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Somatic motor neurons in the spinal cord control all of the following muscles except

move the neck

A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a

spinal nerve

Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the


Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is desginated

spatial summation

Adrenergic synapses release the neurotransmitter


Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus

produces ADH, secretes oxytocin, regulates body temperature, controls autonomic centers

Which of the following is a property of the blood brain barrier

the capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight juctions, astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries, it is absent in portions of the hypothalamus, it is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds

Which of the following is a function of the thalamus

process sensory information and relay it to the cerebrum

The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain

cell bodies of sensory neurons

The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the

pia mater

The same _______ can have different effects depending on the properties of the ___________

neurotransmitter; receptor

The effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic membrane depends on

the quantity of neurotransmitters released, the frequency of neurotransmitter release, the nature of the neurotransmitter, the characteristics of the receptors

Clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neurons are called

Nissle bodies

Deteriorating changes in the distal segment of an axon as a result of a break between it and the soma is called __________ degeneration


The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the

spinal meninges

Which of the following is NOT a recognized structural classification for neurons


The most abundant class of neuron in the central nervous system is


Neurotransmitter for release is stored in synaptic


Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the


Glial cells that surround the neurons in the ganglia are

satellite cells

Absorption at the arachnoid granulations returns CSF to the

venous circulation

The region of the cerebral cortex that is medial and deep to the temporal lobe is the


The ________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles


Which of the following is NOT a function of the neuroglia


Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system


The highest levels of information processing occur in the


In the spinal cord, white matter into ascending and descending tracts organized are


Postganlionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs do not rejoin the spinal nerve but form

autonomic nerves

The flexor reflex

moves a limb away from a painful stimulus

Spinal nerves are

both sensory and motor

In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise


Enlargements of the spinal cord occur

in those spinal segments that control the limbs

Which of the following is NOT a property of the limbic system

functions in maintaining homeostasis in cold weather

The region of the brain responsible for predicting the consequence of events or actions is the

prefrontal cerebral cortex

Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the

gray commissures

Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the _______ muscles


Cerebrospinal fluid

is secreted by ependymal cells

Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the


The only sensation that is received directly by the cerebrum is


The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the _______ reflex


What contains a spiderweblike network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows

subarachnoid space

The mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus

control feeding reflexes

Neurons that have several dendrites and a single axon are called


________ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal

Ependymal cels

______ neurons form the afferent division of the PNS


Ependymal cells work to

secrete CSF in the ventricles, remove waste products from CSF, surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus

The ventral rami form four major plexuses including all of the following EXCEPT the ________ plexus


At the optic chiasm

axons from the nasal halves of each retina cross

Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ______ reflexes


Small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called


_______ neurons are the most common class in the CNS


The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains

axons of sensory neurons

The _______ nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord


The ______ nerve, which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm


Stimulation of the reticular formation results in

increased consciousness

If a person has a crush injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he

might be unable to breathe on his own

_______ are the most numerous type of neuron in the CNS


The _____ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament

filum terminale

The ____ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems


______ open or close in response to binding specific molecules

Chemically gated channels

The sodium-potassium ion exchange pump

moves sodium and potassium opposite to the direction of their electrochemical gradients

The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the

longitudinal fissure

The spinal cord consists of five regions and _______ segments


The white matter of the spinal cord if mainly

myelinated axons

The general interpretive area

allows us to interpret what is read or heard

The corpus callosum is composed of

commissural fibers

Which of the following are properties of cerebrospinal fluid

transports nutrients, circulates continuously, surrounds the brain and spinal cord, fills the brain ventricles

The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles

crossed extensor

The visual cortex is located in the

occipital lobe

Sensory neurons of the PNS are


_______ account for roughly half of the volume of the nervous system


The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called


Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block

it provides mainly sensory anesthesia, it is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery, it affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection, it can be difficult to achieve in the upper cervical and midthoracic region

Neurons that are rare, small, and lack features that distinguish dendrites from axons are called


Neurons in which dendritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called


Within each hemisphere, deep to the floor of the lateral ventricle, you will find the

basal nuclei

The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the


Which of the following is NOT true about a positive Babinski reflex

why you close your eyes when you sneeze

Neurons that have one axon and one dendrite, with the soma in between, are called


Which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem


Compared to the vertebral column, the spinal cord is


Cholinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter


The site of intercelluar communication between neurons is the


The cardiovascular reflexes are based in the

medulla oblongata

The largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the CNS are the


Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the

pia mater

______ is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read


The neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by

Schwann cells

The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in

the medulla oblongata

The cerebral area posterior to the central sulcus is the

parietal lobe

The auditory cortex is located in the

temporal lobe

The myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by


The part of the peripheral nervous system that carrier sensory information to the CNS is designated


The all-or-none principle states that

all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials

Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the

subarachnoid space

The largest and most numerous neuroglia in the CNS are the


Which of the following are types of neuroglia

microglia, ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes

Type _______ fibers have the largest diameter axons


Male brains are typically _____ compared to female brains


_______ neurons are small and have no anatomical features that disinguish dendrites from axons


The subdural space lies between

the dura mater and the arachnoid mater

The ______ filters and relays sensory information to cerebral cortex


The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the


The control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the

medulla oblongata

The brain requires a substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliver blood to the brain are the

internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries

The smallest neuroglia of the CNS are the


The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the

dura mater

Which of the following is NOT a function of cerebrospinal fluid

provides ATP for impulse transmission

The epidural space contains

connective tissue and blood vessels

In the condition ______, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes


The _____ is important in storage and recall of new long-term memories


Which of the following types of nerve fiber possesses the fastest speed of impulse propagation

type A

The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains

axons of motor neurons

In meningitis

bacteria can be the cause, viruses can be the cause, inflammation of the meninges occurs, CSF flow can be disrupted

The _______, a narrow stalk, connects the hypothalamus produces the sensation of hunger


The ________ plexus supplies innervation to the diaphragm


A complex, interwoven network of nerves is called a


The neural "wiring" of a single reflex is call a

reflex arc

During the procedure known as an _______, a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region

spinal tap/lumbar puncture

The nervce crucial for breathing that originates within the cervical plexus is called the ______ nerve


The basic functional unit of the nervous system is the _____


The tiny gaps between adjacent Schwann cells are called


The buildup of depolarization when EPSPs arrive in rapid succession is called ______ summation


______ carry sensory information to the CNS

Afferent neurons

_______ carry motor information to peripheral effectors

Efferent neurons

______ are nerves that connect to the spinal cord


_______ are nerves that connect to the brain


A viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will

interfere with position sense, block autonomic regulation, mainly interfere with crude touch and temperature sense, lead to muscle weakness or paralysis

If the chemically gated sodium channels in the post synaptic membrane were completely blocked

synaptic transmission would fail

The site in the neuron where EPSP's and IPSP's are integrated is the

axon hillock

All of the following are true of neural reflexes except that they

cannot be modified by the brain

Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system

direct long-term functions, such as growth

The basal nuclei

provide the general pattern and rhythm for movements such as walking

_____ neurons are short, with a cell body between dendrite and axon and occur in special sense organs


The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 contribute fibers to the ______ plexus


Higher-order functions

involve complex interactions among areas of the cortex, can be adjusted over time based on experience, combine both conscious and unconscious information processing

The complex, interwoven network formed by contributions from the ventral rami of neighboring spinal nerves is termed a


Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the _______ region


When a second EPSP arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared, what occurs?

temporal summation

What structure is covered by many blood vessels and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain

pia mater

Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are the


The outermost connective-tissue covering of the nerves is the


The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the


_______ are chambers within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid


Stimulation of the ________ within the hypothalamus produces the sensation of hunger

feeding center

A person who has difficulty comprehending and using written language suffers from the disorder known as


The specific strip of skin that is innervated by a specific spinal nerve is called a


The buildup of depolarization when EPSPs arrive at several places on the neuron is called


______ reflexes activate skeletal muscles


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