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American Vision Chapter 2
Important people, dates, events, etc.
Terms in this set (95)
Conquered the Aztecs after 15 years of living in South America under Velazquez. Montezuma thought he was the deity Quetzacoatl who had come back to take over the Aztec. This man took Montezuma hostage and tried to rule like that. Spanish.
Burned down in Cortes's defeat of the Aztecs. The city built on top of the ruins was called Mexico, the new capital of New Spain.
Spanish conquerors of land in New Spain
Conquered Incan Empire. Tried to be civil with the emperor, but he threw down the bible and so this man ordered his men to charge. Spanish.
Cabeza de Vaca
Was in a crew that searched for a city of gold, but ended up sailing the Gulf Coast all the way to Texas for Spain.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Scoured the Southwest of today United States and found buffalo in the name of Spain.
Hernando de Soto
Explored southeastern North America, what is today Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida for Spain. He killed many men throughout this process. He became sick and his crew buried him in the Mississippi River.
Took control of California by creating a chain of missions from San Diego to San Francisco for Spain. A road connected all these called El Camino Real.
Organized an uprising against the Spanish. Las Casas goes about fixing this problem later on.
These made up the conquistadors; they were low-ranking nobles or working-class tradespeople.
Much like feudalism. Cortes rewarded his men with an area of land in New Spain to control after defeating the Aztecs. Many encomenderos abused their power.
Upper-class people born in Spain and traveled to the New World, usually appointed for government or church offices.
Those born in New Spain of Spanish parents. Upper-middle class.
Those of Spanish and Native American descent, lower-middle class.
Council of the Indies
A council in New Spain that advised the King and watched of local affairs.
Judges, administrators, and lawmakers for the king in New Spain
An area of the new world, led by a viceroy.
Huge ranches in Northern Mexico.
A man who herded cattle. From them we get words like lasso and corral
Giovanni da Verrazano
French. He was searching for the Northwest Passage, but he ended up mapping the Atlantic coastline from North Carolina to New Foundland.
French. Sailed the St. Lawrence river which now separates U.S. and Canada. Attempted to colonize near river but failed miserably.
King Henry IV
This French king was convinced to create colonies in North America to expand the fur trade in Europe.
Samuel de Champlain
French. He went in search of place to start colonizing the Americas, and ended up founding Quebec, which became the capital of New France.
King Louis XIV
Made New France a royal colony in 1663
Marquette and Joliet
French. Explored the Mississippi River and followed it south all the way to Arkansas.
Robert de La Salle
French. Also explored the Mississipp river and followed it all the way to the Gulf of Mexico. Claimed the region and named it Louisiana for King Louis XIV.
English. Sent by King Henry VII, hoped to find a western route to Asia. Found what the King called New Foundland. On his second trip to America he disappeared.
English. Wrote the 95 Theses and basically set off the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic.
English. Challenged how church leadership was chosen. Said that bishops and elders should be chosen by individual congregations.
King Henry VII
English. Began the Anglican Church because he wanted a divorce from his wife Catherine. She would not bear a son but the pope wouldn't divorce them because she was the aunt of the king of Spain.
Stayed in England, they wanted to purify the church of all the Catholic elements.
Minority in England. Moved to Holland, the back to England, and eventually to the New World and became the Pilgrims.
King James I
Did not allow the Puritans to elect their own church leaders. Puritans felt like they should and directly challenged the king. They eventually chose to go to America.
As the demand for wool rose in England, English landowners realized they could make more money by owning sheep. They fenced in their lands.
These pool money of a lot of investors enabling them to raise large amounts of money for big products.
Privately owned ships licensed by the government to attack ships of other countries.
The English settlers that were in a wonderful location but completely disappeared and no one knows what happened.
Chief of a local Native American tribe at the time of Jamestown.
Sir Walter Raleigh
He named the land of Virginia after Queen Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen". The agriculture is mainly tobacco.
An English Colony named after James I. Failed miserably, located by James river. Later becomes a royal colony
The first leader of Jamestown. He was able to communicate with the Powhatan Indians through the chiefs daughter, Pocahontas. By doing this he was able to trade and negotiate for what they needed.
"The Starving Time"
Winter of 1609-1610. Jamestown settlers began to eat dogs, rats, snakes, and even dead bodies.
Indian-English Culture Clash
The Jamestown settlers raid the Indians food, the Indians kill the English and the VA Co. calls for a perpetual war.
He saves Jamestown by introducing the new cash crop tobacco. The tobacco is eventually a bad thing because demand goes down and the soil is ruined.
To bring people to the New World, you could either receive 50 acres to go to the colony, or you could get 50 acres for paying for someone to go.
You could hire someone from England to come work for you for a contracted amount of time, and they were promised "freedom dues" but most died before their contract was up. Slaves became the norm.
House of Burgesses
Like a house of representatives. The first general assembly to meet in Jamestown. Representatives died so often there was no need for elections, because turnovers were so quick anyways.
Manual Labor is needed, and there becomes an interest in buying or selling slaves. This is that business.
A proprietary company founded as a haven for Catholics because they were not accepted in England. This colony welcomed all Christians. Main crop was tobacco
George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
Founder of Maryland. He wanted Catholics to be able to escape religious persecution in England.
Maryland Act of Toleration
Stated that this colony would accept all Christians.
Named after King Charles II of England. Also Charlestown. The main crop was rice because of the nature of the land. They had slaves work in the rice fields. Also indigo. Started by 8 English nobles.
It was a natural split, and it became legal in 1712.
A royal colony started for the imprisoned poor, named for English king George II. A strategic buffer between South Carolina and Spanish Florida.
At first Swedish, then Dutch, then English colony. Wanted their own government. An addition to William Penn's land. Bought from Duke of York and they developed into this.
This colony was the kings way of paying off a debt easily. It was begun by a Quaker. It was a completely free political and religious colony called the "Holy Experiment"
Quaker, English, founder of Pennsylvania and Delware
New Netherlands (New York)
Originally a Dutch colony established by the Dutch West India Trading Company. They were surrounded by the English and eventually gave in. It was then named for the Duke of York.
Peter Stuyvesant (Peg Leg Pete)
Mean governor of Dutch territory, and he was forced to surrender to the English. Attacks Natives.
Dutch. Founder and first governor of New York. Kind to Natives. Buys Manhattan island.
people who came into the New World first and got lots of land. They were nobles and were the king's favorites.
A chunk off of New York, given to two of the king's advisers. Colonists given freedom of religion, generous land grants, and the right to elect a legislative assembly. This attracted many Puritans.
Sir George Cateret and Lord Berkeley
the owners of New Jersey
New England colony, created by Separatists, or Pilgrims. They sailed on the Mayflower and wrote the Mayflower Compact.
Saves the Pilgrims because they arrived in the winter and almost die.
All these people chose to stay in North America. Held the first "Thanksgiving"
Massachusetts Plymouth leader. Wrote "Plymouth Plantation"
The English Puritan refuge colony. Big on education. 1 school per 50 families, mainly for boys. Ended up founding Harvard and Yale. Also big on laziness. Keep yourself busy.
Stockholder in Massachusetts Bay Company. Decided to take struggling Puritans to New World. First governor of Massachusetts.
General Court (Mass.)
Freemen were stockholders in the company. These men made up the general court. They as a whole made laws and decisions for Massachusetts.
created because they wanted separation of church and state, unlike Massachusetts. All men who owned property could vote.
Founder of Rhode Island. Was banished from Massachusetts. Wanted separation of church and state.
Says God speaks to women. She goes to court against Winthrop and does extremely well and yet is still banished. She also goes to Rhode Island.
Created so that everyone could vote and for religious toleration
founder of Connecticut
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First constitution. outlined a framework of government unlike the Mayflower compact.
Portuguese explorer who found later day Cape of Good Hope.
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese explorer who found a water route to India
Spanish explorer who "discovers" Americas. Enslaves the Tainos people after becoming friends with them.
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish explorer who found Florida
Vasco de Balboa
Spanish explorer who was the first European to reach the Pacific coast of America. Named the South Sea.
Spanish explorer who circumnavigated the earth
Sir Francis Drake
Dutch seadog who eventually sparked war between the English and Spanish
founder of Georgia
Treaty of Tordesailles
the treaty that Pope Alexander VI unevenly split the New World between leading European powers Spain and Portugal.
Line of Demarcation
The actual line that separated Spanish America and Portuguese America
Might have visited Americas, wrote a book about it. The land masses were named after him.
A map maker whose maps were very out of scale.
Early philosopher whose map of the world had entirely too small lines of latitude and longitude in his book Geography
The movement of goods, people, and money in between, the New World, Europe, and Africa.
A deadly disease that decimated native population.
Laws in Pennsylvania banning card games, dice, plays, etc.
War between the colonists and Pequot Indians. A nasty war with lots of deaths. English end up decimating the Pequod. 1637.
Rises like a king of England between Charles I and Charles II. Supported by Parliament in English Civil War.
King Philips War
Because of the high tensions that ran between the Natives and colonists in this area, after the war the Natives were so scarce and spread out that New England now officially belonged to the English settlers.
What are some characteristics of a dystopian society?
"It will be a great mistake for the community to shoot the millionaires, for they are the bees that make most of the honey, and contribute most to the hive even after they have gorged themselves full."
to what is the hypothalamus subdivided into?
What does the virulence of a pathogen depend on?
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