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164 terms

A&P Exam #3

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Somatic motor neurons in the spinal cord control all of the following muscles except
move the neck
A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a
spinal nerve
Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the
diencephalon
Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is desginated
spatial summation
Adrenergic synapses release the neurotransmitter
norepinephrine
Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus
produces ADH, secretes oxytocin, regulates body temperature, controls autonomic centers
Which of the following is a property of the blood brain barrier
the capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight juctions, astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries, it is absent in portions of the hypothalamus, it is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds
Which of the following is a function of the thalamus
process sensory information and relay it to the cerebrum
The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain
cell bodies of sensory neurons
The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
pia mater
The same _______ can have different effects depending on the properties of the ___________
neurotransmitter; receptor
The effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic membrane depends on
the quantity of neurotransmitters released, the frequency of neurotransmitter release, the nature of the neurotransmitter, the characteristics of the receptors
Clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neurons are called
Nissle bodies
Deteriorating changes in the distal segment of an axon as a result of a break between it and the soma is called __________ degeneration
Wallerian
The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the
spinal meninges
Which of the following is NOT a recognized structural classification for neurons
pseudopolar
The most abundant class of neuron in the central nervous system is
multipolar
Neurotransmitter for release is stored in synaptic
vesicles
Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the
thalamus
Glial cells that surround the neurons in the ganglia are
satellite cells
Absorption at the arachnoid granulations returns CSF to the
venous circulation
The region of the cerebral cortex that is medial and deep to the temporal lobe is the
insula
The ________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles
somatic
Which of the following is NOT a function of the neuroglia
memory
Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system
chemical
The highest levels of information processing occur in the
cerebrum
In the spinal cord, white matter into ascending and descending tracts organized are
columns
Postganlionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs do not rejoin the spinal nerve but form
autonomic nerves
The flexor reflex
moves a limb away from a painful stimulus
Spinal nerves are
both sensory and motor
In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise
brachial
Enlargements of the spinal cord occur
in those spinal segments that control the limbs
Which of the following is NOT a property of the limbic system
functions in maintaining homeostasis in cold weather
The region of the brain responsible for predicting the consequence of events or actions is the
prefrontal cerebral cortex
Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
gray commissures
Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the _______ muscles
leg
Cerebrospinal fluid
is secreted by ependymal cells
Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the
cerebellum
The only sensation that is received directly by the cerebrum is
olfaction
The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the _______ reflex
tendon
What contains a spiderweblike network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows
subarachnoid space
The mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus
control feeding reflexes
Neurons that have several dendrites and a single axon are called
multipolar
________ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal
Ependymal cels
______ neurons form the afferent division of the PNS
Sensory
Ependymal cells work to
secrete CSF in the ventricles, remove waste products from CSF, surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus
The ventral rami form four major plexuses including all of the following EXCEPT the ________ plexus
nuchal
At the optic chiasm
axons from the nasal halves of each retina cross
Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ______ reflexes
innate
Small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called
microglia
_______ neurons are the most common class in the CNS
Multipolar
The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
axons of sensory neurons
The _______ nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord
central
The ______ nerve, which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm
phrenic
Stimulation of the reticular formation results in
increased consciousness
If a person has a crush injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he
might be unable to breathe on his own
_______ are the most numerous type of neuron in the CNS
Interneurons
The _____ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament
filum terminale
The ____ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems
hypothalamus
______ open or close in response to binding specific molecules
Chemically gated channels
The sodium-potassium ion exchange pump
moves sodium and potassium opposite to the direction of their electrochemical gradients
The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the
longitudinal fissure
The spinal cord consists of five regions and _______ segments
31
The white matter of the spinal cord if mainly
myelinated axons
The general interpretive area
allows us to interpret what is read or heard
The corpus callosum is composed of
commissural fibers
Which of the following are properties of cerebrospinal fluid
transports nutrients, circulates continuously, surrounds the brain and spinal cord, fills the brain ventricles
The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles
crossed extensor
The visual cortex is located in the
occipital lobe
Sensory neurons of the PNS are
unipolar
_______ account for roughly half of the volume of the nervous system
Neuroglia
The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called
horns
Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block
it provides mainly sensory anesthesia, it is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery, it affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection, it can be difficult to achieve in the upper cervical and midthoracic region
Neurons that are rare, small, and lack features that distinguish dendrites from axons are called
anaxonic
Neurons in which dendritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called
unipolar
Within each hemisphere, deep to the floor of the lateral ventricle, you will find the
basal nuclei
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the
endoneurium
Which of the following is NOT true about a positive Babinski reflex
why you close your eyes when you sneeze
Neurons that have one axon and one dendrite, with the soma in between, are called
bipolar
Which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem
diencephalon
Compared to the vertebral column, the spinal cord is
shorter
Cholinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine
The site of intercelluar communication between neurons is the
synapse
The cardiovascular reflexes are based in the
medulla oblongata
The largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the CNS are the
astrocytes
Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the
pia mater
______ is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read
Aphasia
The neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by
Schwann cells
The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in
the medulla oblongata
The cerebral area posterior to the central sulcus is the
parietal lobe
The auditory cortex is located in the
temporal lobe
The myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by
oligodendrocytes
The part of the peripheral nervous system that carrier sensory information to the CNS is designated
afferent
The all-or-none principle states that
all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials
Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the
subarachnoid space
The largest and most numerous neuroglia in the CNS are the
astrocytes
Which of the following are types of neuroglia
microglia, ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes
Type _______ fibers have the largest diameter axons
A
Male brains are typically _____ compared to female brains
larger
_______ neurons are small and have no anatomical features that disinguish dendrites from axons
Anaxonic
The subdural space lies between
the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
The ______ filters and relays sensory information to cerebral cortex
thalamus
The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the
pons
The control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the
medulla oblongata
The brain requires a substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliver blood to the brain are the
internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries
The smallest neuroglia of the CNS are the
microglia
The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
dura mater
Which of the following is NOT a function of cerebrospinal fluid
provides ATP for impulse transmission
The epidural space contains
connective tissue and blood vessels
In the condition ______, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes
shingles
The _____ is important in storage and recall of new long-term memories
hippocampus
Which of the following types of nerve fiber possesses the fastest speed of impulse propagation
type A
The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains
axons of motor neurons
In meningitis
bacteria can be the cause, viruses can be the cause, inflammation of the meninges occurs, CSF flow can be disrupted
The _______, a narrow stalk, connects the hypothalamus produces the sensation of hunger
infundibulum
The ________ plexus supplies innervation to the diaphragm
cervical
A complex, interwoven network of nerves is called a
plexus
The neural "wiring" of a single reflex is call a
reflex arc
During the procedure known as an _______, a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region
spinal tap/lumbar puncture
The nervce crucial for breathing that originates within the cervical plexus is called the ______ nerve
phrenic
The basic functional unit of the nervous system is the _____
neuron
The tiny gaps between adjacent Schwann cells are called
nodes
The buildup of depolarization when EPSPs arrive in rapid succession is called ______ summation
temporal
______ carry sensory information to the CNS
Afferent neurons
_______ carry motor information to peripheral effectors
Efferent neurons
______ are nerves that connect to the spinal cord
Spinal
_______ are nerves that connect to the brain
Cranial
A viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will
interfere with position sense, block autonomic regulation, mainly interfere with crude touch and temperature sense, lead to muscle weakness or paralysis
If the chemically gated sodium channels in the post synaptic membrane were completely blocked
synaptic transmission would fail
The site in the neuron where EPSP's and IPSP's are integrated is the
axon hillock
All of the following are true of neural reflexes except that they
cannot be modified by the brain
Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system
direct long-term functions, such as growth
The basal nuclei
provide the general pattern and rhythm for movements such as walking
_____ neurons are short, with a cell body between dendrite and axon and occur in special sense organs
Bipolar
The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 contribute fibers to the ______ plexus
brachial
Higher-order functions
involve complex interactions among areas of the cortex, can be adjusted over time based on experience, combine both conscious and unconscious information processing
The complex, interwoven network formed by contributions from the ventral rami of neighboring spinal nerves is termed a
plexus
Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the _______ region
cervical
When a second EPSP arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared, what occurs?
temporal summation
What structure is covered by many blood vessels and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain
pia mater
Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are the
lobes
The outermost connective-tissue covering of the nerves is the
epineurium
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the
perineurium
_______ are chambers within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
Ventricles
Stimulation of the ________ within the hypothalamus produces the sensation of hunger
feeding center
A person who has difficulty comprehending and using written language suffers from the disorder known as
dyslexia
The specific strip of skin that is innervated by a specific spinal nerve is called a
dermatome
The buildup of depolarization when EPSPs arrive at several places on the neuron is called
spatial
______ reflexes activate skeletal muscles
Somatic
Reflexes that activate muscles on the same side of the body as the stimulus are called
ipsilateral
Reflexes that activate muscles on the opposite side of the body as the stimulus are called
contralateral
The condition in which a person loses all feeling and movement of the arms and legs due to a spinal cord injury is termed
quadriplegia
The loss of feeling and movement of the legs is termed
paraplegia
Blood vessels traveling within the _______ deliver oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord
subarachnoid space
The nervous tissue outside of the CNS composes the ______ nervous system
peripheral
The _______ division of the peripheral nervous system brings sensory information to the central nervous system
afferent
The ______ division carries motor commands to the muscles and glands
efferent
The ______ nervous system provides involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glandular activity
autonomic
The minimum stimulus required to trigger an action potential is known as the
threshold
The ______ principle states that the size and speed of the action potential are independent of the stimulus strength
all or none
An action potential traveling along an axon is also called a
nerve impulse
At a ______ synapse, a neurotransmitter is released to stimulate the postsynaptic membrane
chemical
In an _______ synapse, current flows directly between the cells
electrical
Compounds that alter the rate of neurotransmitter released by the presynaptic neuron or change the postsynaptic cell's response to neurotransmitters are called
neuromodulators