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Midterm Study Guide
Terms in this set (45)
What is GIS?
Geographical Information system that captures, stores, manipulates, queries, analyzes, and displays geographically referenced data while Mapping is the primary function
How does GIS differ from other information systems?
because of its unique capability of managing geographically referenced or spatial location data.
What is Spatial Data?
It captures the geometry of map features
describes the characteristics of map features.
used to link information in two tables based on a common field or key
all both spatial and nonspatial information stored to be easily integrated into GIS projects
identifies the location relationship between spatial features of input layers
any spatial analysis involving modifying features from different layers
What does TIGER refer to
Topologically integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
What are TIGER shapefiles best for?
Best for Geographic entity codes than can be linked to the census bureau's demographic data. It looks at Roads, Railroads, RIvers, and geographic areas. Used ASCII format
What are TIGER Geodatabase best for?
Spatial extracts that contain national coverage or state coverage from the Bureau's address meant to be used with Esri's Archgis
What is a relational database?
one that presents information in tables with rows and columns
What does RDBMS stand for?
Relational Database Management System
What is Integrity Rules in a database management system
They are used to ensure that the data they contain stay accurate and are always accessible
How does a select Statement work?
Used to get specific information from the table
How does a Where clause Work?
Used to calculate populations for varying characteristics within the table
What is the Query Builder?
It is the dialog box used for selecting or querying features based on the data in the attribute table
What do wildcards do in the query builder
Used to select subsets of a text string
What Wildcards are used to be "space holder" and "everything"
They are space holders which are _ ?
the everything command is either % *
What is a distance decay pattern?
When densities near the city center are higher than more remote areas
What is the major function of "Multiple Ring Buffer"
Creates multiple buffers at defined distances
What is the purpose of doing a Map Overlay
to overlay current layers to create new features and save the result in a new layer
What does calculate Geometry do?
It can be used to update the area size
What does the dissolve tool do?
It mergers polygons sharing the similar values of fields
The center of the geometric object
Why do you have to make sure data is projected
The data must be projected to ensure there is a defined coordinate system
What is PCS
Projected Coordinate System
What is GCS
Geographic Coordinate System
What is Euclidean Distance?
Simply the distance between two points connected by a straight line of a flat surface
What is geodetic Distance?
distance through a great circle assuming the earth as a sphere
It is the length of the change in the x direction plus the change in the y direction
The shortest path distance through a transportation network
What is the shortest route problem
Finding the shortest path from a specified origin to a specified destination, it records the shortest distance or the least time if the impedance value is provided on each arc
What is Dijkstra's Shortest Path Algorithm
objective is to find the shortest path between two vertex, shows how to arrive to the next vertex by giving us the shortest path from the last vertex
What is geocoding
placing a description of a location, like coordinates, an address, or a name of a place to a location on Earth's surface
What is a centroid
the geometric center of a feature
what does the Add XY Data tool do?
Adds tabular data that contains geographic locations in the form of x,y coordinates to your map
What is the first law of geography?
is the spatial correlation that states "everything is related to everything else but near things are more related than distant things"
Who is Waldo Tolber
Created the first law of geography theory
Cell by cell combination of data layers stacked on top of each other and can be defined as local, focal, zonal, and global
Process that is performed on each output cell using all of the cells in the input categories
is the value generated in the output in a function of cell values at the same location as the input layers
is a spatial function that computes an output value of each cell using neighborhood values
Data points are averaged with their neighbors or points close by to reduce spatial variability
What is the floating catchment area method
draws a circle or square around a location to define a filtering window and uses the average value within the window to represent the value at the location
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