories
proletariats
wage earners.
Men &Women (roles)
Because it was determined that woman should stay at home because they needed to take care of children (children not on a schedule like factories) they became the homemakers. Men became the wage earners. Woman were supposed to be supportive and make a happy home for the husband to come home to while the husband was supposed to be strong. Because the woman now had to reply on the support of the man, people started marrying for love rather than purely economic reason like before.
Metternich
Highly conservative, started Concert of Europe. fought against nationalism, liberalism, and the unification of Germany . Ended by the Revolutions of 1848.
Rotten Boroughs
Boroughs that are nonexistent but still get representation in Parliament.
House of Lords
the upper house of the British parliament consisting of the aristocracy. They can veto legislation
Corn Law
The Corn laws stopped foreign imports of corn which increased the price of British corn. This affected the poor massively because they had to pay much more.
Mary Shelley
(Frankenstein) Very popular, uses romantic and Christian themes
Romantic Architecture
British Parliament Building. Gothic and Mysterious. Obsession with the middle ages
Decembrist Revolt
The 1825 plot by liberals (upper-class intelligentsia) in Russia to set up a constitutional monarchy or a republic. The plot failed, but the ideals remained
July Revolution
the Revolution of 1830) saw the overthrow of Charles X by radical liberal bourgousie and the ascension of Louis-Philippe to the French throne.
Carlsbad Decrees
Repressive laws in the German States limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities
quadruple alliance
Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; France joined in 1818
tariffs
Taxes on imported goods
Laissez-Faire
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.
Popular Sovereignty
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
Universal Male Suffrage
The right of all males to vote in elections
Edmund Burke
(1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.