US History - Chapter 25

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satellite state
A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

" War of words and threats" between the US and USSR from 1945-1990. It was a political and economic stuggle between these nations.
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The Iron Curtain isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world. Its most poignant symbol was the Berlin Wall.
Truman Doctrine
(HT) , 1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
George F. Kennan
an American diplomat in Moscow, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War
containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
Marshall Plan
..., A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Berlin aircraft
a 327- day operation in which the U.S. and British planes flew food supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
NATO
..., North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Q - How did US leaders respond to the threat of Soviet expansion in Europe?
World War II convinced U.S. leaders that the policies of isolationism and appeasement had been mistakes.
To counter the growing Soviet threat, they sought new ways to keep the U.S. safe and protect its interests
abroad
Q - How did the goals of the US and Soviet foreign policy differ after WWII?
The Soviet Union wanted control of eastern europe. The United States wanted independent nations in eastern europe
Q - What events caused president Truman tp propose what became known as the Truman Doctrine?
The Truman Doctrine was a policy set forth by U.S. President Harry S Truman on March 12, 1947 stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere.
Q - Why did the Soviet Union support the creation of communist states in Eastern Europe?
The Soviet Union supported the creation of communist states in Eastern Europe because it gave them allies/increased strength
Q - Why did George Kennan think that containment would work against Soviet expansion?
he thought if he provided aid to countries that were suffering econommically and might soon have to go into the soviet union, he could build them up and therefore they could stand up against communism
Q - Why could the allies not use land routes to supply West Berlin?
Air lanes were the only open routes that could reach West Berlin, that was the only option they had for supplying.
Q - How did the US and its allies apply the containment policy in Europe?
The US passed the Marshall Plan to give monetary aid to help European countries rebuild their economies. The idea is that by building solid economies in Europe, the countries wouldn't fall to communism and thus contain it within the Soviet Union.
Q - How would having control over satellite states benefit the Soviet Union if it became involved in a European war?
Having more control over satellite states would benefit the Soviet Union if it became involved in a European War by giving the Soviet Union more territory to control and by giving them more citizens who can contribute to the war effort. This would result in a larger, more powerful military.
Q - How did the US foreign policy before WWII differ from the US foreign policy after WWI?
Before WW II the USA was isolationist meaning America didn't join the League Of Nations or join any alliances. Mainly only concerned with South/North America and Asia since we had the Philippines. In summary.... more passive before WWI.

After WW II the USA took an active role in world affairs. America joined the United Nations, kept a large military presence abroad mainly in Japan and Germany, formed military alliances such as NATO, created programs like the Marshall plan to aid Western European economic recovery.
Jiang Jieshi
(1887-1975) Leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai Shek.
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
38th Parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Douglas MacArthur
(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
limited war
A war fought to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism
SEATO
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand


Alliance formed to oppose Communism in Southeast Asia
Q - How did President Truman use the power of the presidency to limit the spread of communism in East Asia?
keeping communism in its enclosed borders

President Truman worried what China might do if the war continued, but then MacAuther had told him that China would not intervene and he continued to push Northward.

Truman didn't want the U.S to enter into the major war that would involve huge numbers of troops and even atomic weapons Neither side won the Korean War, and the two Koreans remain divided till this day.

There are two things that did change: Truman had enlarged the power of presidency, and a new alliance called the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (S.E.A.T.O). This alliance was formed to prevent the spread of communism. The Truman Doctrine had committed the U.S to aid the countries resisting communist aggression, and provided the first step toward what would become known as the Containment Policy.

President Truman established that the U.S would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from internal or external authoritarian forces. President Truman delivered a speech before a joint session on March 12, 1947, this is how The Truman Doctrine up-rose. The immediate cause for the speech was a recent announcement by the British Government that, as of March 31, it would no longer provide military and economic assistance to the Greek Government in its civil war against the Greek Communist Party.
Q - Why were the communists able to win the Chinese civil war?
Jiang Jieshi and his nationalists forces were corrupt, and the united states refused to intervene militarily.
Q - Describe the movement of the communist troops after November 1950?
On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces moved without warning across the 38th parallel. Meeting little effective resistance, they overran Seoul in early July
Q - How did president Truman react to the North Korean invasion of South Korea?
The president tripled the U.S. defense budget, dispatched four divisions to Europe, and authorized the rearming of Germany

Led a United Nation action against the North, known as the Korean War.
Q - Why did MacArthur want to invade China?
MacArthur wanted to cross the border to hit military and supply units, he also wanted to bomb those supply units and crossing to keep Americans from getting killed. We were fighting the enemy, while the UN was taking credit for the battles. No one in the world cared about the U.S. and the US president only cared about public opinion from FOREIGN governments. We had the power and the military might to crush anything that the Chinese could have put against us at that time, and there would now be peace in that peninsula.

It was supposed to be a UN police action, but it seems most of the "UN" didn't bother sending much of anything over. The US sent the majority of the troops and an even larger percentage of the supplies and arms, then let the people in the UN dictate how our American Troops would be killed.

MacArthur got fired for trying to keep American from being killed and the American public went against the traitor Truman.
Q-Why did Truman oppose invasion?
President Truman felt that a military operation of this magnitude could not have been taken without the support of the Russians.

Because Truman did not want to widen the war into a major WWII-like conflict by taking on China proper. The Chinese fighting in Korea were "volunteers" and this helped with the international illusion that the UN/US was not at war with China. Remember, the Korean War was being fought under UN authority, not under a declaration of war by the US against North Korea nor China.
Q-What were the most important results of US participation of the Korean war?
The most important result of the Korean War was pushing the communist back to the 38th parallel. It also gave the United States leeway to quadruple its military spending. This was the platform for the eventual Military Industrial complex that lasted throughout the Cold War. The Korean War also marked the first time that black and white United States soldiers fought in integrated platoons.
Q-Why did American aid to Jiang Jieshi's Nationalists fail to prevent Mao Zedong's communists from taking control of China?
The failed Communist uprising directed by Soviet Russia turned much of Chinese public opinion against the Communists etc

corrupted officials of jiang's nationalists took us aid dollars into their own pockets instead of using it to beat mao
Q-How did General MacArthur's decision to advance toward the Yalu River change the course of the Korean War?
MacArthurs' advance toward the Yalu River caused China to intervene, thus causing the UN forces to fall back in disarray.
Q- How did the way in which truman handled the korean crisis affect the powers of the presidency?
...increased power of presidency by setting a precedent that future presidents would follow of declaring war without formal congressional declaration of war

....precedent that future presidents would follow, showed he had complete power
arms race
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
mutually assured destruction
A doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender.[
John Foster Dulles
American politican principally known for serving as Eisenhower's Secretary of State; drafted the "policy of boldness" designed to confront Soviet aagression with the threat of "massive retaliation" via thermonuclear weapons
massive retaliation
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
brinkmanship
A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
Nikita Krushchev
Leader of the Soviet union during the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis. He and President Kennedy signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963, temporarily easing Cold War tensions.
nationalize
When a government takes control of a business or industry and runs it as part of the government. Often done by Socialist or Command economies.
Suez crisis
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power

2 -Nasser took over the Suez Canal to show separation of Egypt from the West, but Israel, the British, Iraq, and France were all against Nasser's action. The U.S. stepped in before too much serious fighting began.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country

1957 - Congress and US President pledged US military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression. Under the Doctrine the US was able to openly land several thousand troops and help restore order without taking a single life.
CIA
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. Its primary function is obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons in order to advise public policymakers
NASA
(national aeronautics and space administration)-created by congress to coordinate space related efforts of american scientists and military
Q - what methods did the united states use in its global struggle against the soviet union?
One method that the united states used against the Soviet Union was the development of the hydrogen bomb. Americans discovered that the soviets had an atomic bomb. Not long after this they took over china and Americans now felt more threatened then ever. After this, Truman ordered that the hydrogen bomb be created. Many scientists warned that the creation of the bomb could lead to a competition of building weapons, an arms race. The next four decades this was exactly what happened. The United States and the Soviet Union stored nuclear weapons in hope that this mutually assured destruction would keep the other one from attacking with the weapons.
Q - How was Eisenhower's approach to foreign affairs different from that of Truman?
Eisenhower's approach to foreign affairs was much more conservative than Truman's. The Truman administration was concerned with Stalin's expansionist tendencies, and sought to contain him with conventional warfare. Eisenhower was more concerned with cutting taxes than pursuing expensive overseas engagements. He used nuclear capabilities as a deterrent against the Soviets.
Q - How did the Hungarian and Suez crisis raise cold war tensions?
The Suez Crisis, which took place at the same time as the Hungarian Uprising, was considered far more important. It was fought by Britain, France & Israel against Egypt October 1956. Suez Crises actually raised tensions during Cold War between US & Great Britain because Eisenhower did not want to be seen as a bully against a nation that probably could not protect itself.
Q - How were the covert operations of the CIA in Guatemala and Iran different from the military operations of the US Army in Korea?
The Covert Operations of the CIA were more entrenched with acts of Sabotage, gathering information, and diversion than the US Army.
Q - Were Americans justified in being alarmed when the soviets launched sputnik 1?
The Americans were justified in being alarmed because Americans feared the Russians could spy on them or drop nuclear weapons from it.
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