EDU220 Midterm

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Explain the history of Structured English Immersion in Arizona.
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1974 - Lau vs Nichols lawsuit - resulted in the Lau Remedies, which mandated that schools across the US had to provide special accommodations and language assistance. No more "Sink or Swim" approaches.

1992 - Flores vs Arizona lawsuit - stated that Arizona failed to properly fun programs for ELLs, and the ADE failed to ensure proper programs are provided. Resulted in the Flores Consent Decree, which was signed in June of 2000 by Judge Marquez. The consent decree required the Board of Education to adopt regulations regarding the quality of instruction for ELLs, compensatory instruction, and proper monitoring by the Department of Education.

2000 - Prop 203 - Requires most ELLs to be taught through Structured English Immersion (English-only movement)
*Considered discrimination to treat all students the same way without considering social, economic, and cultural backgrounds of individuals.
*Teachers required to make/provide accommodations in order to create and promote equality in learning for all students.
*Special needs (language acquisition) must be acknowledged in order to provide equal opportunity. No more "Sink or Swim" approaches.
*Know your students - As educators, teachers must understand who their students are and the best programs and methods to teach them.

*Understand language development - Educators need to understand the factors affecting language development.

*Make lessons comprehensible - Students need to understand lessons in order to progress academically.

*Encourage interaction - Students need many opportunities to use language purposefully.

*Appeal to varying learning styles - Teachers need to respond to students in culturally sensitive ways and to encourage learning style flexibility.

*Provide effective feedback - Teachers need to give students culturally responsive feedback.

*Test fairly - Pedagogical assessment procedures need to be culturally sensitive and fair.

*Encourage minority parent participation - Minority parent participation needs to be an integral part of student learning.

*Appreciate cultural diversity - Educators need to appreciate the cultural background of students and its impact on learning.

*Incorporate students' language and cultures - Languages and cultures of students in the school besides the dominant culture should be incorporated into the curriculum.

*Reduce prejudice - Educators need to implement policies, procedures, and activities that are explicitly designed to reduce prejudice.
ESL (English as Second Language) Pull Out Programs - children pulled out of mainstream classroom for at least one hour each day to work with an ESL specialist, and to focus on English acquisition. PROS: allows students to ask questions and get help in specific subjects in their native language. CONS: being pulled out of class for an hour every day means that the students are missing out on critical instruction in the classroom.

TBE (Transitional Bilingual Education) - Typically meant to be completed by 3rd grade, this program offers the ability for a child to learn new literacy and academic content in their native language, while developing skills in reading, writing, and understanding English by using sheltered instruction techniques. The goal is for children to eventually learn completely in English; beginning with Math, then Reading and Writing, then Science, and finally Social Studies.

DBE (Developmental Bilingual Education) - Similar to TBE, except students are taught simultaneously in both English and their native language in order to capitalize on their existing linguistic resources. This helps children become balanced, bilingual, bi-literate students. Also, children will continue to receive a bilingual education up through middle and high school.

SI (Sheltered Immersion) [umbrella term] -
SEI (Sheltered English Immersion) - Students are grouped together with other ELLs in a classroom that provides English through English-only instruction. Students also develop academic skills that will be used in mainstream classrooms. Sheltering often happens alongside STRUCTURED English Immersion.

SEI (Structured English Immersion) - Students are placed in a mainstream classroom alongside native English speakers. Teachers implement strategies that diversify instruction to support ELLs, as well as other types of learners in the classroom.
ESL - mainly focused on English language; very expensive; generally ineffective. Also the most commonly chosen method. Main concern is that students are missing class time, and don't get enough time to interact w/ specialized materials in core subjects. Very "sink or swim" oriented.

BLE - 2 types - Maintenance/Late Exit (DBE), which focuses on the native language and takes longer; and Early Exit (TBE), which focuses on English acquisition and is meant to be completed by the 3rd grade. Encourages bilingualism and pride in culture, but separates from mainstream.

SEI - integrates language and content while infusing sociaocultural awareness. Teachers scaffold instruction to aid student comprehension of content topics and objectives by adjusting their speech and instructional tasks, and by providing appropriate background information and experiences. Inclusive and encourages teamwork.
The pull-out method includes pulling the ESL student out of the mainstream classroom for a brief period of instruction with an ESL teacher. The focus of instruction during the pull-out time is the English language, and the student is given some help in other curricular areas (i.e., math, reading, science, etc.). English is the primary language of instruction in this model. Many schools with small populations of ESL students use this model in accordance with Proposition 203. Programs such as these have both positive and negative effects on students. Much depends on how well the ESL teacher works and communicates with the mainstream teacher.

The inclusion model benefits students of all types, as it offers teaching strategies that diversify instruction and include all learners in the classroom, and doesn't require the ELL student to be pulled out of the mainstream classroom.
Only Arizona mandates that its public schools implement SEI models as follows: Significant amounts of the school day are dedicated to the explicit teaching of the English language, and students are grouped for this instruction according to their level of English proficiency."The English language is the main content of SEI instruction. Academic content plays a supporting, but subordinate, role." "English is the language of instruction; students and teachers are expected to speak, read, and write in English." "Teachers use instructional methods that treat English as a foreign language." "Students learn discrete English grammar skills." "Rigorous time lines are established for students to exit from the program."SEI program graduates continue to receive support services until they are reclassified as "fluent English proficient" whereby Federal law then requires students be monitored for two years after reclassification.
• Stage I - silent period/pre-emergent - This stage can last from 10 hours to six months. Students often have up to 500 "receptive" words (words they can understand, but may not be comfortable using) and can understand new words that are made comprehensible to them. This stage often involves a silent period during which students may not speak, but can respond using a variety of strategies including pointing to an object, picture, or person; performing an act, such as standing up or closing a door; gesturing or nodding; or responding with a simple yes or no. Teachers should not force students to speak until they are ready to do so. Teachers should also provide ample listening opportunities, create a language rich classroom, use physical movement, and create high context for reading.

• Stage II - early production/emergent - The early production stage can last an additional six months after the initial stage. Students have usually developed close to 1,000 receptive/active words (that is, words they are able to understand and use). During this stage, students can usually speak in one- or two-word phrases and can demonstrate comprehension of new material by giving short answers to simple yes/no, either/or, or who/what/where questions. They can reproduce what they hear and recognize words in isolation. Teachers should continue to provide listening opportunities with rich context and have students label, manipulate, and evaluate pictures and objects.

• Stage III speech emergence/basic stage - This stage can last up to another year. Students usually have developed approximately 3,000 words and can use short phrases and simple sentences to communicate. Students begin to use dialogue, can ask simple questions such as "Can I go to the restroom?" and are also able to answer simple questions. Students may produce longer sentences, but often with grammatical errors that can interfere with their communication. They may be able to learn the big ideas in content areas and begin to acquire grammatical elements. Teachers should start asking open-ended questions and have students describe personal experience.

• Stage IV - intermediate language proficiency stage - Intermediate proficiency may take up to another year after speech emergence. Students have typically developed close to 6,000 words and are beginning to make complex statements, state opinions, ask for clarification, share their thoughts, and speak at greater length. They may be able to engage in conversation and produce sequential narrative. Teachers should structure group discussions, provide a variety of realistic writing opportunities, and provide reading opportunities with a variety of genres.

• Stage V - advanced proficiency - Gaining advanced proficiency in a second language can typically take from five to seven years. By this stage, students have developed some specialized content-area vocabulary and can participate fully in grade-level classroom activities if given occasional extra support. Students can speak English using grammar and vocabulary comparable to that of same-age native speakers.
What is the silent period?This stage can last from 10 hours to six months. Students often have up to 500 "receptive" words (words they can understand, but may not be comfortable using) and can understand new words that are made comprehensible to them. This stage often involves a silent period during which students may not speak, but can respond using a variety of strategies including pointing to an object, picture, or person; performing an act, such as standing up or closing a door; gesturing or nodding; or responding with a simple yes or no. Teachers should not force students to speak until they are ready to do so. Teachers should also provide ample listening opportunities, create a language rich classroom, use physical movement, and create high context for reading.Describe the concept of comprehensible input.Input that is easily understood, but slightly above the student's current level of competence. For example, changing the sentence "Get your crayon" to "Get my crayons" for a preschooler; or "Did you do the homework?" to "Have you done the homework?" for a middle school child.Who are Stephen Krashen and Jim Cummins? Describe their contributions to the field.Stephen Krashen is a professor emeritus for the University of Southern California, and in the early 1980's, he introduced Sheltered Instruction as a way to implement second-language acquisition strategies into regular classroom instruction. His Monitor Model includes five hypotheses, which are the Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis, the Natural Order Hypothesis, the Monitor Hypothesis, the Input Hypothesis, and the Affected Filter Hypothesis. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis tells us that students learn language through modeling and practice, rather than through constant correction from a teacher. The Natural Order Hypothesis says that both children and adults learn a second language in predictable patterns. The Monitor Hypothesis says that as someone learns a second language, they develop an internal monitor that edits errors based on the rules of language that have been learned. This monitor can be used in two ways; before an utterance is spoken, or by correcting any errors after the utterance is spoken. The Input Hypothesis describes the "i + 1" learning method, which tells us that students learn a new language most effectively when the teacher can successfully scaffold new concepts (either new words, or a new way of phrasing the same statement to offer more complex speech patterns) with concepts and rules that are already known, thereby building on the language that has already been acquired. The Affected Filter Hypothesis suggests that students learn best in a stress-free environment, where they can relax and not be afraid of giving an incorrect answer. Instead, the teacher might accept their answer as it is given, but then build, expand, and elaborate on the student's answer in order to teach more effectively and, thus, improve the student's second language acquisition. Jim Cummins is a professor at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto, and he introduced the framework for ELL instruction using the linguistic interdependence model and the range of communicative demands. This framework uses a quadrant image to demonstrate visually how students could best be taught second language acquisition. Ideally, teachers should use be able to challenge their students cognitively while providing clues to the context through gestures, pictures, and other such examples. This way, the students are still learning grade-appropriate content while simultaneously learning more about the second language. (relates closely to Krashen's Input Hypothesis) Additionally, Cummins introduced the two different styles of language proficiency, which are BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) and CALP (Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency), though he now prefers to use the terms conversation language proficiency and academic language proficiency.Describe a multicultural curriculumMulticultural education is controversial even though it is based on the need to prepare all children, minority and majority, to participate equally in a culturally pluralistic society. Obviously, a commonly found multicultural education program in school districts consisting of only events (i.e., Cinco de Mayo, Black History Month, or Multicultural Day) would not qualify as a true multicultural program. Multicultural education includes the language, the culture, the traditions, and even the beliefs of that culture.What are some sociocultural influences on English language learners?Sociocultural influences directly impact a child's learning within the classroom. A child's first cultural experiences come from the home during the critical period of birth to 5 years old. Once a child enters formal education, many cultural aspects have already been learned.How does culture impact learning?Classrooms are shifting from what was once was a rather homogeneous culture to more global cultures, which in turn, challenges the traditional methods of teaching. For example, looking someone in the eye is respectful in American culture; but in many other cultures, it is a sign of disrespect. Children who grow up in low income families may not have the same opportunities as other children, so may not be able to grasp the same concepts without instruction or demonstration.Explain explicit and implicit culture.Explicit culture is that which is obvious or readily seen, such as manner of dress, food, dance, etc. Implicit culture is that which is not quite so obvious, such as the value placed on education, importance of punctuality, notions of modesty, etc. These can vary greatly even among groups of people from the same country.Describe the importance of cultural awareness in the classroom setting.Some students may not have had access to running water, pens and pencils, toothbrushes, or other basic tools that we - as Americans - take for granted as life skills. A teacher needs to be aware of things like this so that he or she can meet her students where they are, and build upon the existing skills that they do possess. Meeting a child at their skill level builds trust and confidence between the educator and the child, and creates a solid foundation upon which further learning can be built.Describe the importance of knowing about multicultural education for educators.Every child is going to have different cultures and backgrounds that they come from; even those who are native English speakers and grew up in the United States. A teacher needs to be aware of the multitude of different cultures and backgrounds in order to effectively teach to the entire classroom, and to create an environment of safety and learning where students feel comfortable asking and answering questions.Describe Kavero Olberg's five stages of culture shock.Honeymoon stage - This stage is characterized by exhilaration, discovery, and anticipation. Perceptions are positive. Emotions include excitement and euphoria. Disintegration stage - The novelty wears off, and the host culture begins to intrude on the visitor's life. This stage is characterized by confusion, self-blame, tension, frustration, loss, depression, and withdrawal. Physical symptoms such as headaches and stomach pains may occur. Reintegration stage - The individual is likely to disregard both the similarities and the differences between the host culture and home culture. This stage is characterized by hostility, defensive behavior, feelings of vulnerability, rebellion, blame, and rejection of all that the host culture represents. Autonomy stages - This is the hopeful stage. The person begins to establish an objective, balanced, and impartial view of the situation and experience. The person develops new sensitivity to the host culture and greater awareness of self and others. The person is less dependent on others and is more relaxed. Interdependence stage - This stage aims to achieve the goal of a bicultural or multicultural identity. This stage is characterized by a sense of belonging, trust, and sensitivity to the host culture.Describe affective issues.Affective is the social-emotional side of a child. When you considered your own learning curve when developing a new skill as an adult, what affective issues did you experience? Frustration? Low self-esteem? Negative thoughts? This is exactly what English language learners experience. Teachers must create a climate for learning that helps to support a student's affective domain.What is a positive learning environment?Creating a classroom that respects and values differences will demonstrate to students that everyone is important in the classroom. When students feel supported emotionally and have a greater sense of belonging, they tend to work harder academically in the classroom.Explain ways to create a climate for learning (include strategies from both the textbook and the online lesson).Reading and writing activities that promotes success (Interactive journals, patterned reading and writing, creating text for books without words, Drop Everything And Read time [DEAR], etc) Providing ample practice and careful corrections (asking a student a question, and responding positively to correct answers but providing more information and proper spelling or pronunciation) Focusing on relevant background knowledge (showing movies or videos before beginning a lesson to ensure that all students can understand and relate to the lesson. Also, asking students for personal experiences in order to draw correlation between the lesson and the child) Actively involving learners (providing multiple and varied sorts of activities to keep students engaged, including small group and cooperative group activities, routine questioning, partner and individualized sharing opportunities, and role-playing. Also, giving students the opportunity to ask questions of their peers and/or to provide answers to their peers) Using alternate grouping strategies (goes along with actively involving learners; allowing children to learn from each other, and to work together to solve a problem) Providing native-language support (example: providing Spanish and English translations for vocabulary words. Makes students feel respected and valued, and helps promote English acquisition for ELLs) Focusing on content and activities that are meaningful to students (example: creating groups where students can share their respective cultures and traditions, and give other students a chance to learn about how problems are solved or stories are told in each of those cultures.) Creating roles in the classroom for family and community members (Invite families to serve in the classroom by guiding [sometimes culturally specific] art projects, share life or job experiences, read stories in the classroom or work with small groups, participating in field trips, family literacy nights, etc.) Holding high expectations for all learners (ELL students are just as capable as native English speakers of answering higher order questions and completing higher level projects when those students understand the connection between schoolwork and their own out-of-school experiences).