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Biology 103 Exam 2
Terms in this set (81)
Which of the following is not part of the inflammatory response?
antibodies and interferons are produced against the antigens
The large, irregularly shaped cells that kill bacteria cells by digesting them are?
Which of the following is not an organ of the immune system?
The immune system depends on the function of the _______ , which include several types of phagocytic cells and two kinds of lymphocytes
Nonself molecules called antigens cause the vertebrate system to create proteins known as
The molecule that provokes a specific immune response is an
Which of the following is a nonspecific defense of the vertebrate system
The cell- mediated response is brought about by
The procedure of injecting a harmless microbe in order to confer resistance to a dangerous one is known as
Because of the differential orientation of two chambers of the membranous labyrinth, vertebrates are able to perceive their position in space. The _______ is more sensitive to horizontal acceleration and the _______ to vertical acceleration
When stimulated by the binding of specific chemicals, the proteins in the membranes of taste bud receptors and olfactory neurons..
Which of the following receptors does not involve the depolarization leading to an action potential of a sensory neuron
The sensory structures that enable the brains of most invertebrates to determine the orientation of the body with respect to gravity are called
Which of the following constitute the vestibular apparatus?
semicircular canals, saccule, and utricle
In the vertebrate eye, the light is focused onto the
The photpigment of rods is called
Which of the following cells are not found in the retina
Which sense receptor cell directly produces an action potential
All input from sensory neurons to the central nervous system arrives in the same form, as ____________ propagated by afferent sensory neurons. Perception of the stimuli about type and intensity depend on the projection of the impulse to which part of the brain and its frequency by the sensory neuron
The mechanism by which sensory information is conveyed to the CNS is composed of which sequential steps?
stimulation, transduction, transmission, and interpretation
The simplest sensory receptors are ______ that respond to mechanical distortion, changes in temperature, or specific chemicals
free nerve endings
The organ of Corti consists of
the basiliar membrane, the tectorial membrane, and hair cells
Exteroceptors can sense all of the following stimuli except
Interoceptors can sense all of the following stimuli except
All of the following are mechanoreceptors except
Different nociceptors may respond to all of the following except
external odorant molecules
In the ear, high frequency sounds tend to
move only the basa part of the basiliar membrane
In arthropods, locomotion is accomplished by muscles that work against the
The human skeleton is a typical vertebrate
The chemical released by somatic motor neurons is
In a stimulated muscle fiber, the calcium ions released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum bind to the protein
The structure causing the muscle depolarization to travel deep into the muscle fiber is known as the
Which of the following is the smallest unit in terms of size
Which of the following is required to detach myosin from actin?
Sustained contraction is called
Myofibril contractile subunits, the sarcromeres, are bounded on each end by a disc of protein called
A cross bridge is the binding of which two proteins
myosin and actin
All of the animal phyla have a network of nerve cells for gathering information from the environment except
the hippocampus and amygdala are, together with the hypothalamus, the major components of the ______ system
The spinal cord is enclose and protected by the vertebral column and layers of membrane called
in the brain, the ______ receives sensory information from ascending nerve tracts and motor commands from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum
Which of the following is an example of a monosynaptic reflex arc
The automatic nervous system regulates the activity of all of the following except
The primary function of the hindbrain in vertebrate is
coordination of motor reflexes
The cerebrum consists of all of the following hemispheres except the
the site of the primary sensory integration in the brain is called
The region of the brain the integrates visceral activities, body temperature, and heartbeat is the
In the _______, a tuft of capillaries in the renal cortex, the blood is filtered through the porous capillary walls
Each is a part of the kidney except
the urinary bladder
A function not associated with vertebrate kidneys is
osmoreceptors in which one of the following organs respond to elevated blood osmolality
ADH makes the collecting ducts _______
more permeable to water
The cytoplasmic extensions of a neuron are called
The rapid inward diffusion of Na+ followed by the outward diffusion of K+ produces a rapid change in the membrane potential called a(n)
impulses are conducted by myelinated axons by jumping from node to node in a process called
The electrical impulse travels outward from the cell body along a(n)
Neurons are supported both structurally and functionally by supporting cells which include
neuroglia, Schwann cells, and oligodendrocytes
The white matter of CNS is formed by
The membrane of a resting neuron is much more permeable to which of the following ion than any other ion?
When nerve cells are not producing electrical responses, there is still a voltage difference across their membranes, termed the
A shift in the membrane potential toward the positive direction and exceeding the threshold causes a(n)
The junction between a neuron and another neuronal cell, muscle cell, or with a gland cell is called a(n)
A(n) _______________ diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft between the presynaptic axon and the postsynaptic cell to transmit a nerve impulse.
The neurotransmitter that is released from the motor neuron at the neuromuscular junction is
Acetylcholine stimulates the opening of chemically-regulated ion channels, causing a depolarization called a(n)
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
The effect of myelin and nodes of Ranvier is to make nerve impulses travel
The gap into which neurotransmitters are released is called a(n)
Biogenic amines include
epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
At the myelinated area of the axon (i.e., not at the node of Ranvier), which one of the following is true?
There is an increased resistance across membrane
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the possible effects that addictive drugs have on the nervous system?
Nicotine binds directly to receptors on the presynaptic membrane
Which of the following drugs has been discovered to bind to acetylcholine receptors?
The tendency of a solution to take up water by osmosis is called
The process of describes the transport of substances out of the kidney tubule and into the surrounding body fluids, while describes the process of transporting substances from the body fluid into the tubule.
The reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, and many other molecules needed by the body is driven by ______________
active transport carriers
Kidneys are thought to have evolved first among the _____________
fresh water bony fishes
Marine reptiles eliminate excess salt by means of _____________ located near the nose or the eye.
The excretory organs in the insects create an excretory fluid by secreting K+ ions, which draw water osmotically. These organs branch off anterior to the hindgut and are called
Select the incorrectly matched vertebrate and its urine concentration relative to its blood.
Select the incorrectly matched organism and its nitrogenous waste product.
Which of the following best describes freshwater fish?
Suppose that your research mentor has decided to do a project on the filtering capabilities of Malpighian tubules. Which of the following creatures will you be spending your summer studying?
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