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scientific theories1) make sense in terms of consistency with other knowledge 2) are published 3) are more formalizedmodellow level theory that describes or represents the way things are relatedmodels of human psychology1) mechanistic 2) organistic 3)discursivemechanistic modelviews human psychology as machineryorganismic modelviews human psychology as growing and unfolding naturallydiscursive modelhuman psychology as a form of conversationmodels of teachersexecutive therapist liberationistexecutiveteacher role that does preparing, arranging and delivering lessons and teaching learners prescribed skills and informationtherapistempathetic facilitator of student growth and self developmentliberationistteacher role that free students minds, empowering them to become autonomous learnersDevelopmentrefers to the orderly, adaptive changes we go through from conception to deathphysical developmentchanges in body structure and functionsocial developmentchanges in the ways we relate to otherspersonal developmentchanges in personalitycognitive developmentchanges in mental processesmaturationchanges that occur naturally (genetically determined and relatively independent of environmental influence)influences in piagetian theory- kants philosophy - evolutionary theorytwo basic tendencies (piaget)- organization - adaptationorganizationthe ongoing process of arranging information and experience into coherent systemsschemesbasic building blocks of thinkingadaptationadjusting to the environmentassimilationfitting new information into existing schemesaccomodationaltering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new informationequilibrationachieving balance (btwn schemes and information from the environment) through assimilation and accomodationimplications of piagets theory1. understanding students thinking (know which stage of development the learner has reached) 2. matching teaching strategies to abilities "the problem of the match" 3. individuals construct their own understandingslimitations of piagets theory:1) inconsistencies with stages 2) underestimates childrens abilities 3) cognitive development and culturevygotskys sociocultural theorydiscursive model of human psychology -based on Marxist ideas of political economy - discourse: symbolic exchange of ideas through speech and languagestages of vygotskys language developmenta) social speech (3) b) egocentric speech (3-7) c) inner speech (7)pivotan object used in play as a prop to help extract and operate on meaningsZOPED ( zone of proximal development)sphere or zone of current capabilities - distance between actual developmental level and the level of potential developmentdynamic assessmentan assessment of learning potential in which the assessor intervenes to gauge the learning potential of the childimplications of vygotskys theory1) language dev is critical for cognitive development 2) challenge children at the edges of ZOPED 3) teaching and learning should be collaborative 4) since it is culture that funds the kinds of cognitive capacities that people dev, then transmission of culture is the fundamental role of educationself conceptour beliefs about ourselvesself esteemthe value we place on our characteristics, abilities and behavioursself as subjectpeoples awareness that they exist as an individual distinct from the objects surrounding them as well as from other individualsself as objectthe attributes and characteristics we ascribe to ourselves; what one knows oneself to be likesocial comparisonthe process of comparing ones self with others to gather information and to evaluate ones abilitiesstructure of self concept- non academic - academic english -academic mathematicscollective self esteemthe sense of the value held by a group to which individual belongssmens reaguilty mindactus reusguilty actmoralconceptions of right and wrong, good and bad with respsect to conduct and/or characteraristotlethe virtuous personeudaimonia"a flourishing state of the soul"; "moral means"kants categorical imperative"act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become universal law"piagets stages of moral development1) Moral realism (heteronomy) - being subject to the rules of others, rules are absolute 2) morality of cooperation (autonomy) - ppl make the rules, and they can be changedkohlbergs stage theory (moral reasoning)1. Preconventional: judgement is based on personal needs and others rules 2. Conventional: judgement is based on others approval, family expectations, traditional values, the laws of society, and loyalty to country 3. Postconventional: good and right are matters of conscience and involve abstract concepts of justice, human dignity and equalitycriticism of kohlberg theory1) inconsistency 2) cultural differences/bias 3) no evidence of the existence of stage 6 4) contemplation vs action 5) hypothetical scenarios dont equate real life 6) constrained answers 7) gender differencesGillians theory of moral dev(an ethic of care) 1) self-interest 2) commitment to specific individuals and relationships 3) responsibility and care for allfostering an ethic of care1) refrain from overprotecting 2) role playing: responsibility for the care of another 3) role playing: experience the plight of others 4) exposure to altruistic models6 pillars of charactertrustworthiness respect responsibility fairness caring citizenshipcraniometrymeasurements of skullscriticisms of racial explanations of intel1) more variation within groups than between 2) confusion between inheritability and inevitablynature vs nurturewhether psychological characteristics/abilities are genetically or environmentally determinedidentical twins(monozygotic) result from the division of a single fertilized eggfraternal twins(dizygotic) result from the fertilization of two separate eggspsychometrymeasurement of mental abilities through task performanceeugenicsthe control of human breeding for the intended purpose of improving the speciesIQ= MA/CA X 100deviation IQscore based on statistical comparison of individuals performance with the avg performance of others in that age groupindividual testsie. stanford binet intelligence scale, Wechsler intelligence scale for childrenemotional IQthe capacity to be aware of, control and express ones emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empatheticallysocial emotional learningdevelopment of competencies for recognizing and managing emotions, developing care and concern for others, establishing positive relationships, making responsible decisions and handling challenging situations effectivelyflynn effectworld-wide increase in IQ since initiation of testingcautions with labelling1) labels do not indicate treatments 2) self-fulfilling prophecies 3) labels are not explanationsgardners theory of multiple intelligenceintelligence is the ability to solve a problem or fashion a product that is valued at least one culture or communityspearmanintelligence consists of both general intelligence (g) and a collection of separate abilities (s)boringintelligence is what the tests testSternbergs triarchic theory of intelligence1. Analytic (componential) intelligence 2. Creative (experiential) intelligence 3. Practical (contextual) intelligenceanalytic intelligenceability to think abstractly and process information effectively a) metacomponents: ability to plan, strategize, and monitor how well one is doing in completing a task b) performance components: cognitive processes used in carrying out tasks c) knowledge acquisition components: ability to take in new informationcreative intelligenceability to formulate new ideas to combine seemingly unrelated facts or information a) insight: ability to deal with novel situations b) automaticity: ability to become efficient and automatic in thinking and problem solvingpractical intelligenceadaptation in the real worldcreativityinvolves fluency, flexibility and originalityconvergent thinkinga type of thinking that results in a single correct solution for a problem (sternberg)divergent thinkinga type of thinking that results in the production of several different solutions for one problemalternate uses tests (torrance tests)ie- think of diff ways to use a brick scores by originality, fluency, flexibility & elaborationlearning stylecharacteristic ways of approaching learning and studying premise: learners have their own unique ways of learning and teaching is most effective when it is matched to the style of the individualimplementation of learning style1) assess/profile the style of students 2) provide a wide array of instructional formatsfield dependencelearning style in which patterns are perceived as wholesfield independencelearning style in which separate parts of a pattern are perceived and analyzedreliabilityconsistency of test results over timegiftednessa capacity for unusually high performance requiring differentiated educational programs beyond those provided by regular school programs, so such individuals can realize their contribution to self and societygiftedness capacities- general intellectual ability - specific academic aptitude - creative or productive thinking - leadership ability - visual and performing artsrenzulli and Reis (definition of giftedness)1. high ability (might be evident in high acheivement and/or high measured intelligence) 2. high creativity (sometimes evident in production of novel ideas or problem-solving activity) 3. high commitment (manifested in a high level of persistence and task completion)acceleration (telescoping)moving students though the conventional curriculum more rapidlyenrichmentprovision of additional and different school experiencescurriculum compactinginvolves assessing students knowledge of the material in an instructional unit, then teaching only for those goals not yet reachedability grouping (tracking)the creation of groups of students according to abilityindividualized educational plan (IEP)specified plan matched to the individual talents of the childlearningprocess through which experience causes a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behaviour - doesnt occur if the change is caused by maturation, fatigue, illness, intoxication or drugsstate dependent learningmemory for previous events or previously acquired information is enhanced if one returns to the psychological state or setting in which the learning occurredrene descartes17th century philosopher - voluntary vs involuntary behaviourivan pavlovclassical conditioning paradigmstimulusan event that elicits behaviourresponseobservable reaction to a stimulusreinforcementstrengthening of the link between the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned responsejohn watsonenvironmentalism "to learn general and specific methods by which i may control behaviour"elicited responsesrespondent behaviours, brought about by a stimulusemitted responsesoperants, produced by the organismoperant conditioninglearning in which voluntary behaviour is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedentstypes of reinforcers1. primary reinforcers: stimuli that do not need to be learned to be appreciated 2. Generalized reinforcers: stimuli that are not reinforcing before being paired with a primary reinforcer. They acquire their reinforcement through learningoperants effects1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Presentation punishment 4. Removal punishmentpositive reinforcementthe strengthening of a behaviour by the presentation of a desired stimulus (positive reinforcer) after the behaviournegative reinforcementthe strengthening of a behaviour by removing or escaping from an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer)presentation punishmentweakening of a behaviour by the addition of an aversive stimulusremoval punishmentweakening a behaviour by the removal of something pleasantresponse costpunishment by loss of reinforcerspremacks principleusing favoured activities to reinforce participation in less desired activitiesextinctionweakening a response by not reinforcing itextinction ratetime lapse between the withdrawal of reinforcement and the cessation of a responsegeneralizationresponding in the same way to similar stimulidiscriminationresponding differently to similar, but not identical stimulishapingthe teaching of complex behaviours through the method of successive approximationsapplied behaviour analysisa-> b -> c a= antecedent events b= behaviour c= consequencescriticism of behavioural modification1. inability to control all relevent consequences 2. ignores potential real causes 3. problem of acquisition 4. should we reward studentsenactive learninglearning by doingvicarious learninglearning through observing otherseffects of tv violence1) children may become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others 2. children may become more fearful of the world around them 3. children may become more likely to behave in aggressive or harmful ways toward othersdirect reinforcementreinforcement of the learner by the modelbandurasocial cognitive theoryvicarious reinforcement(observational learning) - the models behaviour and consequences that follow for the model serve as a stimulus for the observers responseself reinforcementlearner provides reinforcement4 phase model (of observational learning)Attention Retention Production Motivationsuccessful productiona) talent b) ability to monitor attempted reproductions of the behaviour c) ability to make appropriate adjustments in response to motor feedbackmodeling effectacquiring new behaviour as a result of observing a modelinhibitory effectthe suppression of deviant behaviour as the result of seeing a model punisheddisinhibitory effectengaging in the deviant behaviour as a result of seeing a model rewarded, or at least not punished for iteliciting effectresponses that are related to the models responses but do not necessarily match precisely those of the modelself regulation(/management)rewarding or punishing ones own behaviourkinds of knowledgea) general b) domain- specific i) declarative knowledge ii) procedural knowledge iii) conditional knowledgegeneral knowledgeknowledge that can be applied across a variety of situations or tasksdomain specific knowledgeknowledge that pertains to a particular task or subjectdeclarative knowledgeknowledge that can be stated in verbal formprocedural knowledgeknowledge you are not able to articulate, but that you know how to express by doingconditional knowledgeknowing when and why to use declarative and procedural knowledgeworking memorycentral executive phonological loop visuospatial sketchpad chunkingcentral executiveresponsible for monitoring and directing attention and other mental resourcesphonological loopa system which allows you to take in 1.5 seconds worth information and looping itvisuospatial sketchpadholding system for visual and spatial informationchunkinggrouping together related items of information so that more information can be rememberedLTMexplicit memory episodic memorypropositionsthe smallest unit of information that can be judged true or falsepropositional networkset of interconnected concepts and relationships in which long term knowledge is heldschematabasic structures for organizing information; conceptsscriptschema for a sequence of steps in a common eventstory grammara schema for the structure of a category of storiesepisodic memoryrecollections of specific personal incidents (Autobiographical episodes)procedural memorymemories you may not be able to necessarily articulate, but that you know how to express through doingworking to LTM1) rehearsal (maintenance rehearsal): repeating the information to yourself 2) elaboration (elaborative rehearsal): adding and extending meaning by connecting new information to existing knowledge 3) organization 4) contextdecaymaterial not brought to mind frequently enough fadesmassed practicepractice for a single extended perioddistributed practicepractice in brief periods with rest intervalsinterferenceloss of information because something learned either before or after the target information inhibits its recallproactive inhibitionprevious learning interferes wit current recallretroactive inhibitionsubsequent learning interferes with recall of previous learningretrieval cue failureinability to find a way (path) to the item stored in memoryrepressionforgetting unpleasant eventsmetacognitionknowledge about and awareness of ones own thinking processesmetacognitive skills1) planning 2) monitoring 3) evaluationautomated skillsare skills that are applied without conscious thoughtstages of development (automated skills)1) cognitive stage 2) associative stage 3) autonomous stagecognitive stageconscious thought is required to perform each step of the taskassociative stagesteps of the procedure are combined into larger unitsautonomous stagethe procedure is fine tuned and can be performed automatically as a wholefactors facilitating development1) prior knowledge 2) practice with feedbackdoman specific strategiesstrategies specific to a particular subject matter or area of knowledgeconstructivismnot only a theory of learning, but also a theory about the nature of knowledgetrivial constructivismknowledge is a reconstruction of structures that really exist in the external worldobjectivismknowledge and truth that exists outside the mind of the individualradical constructivismcoming to know is a process of dynamic adaptation towards viable interpretations of experience. the knower doesnt necessarily contruct knowledge of truth or of a "real" world.role of the teacher"midwife in the birth of understanding"social constructionismthe ways in which we create concepts and to help us negotiate social reality and how these concepts then become part of social realitysituated learninglearning is inherently social and embedded in a particular cultural settinglearnings function1) the activity 2) the practical context 3) the culturecommunities of practiceways of knowing, acting and interacting that are sustained by a community of practitionerspracticeways of doing and approaching things that are shared to some significant extent among memberslegitimate peripheral participationthe gradual process of development in which learners progress toward increasing competence