Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (42)
What is a mutation?
Any change in the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule resulting in permanent change in an inheritable characteristic
What are the types of gene mutations?
- point mutation
- frameshift mutation
- repeat expansion
What is one type of point mutation?
What are the types of substitutions?
What are the different types of frameshift mutations?
What is a point mutation ?
It changes one nitrogen base in a segment of DNA or a codon
What is a missense mutation?
The DNA code is altered so that it codes for the wrong amino acid
What is a nonsense mutation?
It changes the codon that codes for a specific amino acid into a stop codon
What does a nonsense mutation result in?
It causes translation to terminate early and it creates proteins that will not function properly
What is a silent mutation?
It Alters a base in the sequence but does not change the amino acid
What is the result of a silent mutation?
A new codon for the same sequence is created but may code for a similar property of the original amino acid
Why aren't silent mutations noticed?
The newly created codon codes for an amino acid similar to the one created by the original codon
What are most substitutions?
What is a frameshift mutation?
It alters the gene's reading frame for codon sequences
A nitrogen base is added to the sequence
A nitrogen base is removed from the sequence
A large piece of DNA is abnormally copied one or more times
What is the result of insertion ?
It causes the bases after it to shift to the right
What is the result of deletion?
It causes the bases that were after it to shift to the left
What is the result of duplication?
The protein is typically non functional
What causes mutations?
1. A mutation can be inherited
2. A mutation can be acquired
How are mutations inherited?
They can be passed from parent to offspring
How can mutations be acquired?
- environmental damage
- mistakes when DNA is copied
What are examples of environmental damage that can cause mutations?
What is a mutagen?
Anything that causes a mutation in the DNA sequence
What is the significance of mutations?
- most are neutral
- some are harmful
- some are beneficial
What types of mutations are neutral?
- eye color
What types of mutations are harmful?
- sickle cell anemia
- down syndrome
What types of mutations can be beneficial ?
Sickle cell anemia to malaria (become immune)
What is repeat expansion?
A mutation that increases the number of times that a short DNA sequence is repeated
What is the result of repeat expansion?
Creates a protein that does not function properly
What is a disease related to repeat expansion?
What is a chromosome mutation?
Any mutation that occurs over a large segment of DNA on a chromosome
What are chromosome mutations a result of?
- problems during meiosis
What are the different types of chromosome mutations?
What is a deletion in chromosome mutations?
Genetic material on the chromosome is lost
What is duplication in chromosome mutations?
A portion of the chromosome is copied and replicated
What is inversion in chromosome mutations?
The order of genetic material is reversed or switched
What is Translocation in chromosome mutations?
A piece of one chromosome breaks off and is transferred to a new location on another chromosome
Example of deletion on chromosomes
ABC DEF -> AB DEF
Example of duplication on chromosomes
ABC DEF -> ABBC DEF
Example of inverion on chromosomes
ABC DEF -> AED CBF
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Biology- Chapter 4 Vocab
DNA and RNA Quiz
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
BIOL 1020 Chapter 13
Bio Quiz 4/6/18
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Principles of science study guide
Introduction to environmental science
water color landscape